Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1900 by Andrew Carnegie as the Carnegie Technical Schools, the university became the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1912 and began granting four-year degrees. In 1967, the Carnegie Institute of Technology merged with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research to form Carnegie Mellon University. With its main campus located 3 miles from Downtown Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon has grown into an international university with over a dozen degree-granting locations in six continents, including campuses in Qatar and Silicon Valley, more than 20 research partnerships; the university has seven colleges and independent schools which all offer interdisciplinary programs: the College of Engineering, College of Fine Arts, Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Mellon College of Science, Tepper School of Business, H. John Heinz III College of Information Systems and Public Policy, the School of Computer Science.
Carnegie Mellon counts 13,961 students from 109 countries, over 105,000 living alumni, over 5,000 faculty and staff. Past and present faculty and alumni include 20 Nobel Prize laureates, 13 Turing Award winners, 23 Members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 22 Fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 79 Members of the National Academies, 124 Emmy Award winners, 47 Tony Award laureates, 10 Academy Award winners; the Carnegie Technical Schools were founded in 1900 in Pittsburgh by the Scottish American industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, who wrote the time-honored words "My heart is in the work", when he donated the funds to create the institution. Carnegie's vision was to open a vocational training school for the sons and daughters of working-class Pittsburghers. Carnegie was inspired for the design of his school by the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York founded by industrialist Charles Pratt in 1887. In 1912, the institution changed its name to Carnegie Institute of Technology and began offering four-year degrees.
During this time, CIT consisted of four constituent schools: the School of Fine and Applied Arts, the School of Apprentices and Journeymen, the School of Science and Technology, the Margaret Morrison Carnegie School for Women. The Mellon Institute of Industrial Research was founded in 1913 by a banker and industrialist brothers Andrew and Richard B. Mellon in honor of their father, Thomas Mellon, the patriarch of the Mellon family; the Institute began as a research organization which performed work for government and industry on a contract and was established as a department within the University of Pittsburgh. In 1927, the Mellon Institute incorporated as an independent nonprofit. In 1938, the Mellon Institute's iconic building was completed and it moved to its new, current, location on Fifth Avenue. In 1967, with support from Paul Mellon, Carnegie Tech merged with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research to become Carnegie Mellon University. Carnegie Mellon's coordinate women's college, the Margaret Morrison Carnegie College closed in 1973 and merged its academic programs with the rest of the university.
The industrial research mission of the Mellon Institute survived the merger as the Carnegie Mellon Research Institute and continued doing work on contract to industry and government. CMRI closed in 2001 and its programs were subsumed by other parts of the university or spun off into autonomous entities. Carnegie Mellon's 140-acre main campus is three miles from downtown Pittsburgh, between Schenley Park and the Squirrel Hill and Oakland neighborhoods. Carnegie Mellon is bordered to the west by the campus of the University of Pittsburgh. Carnegie Mellon owns 81 buildings in the Squirrel Hill neighborhoods of Pittsburgh. For decades the center of student life on campus was the University's student union. Built in the 1950s, Skibo Hall's design was typical of Mid-Century Modern architecture, but was poorly equipped to deal with advances in computer and internet connectivity; the original Skibo was razed in the summer of 1994 and replaced by a new student union, wi-fi enabled. Known as University Center, the building was dedicated in 1996.
In 2014, Carnegie Mellon re-dedicated the University Center as the Cohon University Center in recognition of the eighth president of the university, Jared Cohon. A large grassy area known as "the Cut" forms the backbone of the campus, with a separate grassy area known as "the Mall" running perpendicular; the Cut was formed by filling in a ravine with soil from a nearby hill, leveled to build the College of Fine Arts building. The northwestern part of the campus was acquired from the United States Bureau of Mines in the 1980s. In 2006, Carnegie Mellon Trustee Jill Gansman Kraus donated the 80-foot -tall sculpture Walking to the Sky, placed on the lawn facing Forbes Ave between the Cohon University Center and Warner Hall; the sculpture was controversial for its placement, the general lack of input that the campus community had, its aesthetic appeal. In April 2015, Carnegie Mellon University, in collaboration with Jones Lang LaSalle, announced the planning of a second office space structure, alongside the Robert Mehrabian Collaborative Innovation Center, an upscale and full-service hotel, retail and dining development along Forbes Avenue.
This complex will connect to the Tepper Quadrangle, the Heinz College, the Tata Consultancy Services Building, the Gates-Hillman Center to create an innovation corridor on the university campus. The eff
Education in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is one of the most literate states in India. The state's literacy rate is 80.33% in 2011, above the national average. A survey conducted by the Industry body Assocham ranks Tamil Nadu top among Indian states with about 100% Gross Enrollment Ratio in primary and upper primary education. Tamil Nadu Government Tamil Nadu Higher Education Department Tamil Nadu School Education Department Union Government University Grants Commission All India Council for Technical Education The structure of education in the state is based on the national level pattern with 12 years of schooling, consisting of eight years of elementary education, that is, five years of primary and three years of middle school education for the age groups of 6-11 and 11–14 years followed by secondary and higher Secondary education of two years each besides two years of pre-primary education; the entry age in class 1 is 5+. Pre-primary classes form age group 3 to 4; the higher secondary school certificate enables pupils to pursue studies either in universities or in colleges for higher education in general academic streams and in technical and professional courses.
There were a total of 12855485 children enrolled across the state as of 2010, with the split up of 9797264 students in primary, 1873989 in secondary and 1184232 in higher secondary classrooms. Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education, established in 1910, is under the purview of the Department of Education, Government of Tamil Nadu, India; the Tamil Nadu State Board of School Examination evaluates students' progress by conducting three board examinations-one at the end of class 10 and the others at the end of class 11 & 12. The scores from the class 12 board examinations are used by universities to determine eligibility and as a cut-off for admissions into their programmes. Common: Tamil & English - are Common Medium Languages. Most private schools medium of instruction is English while the government run schools are Tamil medium. Peculiar Cases: The Kendriya Vidyalaya's run by the central government have a dual medium of instruction - English and Hindi. All recognized schools belong to one of the following accreditation systems: Central Board of Secondary Education - for all years of study Indian Certificate of Secondary Education - for all years of study Tamil Nadu State Board - for all years of study Matriculation System for classes K - 10 and automatically rolled over to Tamil Nadu State Board for classes 11 and 12.
Tamil Nadu Anglo-Indian School Leaving Certificate for classes K - 10 and automatically rolled over to Tamil Nadu State Board for classes 11 and 12. Exceptions to the above rule include a few schools that follow the Montessori method, International Baccalaureate, IGCSE or the American system; the Minister of Education, a member of the state legislature, is in overall charge of education in the state. The following Directorates implement those education aspects which are under the control of the School Education Department. Directorate of Elementary Education Directorate of Government Examinations Directorate of Matriculation Schools Directorate of Non-formal and Adult Education Directorate of Public Libraries Directorate of School Education Directorate of Teacher Education and Training State Project Directorate, District Primary Education Programme and SSA Teachers Recruitment Board Tamil Nadu Text-book Corporation State Project Directorate, Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan Some of the schemes introduced by the Tamil Nadu government in school education are Computer education Early Childhood Care and Education Girls education Integrated Education for the Disabled Kasturba Gandhi Ballka Vidyalaya Mid-day Meal Scheme National Programme of Education for Girls at Elementary Level Educational satellite Distribution of free textbooks Distribution of free uniforms Distribution of free bus pass ITI Certificate - Regulated by Department of Employment and Training and National Council for Vocational Training Tamil Nadu has 37 universities, 552 engineering colleges.
And 1150 arts college, 2550 schools and 5000 hospitals. Tamil Nadu Directorate Of Technical Education under the control of the Tamil Nadu Higher Education Department deals with Diploma, Post Diploma, Post Graduate courses and Research programmes, it regulates the establishment of technical institutions including commerce institutions such as Typewriting and Accountancy. Two types of universities in Tamil Nadu are, Government University, it is run by State Governments of Union of India or Government of Union of India Private University or Deemed University. Tamil Nadu Education in Chennai Education in India Education in Kerala List of Tamil Nadu Government's Educational Institutions Tamilnadu government colleges Tamil Nadu Higher Education Department
Shiv Nadar is an Indian billionaire industrialist and philanthropist. He is the chairman of HCL and the Shiv Nadar Foundation. Nadar founded HCL in the mid-1970s and transformed the IT hardware company into an IT enterprise over the next three decades by reinventing his company's focus. In 2008, Nadar was awarded Padma Bhushan for his efforts in the IT industry. Nadar, nicknamed by friends as Magus, since the mid-1990s has focused his efforts on developing the educational system of India through the Shiv Nadar Foundation, he is the brother of Tamil novelist Ramanichandran. Nadar was born in 1945 in Moolaipozhi Village, about 10 kilometres from Tiruchendur in Thoothukudi district, Tamil Nadu, India, his parents were Vamasundari Devi. His mother, Vamasundari Devi, is the sister of founder of Dina Thanthi newspaper. Nadar studied at Kumbakonam, he was admitted into the first form in June 1955 and continued his education in Town High School until June 1957. He joined to Elango corporation Higher secondary school, Shenoy Nagar, Madurai for his higher school studies.
Nadar received a pre-university degree in the American College, Madurai and a degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore. Nadar began his career at Walchand group's College of Engineering, Pune in 1967, he soon gave it up to begin his own venture, in partnerships with several colleagues. These partners were Ajai Chowdhry, Arjun Malhotra, Subhash Arora, Yogesh Vaidya, S. Raman, Mahendra Pratap and DS Puri; the initial enterprise which Nadar and his partners began was Microcomp, a company which focused on selling teledigital calculators in the Indian market. HCL was founded with an investment of Rs. 187,000. In 1980, HCL ventured into the international market with the opening of Far East Computers in Singapore to sell IT hardware; the venture reported Rs 1 million revenue in the first year and continued to address the Singapore operations. Nadar remained the largest shareholder without retaining any management control. In 1996, Nadar founded SSN College of Engineering in Chennai, Tamil Nadu in the name of his father, Sivasubramaniya Nadar.
Nadar took an active role in the college activities, including the gifting of Rs. 1 million worth of HCL shares to the college. In 2006, Nadar announced that the college will promote research apart from ensuring that students benefit from foreign university tie-ups. Nadar joined the executive board of Indian School of Business in 2005. In March 2008, Nadar's SSN Trust announced the setting up of two Vidyagyan schools in UP for rural students, where free scholarship will be provided for 200 students from 50 districts of Uttar Pradesh, he visited Town Higher Secondary School in February 2011 and donated computers and other equipment worth Rs. 80 lakhs. He served as chairman of the board of governors, IIT Kharagpur, a technical institute until 2014, his only daughter Roshni Nadar is vice-chairman of HCL. In 2008, the government of India awarded Nadar with a Padma Bhushan, the third highest civilian award, for his contribution to the IT industry. In 2007, Madras University awarded him an honorary doctorate degree.
Nadar was recognised as E&Y Entrepreneur of the Year 2007. In 1995 he became the Dataquest IT Man of the year; the In 2005 he was bestowed with CNBC Business Excellence Award. In 2006 he received an honorary fellowship from the All India Management Association. In 2011 he was counted amongst Forbes' 48 Heroes of Philanthropy in Asia Pacific. In 2010 he received the Dataquest Lifetime Achievement Award. In April 2017, India Today magazine ranked Nadar #16th in India's 50 most powerful people of 2017 list. Nadar has committed more than $1 billion to philanthropy. Profile at HCL Profile at Forbes Shiv Nadar collected news and commentary at The Times of India K@W interview with Shiv Nadar CNN interview with Shiv Nadar
Shiv Nadar University
Shiv Nadar University is a private interdisciplinary research university founded in 2011 in Dadri, Uttar Pradesh in India. It was founded as part of a series of initiatives launched by the Shiv Nadar Foundation, a private philanthropic foundation funded by Shiv Nadar and chairman of HCL; the University's stated aim is "to create an enduring, research-led, inter-disciplinary university.". The University was established by the Act no. 12 of 2011 of State Legislature of Uttar Pradesh as a State Private University, was empowered by the UGC to award degrees under Section 22 of the UGC Act, 1956. The University started the Engineering Majors in the Academic Year 2011-12 with the approval of the AICTE; the University is registered with DSIR, Government of India as a Research Institution. In 1994, Nadar established Shiv Nadar Foundation and created its first initiative in Chennai, the SSN Institutions; the Foundation was a significant driver of social change and education through institutions spanning the education spectrum from schools to colleges.
The SNF decided to build a unique research-led interdisciplinary university that can be identified as India's first Ivy League institution. In the early 2010s a 286-acre land plot near the town of Dadri was earmarked for building the campus; the university started with an undergraduate curriculum, unique and unprecedented in India. The curriculum was designed to allow students to major in a particular subject while studying and experimenting with a range of other minor and elective subjects and getting degrees with minors/ specialisations. Prof. Rupamanjari Ghosh is the current Vice Chancellor of Shiv Nadar University, she took charge as the VC in February 2016. She was preceded by the University's Founding Vice Chancellor Dr. Nikhil Sinha, who served the University for 5 years; the University has 17 departments across 5 schools. School of Engineering School of Extended Education and Professional Development School of Humanities and Social Sciences School of Management and Entrepreneurship School of Natural Sciences All the courses at the university are taught in English.
From 2011 to 2016, the University received Extramural Grants of over ₹17.03 crores for more than 52 active research projects, many of which are in collaboration with international universities. Researchers include faculty members, post-doctoral fellows, Ph. D. scholars, visiting scholars and undergraduate students. Shiv Nadar University announced the discovery of a compound that can reverse environmental mercury poisoning by converting it from a toxic and soluble organic form into a comparatively safe and stable form that renders it harmless and insoluble. What is noteworthy is that the process of converting organic mercury pollutants from a toxic, soluble state to an insoluble, non-toxic state takes a few minutes to hours depending upon the various forms of organic mercury pollutants. Dell and Shiv Nadar University sign agreement to drive research and innovation The National Institutional Ranking Framework ranked Shiv Nadar University 72 overall in India and 48 among universities in 2018; the university is located on a 286-acre residential campus in India's National Capital Region.
The University’s campus has 6 academic blocks, 154 laboratories and studios, 9 student hostels, 2 dining facilities, 15 sports courts and 2 gymnasiums and an Indoor Sports complex. Shiv Nadar University is the first private university and only the fifth research institution in the country with a ‘High Performance Computing Cluster’ with 30 TeraFlops of peak performance for research requiring advanced computational capabilities. Apart from hostels, a residential complex is built for visitors; the faculty residential complex is under construction and is expected to be ready by 2016. Clubs and forums offer various extra-curricular activities for students and staff. SNU has collaborated with following international universities for Collaborative Research, Semester Exchange programs, Joint Degree Programs, Joint Research Grants and Academic Support. Babson College: SNU has a strategic alliance with to bring excellent entrepreneurship education to India. Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania: SNU collaborated with Annenberg School to launch its school of communication.
Duke University: For a broad framework of collaborative academic programs and experiential learning opportunities for faculty and students of both the universities. Queen's University, Belfast Network n+i Applicants are evaluated on quantitative ability, abstract reasoning, communication ability through a school-specific Scholastic Aptitude Test, they take an Academic Proficiency Test in intended major subject areas. For admissions into the graduate programs, each department uses its own process to evaluate applicants. Recognized as ‘University of the Year’ at 3rd FICCI Higher Education Excellence Awards 2016; the FICCI Higher Education Excellence Awards recognize the achievements and work done by institutions and individuals in improving the quality of Higher Education in India. Best Avant-Garde Institution by CII The University of the Year by the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry The Best Emerging Global University of the Year by Careers 360 Magazine Official website
Business Line or The Hindu Business Line is an Indian business newspaper published by Kasturi & Sons, the publishers of the newspaper The Hindu located in Chennai, India. The newspaper covers priority industry verticals, such as Agriculture, Automotive, IT, in weekly specials; the paper is printed at 17 centres across India, reaching metros as well as emerging tier I and tier II cities. Business Line has a daily circulation of 1,17,000 copies, per the Audit Bureau of Circulation in 2016. List of newspapers in India Official website
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered in Chennai. It was started as a weekly in 1878 and became a daily in 1889, it is one of the Indian newspapers of record and the second most circulated English-language newspaper in India, after The Times of India with average qualifying sales of 1.21 million copies as of Jan–Jun 2017. The newspaper and other publications in The Hindu Group are owned by a family-held company and Sons Ltd; the newspaper employed over 1,600 workers and annual turnover reached $200 million according to data from 2010. Most of the revenue comes from subscription; the Hindu became, in 1995. As of March 2018, The Hindu is published from 21 locations across 11 states: Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Thiruvananthapuram, Kolkata, Coimbatore, Noida, Kochi, Tiruchirappalli, Mohali, Kozhikode, Tirupati and Patna; the Hindu was founded in Madras on 20 September 1878 as a weekly newspaper, by what was known as the Triplicane Six consisting of 4 law students and 2 teachers:- T. T. Rangacharya, P. V. Rangacharya, D. Kesava Rao Pantulu and N. Subba Rao Pantulu, led by G. Subramania Iyer and M. Veeraraghavacharyar, a lecturer at Pachaiyappa's College.
Started in order to support the campaign of Sir T. Muthuswamy Iyer for a judgeship at the Madras High Court and to counter the propaganda against him carried out by the Anglo-Indian press, The Hindu was one of the many newspapers of the period established to protest the policies of the British Raj. About 100 copies of the inaugural issue were printed at Srinidhi Press, Georgetown on one rupee and twelves annas of borrowed money. Subramania Iyer became the first editor and Veera Raghavacharya, the first managing director of the newspaper; the paper was printed from Srinidhi Press but moved to Scottish Press to The Hindu Press, Mylapore. Started as a weekly newspaper, the paper became a tri-weekly in 1883 and an evening daily in 1889. A single copy of the newspaper was priced at four annas; the offices moved to rented premises at 100 Mount Road on 3 December 1883. The newspaper started printing at its own press there, named "The National Press,", established on borrowed capital as public subscriptions were not forthcoming.
The building itself became The Hindu's in 1892, after the Maharaja of Vizianagaram, Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju, gave The National Press a loan both for the building and to carry out needed expansion. The Hindu was liberal in its outlook and is now considered left leaning, its editorial stances have earned it the nickname, the'Maha Vishnu of Mount Road'. "From the new address, 100 Mount Road, to remain The Hindu's home till 1939, there issued a quarto-size paper with a front-page full of advertisements—a practice that came to an end only in 1958 when it followed the lead of its idol, the pre-Thomson Times —and three back pages at the service of the advertiser. In between, there were more views than news." After 1887, when the annual session of Indian National Congress was held in Madras, the paper's coverage of national news increased and led to the paper becoming an evening daily starting 1 April 1889. The partnership between Veeraraghavachariar and Subramania Iyer was dissolved in October 1898.
Iyer quit the paper and Veeraraghavachariar became the sole owner and appointed C. Karunakara Menon as editor. However, The Hindu's adventurousness began to decline in the 1900s and so did its circulation, down to 800 copies when the sole proprietor decided to sell out; the purchaser was The Hindu's Legal Adviser from 1895, S. Kasturi Ranga Iyengar, a politically ambitious lawyer who had migrated from a Kumbakonam village to practise in Coimbatore and from thence to Madras. In the late 1985s, when its ownership passed into the hands of the family's younger members, a change in political leaning was observed. Worldpress.org lists The Hindu as a left-leaning independent newspaper. Joint managing director N. Murali said in July 2003, "It is true that our readers have been complaining that some of our reports are partial and lack objectivity, but it depends on reader beliefs." N. Ram was appointed on 27 June 2003 as its editor-in-chief with a mandate to "improve the structures and other mechanisms to uphold and strengthen quality and objectivity in news reports and opinion pieces", authorised to "restructure the editorial framework and functions in line with the competitive environment".
On 3 and 23 September 2003, the reader's letters column carried responses from readers saying the editorial was biased. An editorial in August 2003 observed that the newspaper was affected by the'editorialising as news reporting' virus, expressed a determination to buck the trend, restore the professionally sound lines of demarcation, strengthen objectivity and factuality in its coverage. In 1987–88, The Hindu's coverage of the Bofors arms deal scandal, a series of document-backed exclusives, set the terms of the national political discourse on this subject; the Bofors scandal broke in April 1987 with Swedish Radio alleging that bribes had been paid to top Indian political leaders and Army officers in return for the Swedish arms manufacturing company winning a hefty contract with the Government of India for the purchase of 155 mm howitzers. During a six-month period, the newspaper published scores of copies of original papers that documented the secret payments, amounting to $50 million, into Swiss bank accounts, the agreements behind the payments, communications relating to the payments and the crisis response, other material.
The investigation was led by a part-time correspondent of The Hindu, Ch
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua