Mahabali is known as Bali or Māveli or "Vairochana" was a benevolent Asura King, the grandson of Prahlada in Indian scriptures. The festival of Onam is celebrated in Kerala to mark his yearly homecoming after being sent down to the underworld Sutala by Vamana, a dwarf and the fifth incarnation avatar of Vishnu; the government of Kerala declared Onam as the ‘State Festival’ of Kerala in 1960. Bali was the son of Virochana, he grew up under the tutelage of his grandfather, who instilled in him a strong sense of righteousness and devotion. Bali succeeded Virochana as the king of the Asuras, his reign over the realm was characterized by peace and prosperity, he expanded his realm, brought the entire world under his benevolent rule, was able to conquer the underworld and Heaven. This was done by wrestling the Devas; the Devas entreated him to restore their lordship over Heaven. Shukracharya, the guru and advisor of Bali, advised Bali to perform the Viswajit Yagna In Heaven, led by Shukra, Bali began the Ashwamedha Yaga at the Narmada River so as to maintain his rule over the three worlds.
The ceremony had several Brahmins present. Vishnu, adopted the avatar of Vamana, a small Brahmin boy, during the rite, approached Bali and requested a grant of land – although only as much land as he could cover with three paces. Despite the warnings of his advisor, Bali granted this boon. Vamana grew to an immense size, with his first pace, traversed all of the earth and the underworld. With his second pace, he covered Heaven in its entirety. Admitting defeat, seeing that Vamana has no more room for his last step, Bali offered his own head as a stepping-stone. At this time the asuras spoke out in protest, but Bali explained that all living and non-living things are God's creation, so it was God's right to have their return. Lord Vishnu put his third foot on Mahabali's head causing him to drown in the netherworld, traditionally called Patala. Lord Vishnu, seeing the devotion of Mahabali, blessed him to be the Indra of the next Manvantra. Mahabali made a request to the Lord Vishnu. Folk song about Maveli says "Maveli nadu vaneedum kalam, manushyarellarum onnu pole".
The song says. The story goes. However, he was religious, was respectful to priests and performed the Ashvamedha ritual to enlarge his kingdom. Like his grandfather Prahlada, he was one of the greatest devotees of Lord Vishnu on Earth as he sacrificed his kingdom for the Lord; the king was respected in his kingdom and was considered to be wise and generous. It is said. Everybody in his kingdom was happy, there was no discrimination on the basis of caste or class. There was corruption. People did not lock their doors, as there were no thieves in that kingdom. There was no poverty, sorrow or disease in the reign of King Bali and everybody was happy and content. Banan was the only son of Bali. However, because he was a Daitya, he was viewed by the Devas as unsafe. Otherwise, as the Vamana Purana reads, the rule of Mahabali was righteous. Onam celebrations are marked in a place 10 km from Kochi. Thrikkakara is said to have been the capital of the mighty King Mahabali. A temple with a deity of Thrikkakara Appan or Vamanamurthy, Lord Vishnu himself in disguise is located at this place.
This fascinating legend is artistically depicted at the Suchindram Temple in Kanyakumari district, where Lord Shiva is believed to have slain Banasura, the evil child of the holy Mahabali. Onam is observed by all Malayalees as the return of the pious Mahabali to Kerala. Colorful aquatic festivals are held on this occasion on the banks of the river Pampa; the celebration occurs all in the Malayalee diaspora. Mahabali is worshipped in Tulunadu which consists of coastal region of Karnataka and northern Kerala. There are many pad-danas or folk songs which describe his deeds. Today, during Diwali people go to their field and call Bali Chakravarthi, it is said that Bali will come and rule this world again if some conditions are fulfilled, which are impossible in real world. He is thought of by the Hindus as a true devotee of God. Shuk compared the saint-singer Narsinh Metha to Bali, he is one of the authorities on the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Because of the fact that Bali was such as great devotee of Vishnu, his son Bana was not slain by Lord Vishnu.
In the Yoga Vasistha, Lord Rama inquires about King Bali and he is told by his Guru Vasistha that Bali was a great king and is always protected by Lord Vishnu. Vamana is discussed in the sacred text of Sikhism. Satjugi tai maNiO ChaliO bali bAvan bhAiO In Satyayuga, you sported as the dwarf incarnation, fooled Bali. On page 1330 of the Guru Granth Sahib, Vamana is mentioned as the "enticer" of Baliraja. According to the Yoga Vasistha, after inquiring about the realm beyond the universe, heaven and asuras, ruled by the mind, Bali thus concentrates on the mind and being satisfied in himself, teaches the asuras to do so likewise. From on, he became a devotee, he is hailed to be a supreme example of the highest and the ultimate Sadhana of Nava Vidha Bhakti, namely Atmanivedanam. It is believed. Other versions describing the first
Gajendra Moksha or The Liberation of Gajendra is a Puranic legend from the 8th Skandha of the Bhāgavata Purāṇa, one of the most sacred books in Hinduism. It is one of the famous exploits of the god Vishnu. In this episode, Vishnu came down to earth to protect Gajendra, the elephant, from the clutches of Makara, the Crocodile, with Vishnu's help, Gajendra achieved moksha, or salvation. Gajendra attained a form like that of the god and went to Vaikuntha with Vishnu; this story was narrated by Sri Suka to Emperor Parikshit at Parikshit's request. There was once an elephant named Gajendra who lived in a garden called Ṛtumat, created by Varuna; this garden was located on Mount Trikuta, the "Three-Peaked Mountain." Gajendra ruled over all the other elephants in the herd. On a hot day, he proceeded with his herd to a lake to cool off in its fresh waters. A crocodile living in the lake attacked Gajendra and caught him by the leg. Gajendra tried for a long time to escape from the crocodile's clutches. All his family members and friends gathered around to help him, but in vain.
The crocodile would not let go. When they realised that ‘death’ had come close to Gajendra, they left him alone, he trumpeted in pain and helplessness. As the struggle was endless, when he had spent his last drop of energy, Gajendra called to the god Vishnu to save him, holding a lotus up in the air as an offering. Hearing his devotee's call and prayer, Vishnu rushed to the scene; as Gajendra sighted the god coming, he lifted a lotus with his trunk. Seeing this, Vishnu was pleased and with his Sudharshana Chakra, he decapitated the crocodile. Gajendra prostrated himself before the god. Vishnu informed Gajendra that he, in one of his previous births, had been the celebrated King Indradyumna, a devotee of Vishnu, but due to his disrespect to the great Sage Agastya, he had been cursed to be reborn as an elephant; because Indradyumna had been devoted to Vishnu, the god had him born as Gajendra and made him realize that there is something called Kaivalya, beyond Svarga and Urdhva Loka, the realm of the gods.
Indradyumna could attain Moksha when he left all his pride and doubt and surrendered himself to Vishnu. The prayer made by Gajendra on this occasion became a famous hymn in praise of Vishnu called the Gajendra Stuti. Śuklāṃbaradharaṃ viṣṇuṃ śaśi varṇaṃ caturbhujaṃ | prasanna vadanaṃ dhyāyēta sarva vighnōpaśāntayē || Gajendra, in his previous life, was Indradyumna, a great king, devoted to Vishnu. One day, Agastya, a great rishi came to visit the king, but Indradyumna remained seated, refusing to rise up to receive the sage with due respect. Agastya was irate and noticed that the mighty king, despite the greatness of his good deeds, still had traces of Ahamkara, or egoism, he revealed to the king that, in his next birth, he would be born as an elephant and in that form he would learn the hard way that the self must be renounced and surrendered to the Lord; the crocodile in its previous birth had been a Gandharva king called Huhu. The sage Devala came to visit the king, when the two of them were bathing and Devala was offering prayers to Surya, the king pulled the sage's leg for fun.
The sage cursed the king to become a crocodile in his next life. The repentant king begged the sage's pardon. Devala explained; the tale of Gajendra is an integral theme in Vaishnavism and has great symbolic value: Gajendra is the man, the crocodile is sin, the muddy water of the lake is Saṃsāra. The real background meaning of Gajendra moksha depicts materialistic desires ignorance and sins as a crocodile preying upon a helpless elephant i.e. human beings stuck in birth and rebirth cycle in the muddy pond i.e. world creating endless chain of karma. Until one day when they can look beyond everything in this creation due to some extreme experience like Gajendra when he recalls Gyana Eternal Knowledge from his previous births and an extreme experience to give up himself to the supreme being Vishnu; this relates to the concept which says without attaining real Knowledge it is impossible to get salvation but without offering ourselves to the supreme God it is impossible to get that Eternal Knowledge that leads to salvation and Nirvana.
It is believed, historical event took place in Sonepur, Bihar north of Patna, possibility on the banks of River Gandak a tributary of the Ganga. Kapisthalam, near Papanasam, Tamil Nadu is home to a temple honouring this ancient episode, it is said that Lord Hanuman did penance here for a retelecast of the episode and Lord Vishnu granted him a vision of the same. Hence great significance is attached to this temple for its depiction of the silver adorned lord Vishnu mounted on Garuda protecting Gajendra and offering salvation to the cursed crocodile; the Gajendra Moksha Mantra grants the power to escape from them. Krishnapuram Palace, home to one of the largest murals depicting the Gajendra Moksha. Gajendra Moksha English translation Bhāgavata Purāṇa: English translation of the Gajendra story
Vishnu is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, the Supreme Being or absolute truth in its Vaishnavism tradition. Vishnu is the "preserver" in the Hindu triad that includes Shiva. In Vaishnavism, Vishnu is identical to the formless metaphysical concept called Brahman, the supreme, the Svayam Bhagavan, who takes various avatars as "the preserver, protector" whenever the world is threatened with evil and destructive forces, his avatars most notably include Rama in the Krishna in the Mahabharata. He is known as Narayana, Vasudeva and Hari, he is one of the five equivalent deities worshipped in Panchayatana puja of the Smarta Tradition of Hinduism. In Hindu iconography, Vishnu is depicted as having a pale or dark blue complexion and having four arms, he holds a padma in his lower left hand, Kaumodaki gada in his lower right hand, Panchajanya shankha in his upper left hand and the Sudarshana Chakra in his upper right hand. A traditional depiction is Vishnu reclining on the coils of the serpent Shesha, accompanied by his consort Lakshmi, as he "dreams the universe into reality".
Yaska, the mid 1st-millennium BCE Vedanga scholar, in his Nirukta, defines Vishnu as viṣṇur viṣvater vā vyaśnoter vā, "one who enters everywhere". He writes, atha yad viṣito bhavati tad viṣnurbhavati, "that, free from fetters and bondages is Vishnu"; the medieval Indian scholar Medhātithi suggested that the word Vishnu has etymological roots in viś, meaning to pervade, thereby connoting that Vishnu is "one, everything and inside everything". Vishnu means "all pervasive". Vishnu is a Vedic deity, but not a prominent one when compared to Indra and others. Just 5 out of 1028 hymns of the Rigveda, a 2nd millennium BCE Hindu text, are dedicated to Vishnu, he finds minor mention in the other hymns. Vishnu is mentioned in the Brahmana layer of text in the Vedas, thereafter his profile rises and over the history of Indian mythology, states Jan Gonda, Vishnu becomes a divinity of the highest rank, one equivalent to the Supreme Being. Though a minor mention and with overlapping attributes in the Vedas, he has important characteristics in various hymns of Rig Veda, such as 1.154.5, 1.56.3 and 10.15.3.
In these hymns, the Vedic mythology asserts that Vishnu resides in that highest home where departed Atman reside, an assertion that may have been the reason for his increasing emphasis and popularity in Hindu soteriology. He is described in the Vedic literature as the one who supports heaven and earth. In the Vedic hymns, Vishnu is invoked alongside other deities Indra, whom he helps in killing the symbol of evil named Vritra, his distinguishing characteristic in Vedas is his association with light. Two Rigvedic hymns in Mandala 7 refer to Vishnu. In section 7.99 of the Rgveda, Vishnu is addressed as the god who separates heaven and earth, a characteristic he shares with Indra. In the Vedic texts, the deity or god referred to as Vishnu is Surya or Savitr, who bears the name Suryanarayana. Again, this link to Surya is a characteristic Vishnu shares with fellow Vedic deities named Mitra and Agni, where in different hymns, they too "bring men together" and cause all living beings to rise up and impel them to go about their daily activities.
In hymn 7.99 of Rigveda, Indra-Vishnu are equivalent and produce the sun, with the verses asserting that this sun is the source of all energy and light for all. In other hymns of the Rigveda, Vishnu is a close friend of Indra. Elsewhere in Rigveda and Upanishadic texts, Vishnu is equivalent to Prajapati, both are described as the protector and preparer of the womb, according to Klaus Klostermaier, this may be the root behind post-Vedic fusion of all the attributes of the Vedic Prajapati unto the avatars of Vishnu. In the Yajurveda, Taittiriya Aranyaka, Narayana sukta, Narayana is mentioned as the supreme being; the first verse of Narayana Suktam mentions the words paramam padam, which mean highest post and may be understood as the supreme abode for all souls. This is known as Param Dhama, Paramapadam or Vaikuntha. Rig Veda 1.22.20 mentions the same paramam padam. In the Atharvaveda, the mythology of a boar who raises goddess earth from the depths of cosmic ocean appears, but without the word Vishnu or his alternate avatar names.
In post-Vedic mythology, this legend becomes one of the basis of many cosmogonic myth called the Varaha legend, with Varaha as an avatar of Vishnu. Several hymns of the Rigveda repeat the mighty deed of Vishnu called the Trivikrama, one of the lasting mythologies in Hinduism since the Vedic times, it is an inspiration for ancient artwork in numerous Hindu temples such as at the Ellora Caves, which depict the Trivikrama legend through the Vamana avatar of Vishnu. Trivikrama refers to "three strides" of Vishnu. Starting as a small insignificant looking being, Vishnu undertakes a herculean task of establishing his reach and form with his first step covers the earth, with second the ether, the third entire heaven; the Vishnu Sukta 1.154 of Rigveda says that the first and second of Vishnu's strides are visible to the mortals and the third is the realm of the immortals. The Trivikrama describing hymns integrate salvific themes, stating Vishnu to symbolize that, freedom and life; the Shatapatha Brahmana elaborates this theme of Vishnu, as his herculean effort and sacrifice to create and gain powers that help others, one who realizes and defeats the evil symbolized by the Asuras after they had usurped the three worlds, thus Vishnu is the savior of the mortals and
Dhruva is a devotee of Vishnu mentioned in the Vishnu Purana and the Bhagavata Purana. The Sanskrit term dhruva nakshatra "immovable star" is used of the polar star in the Mahabharata, personified as son of Uttanapada and grandson of Manu though Polaris at the period of the recension of the text of the Mahabharata was still several degrees away from the celestial pole. Dhruva was born a son of his wife Suniti; the king had another son Uttama,born to his second queen Suruchi, the preferred object of his affection. Once, when Dhruva was a child of five years of age, he was sitting on his father's lap at the King's throne. Suruchi, jealous of the older son from the first wife, forcefully removed Dhruva from his father's lap; when Dhruva protested and asked if he could not be allowed to sit on his father's lap, Suruchi berated him saying,'only God can allow you that privilege. Go ask him'. Suniti - being of gentle nature and now the lesser favorite wife - tried to console the distraught child, but Dhruva was determined to hear of his fate from the Lord himself!
Seeing his firm resolve, his mother bade him farewell as he set out on a lonely journey to the forest. Dhruva was determined to seek for himself his rightful place, noticing this resolve, the divine sage Narada appeared before him and tried to desist him from assuming a severe austerity upon himself at such an early age. But, Dhruva's fierce determination knew no bounds, the astonished sage guided him towards his goal by teaching him the rituals and mantras to meditate on when seeking lord Vishnu; the one mantra which Narada taught and, used by Dhruva was Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya. Having been advised, Dhruva started his meditation, went without food and water for six months, his mind fixed on the Lord; the austerity of his tapasya shook the heavens and the Lord appeared before him, but the child would not open his eyes because he was still merged in his inner vision of Vishnu's form described to him by Narada. Lord Vishnu had to adopt a strategy of causing that inner vision to disappear.
Dhruva opened his eyes, seeing outside what he had been seeing all along in his mental vision, prostrated himself before the Lord. But he could not utter a single word; the Lord touched his right cheek by his divine conch and that sparked off his speech. Out poured forth a beautiful poem of praise of the Lord in 12 powerful verses, which together are called Dhruva-stuti. Vishnu Purana gives a different account here; when Vishnu was pleased with Dhruva's tapasya and asked him to ask for a varadāna, a said that he did not know how to sing the praise of Lord Vishnu, therefore asked the varadān of a knowledge of stuti. Other persons would have asked for worldly or heavenly pleasures, or for moksha at most, but Dhruva had no personal desire. Renunciation of all desires is regarded to be essential for eternal peace in Hinduism: this is the meaning of Dhruva-pada; that was the reason. The Dhruva-stuti as mentioned in the Vishnu Purana is an extended version of the Vedic Purusha sukta and is quite different from the Dhruva-stuti of Bhagavata Purana.
Having spent a long time in the Lord's remembrance he forgot the objective of his tapasya, only asked for a life in memory of the Lord. Pleased by his tapasya and by his stuti, Vishnu granted his wish and further decreed that the lad would attain Dhruvapada - the state where he would become a celestial body which would not be touched by the Maha Pralaya, or the final cataclysm. Dhruva returned to his kingdom, to be warmly received by his family, attained the crown at the age of six, he ruled for many decades in a fair and just manner. Nachiketa Saptarshi Dru yoga Mani, Vettam. Puranic Encyclopaedia: A Comprehensive Dictionary With Special Reference to the Epic and Puranic Literature. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Pp. 238–9. ISBN 0-8426-0822-2. Dhruva-stuti Dhruva's story in the Vishnu Purana Dhruva's story from the Bhagavatam Abridged Translation from the Vishnu Purana
Manu is a term found with various meanings in Hinduism. In early texts, it refers to the first man; the Sanskrit term for'human', मानव means'of Manu' or'children of Manu'. In texts, Manu is the title or name of fourteen mystical Kshatriya rulers of earth, or alternatively as the head of mythical dynasties that begin with each cyclic kalpa when the universe is born anew; the title of the text Manusmriti uses this term as a prefix, but refers to the first Manu – Svayambhuva, the spiritual son of Brahma. In some Puranic mythology, each kalpa consists of fourteen Manvantaras, each Manvantara is headed by a different Manu; the current universe, in this mythology, is asserted to be ruled by the 7th Manu named Vaivasvata. In Vishnu Purana, Vaivasvata known as Sraddhadeva or Satyavrata, was the king of Dravida before the great flood, he was warned of the flood by the Matsya avatar of Vishnu, built a boat that carried the Vedas, Manu's family and the seven sages to safety, helped by Matsya. The myth is repeated with variations in other texts, including the Mahabharata and a few other Puranas.
It is similar to other flood myths such as that of Noah. The 14 Manus of the current aeon are: In this Manvantara, the Saptarshis were Marichi, Angiras, Kratu and Vashishtha. In Svayambhuva-manvantara, Lord Vishnu's avatar was called Yajna; the first Manu was Svayambhuva Manu. He had three daughters, namely Akuti and Prasuti. Devahuti was given in marriage to sage Kardama and she gave birth to nine daughters, a single son named Kapila. Prasuti gave birth to Akuti gave birth to one son and one daughter. Both Kapila and Yajna, who were sons of Devahuti and Prasuti were incarnations of Vishnu. Svayambhuva Manu, along with his wife, went into the forest to practice austerities on the bank of the River Sunanda. At some point in time, Rakshasas attacked them, but Yajna, accompanied by his sons, the demigods, swiftly killed them. Yajna took the post of Indra, the King of the heavenly planets; the Saptarshis were Urjastambha, Prana, Rishabha and Charvarivan. In Svarocisha-manvantara, Lord Vishnu's avatar was called Vibhu.
The second Manu, whose name was Svarocisha, was the son of Agni, His sons were headed by Dyumat and Rochishmat. In the age of this Manu, Rochana became Indra, the ruler of the heavenly planets, there were many demigods, headed by Tushita. There were many saintly persons, such as Urjastambha. Among them was Vedasira, whose wife, gave birth to Vibhu. Vibhu was the incarnation of Vishnu for this Manvantara, he never married. He instructed eighty-eight thousand dridha-vratas, or saintly persons, on sense-control and austerity; the Saptarshis for this Manvantara were Kaukundihi, Dalaya, Pravahita and Sammita. In Uttama-manvantara, Lord Vishnu's avatar was called Satyasena. Uttama, the son of Priyavrata, was the third Manu. Among his sons were Pavana and Yajnahotra. During the reign of this Manu, the sons of Vashista, headed by Pramada, became the seven saintly persons; the Satyas and Bhadras became the demigods, Satyajit became Indra. From the womb of Sunrita, the wife of Dharma, the Supreme Lord Narayana appeared as Satyasena, killed all the evil Rakshasas who created havoc in all the worlds, along with Satyajit, Indra at that time.
Saptarshis list: Jyotirdhama, Kavya, Agni and Pivara. In Tapasa-manvantara, Lord Vishnu's avatar was called Hari. Tapasa/Tamasa, the brother of the third Manu, was the fourth Manu, he had ten sons, including Prithu, Khyati and Ketu. During his reign, the Satyakas, Haris and others were demigods, the seven great saints were headed by Jyotirdhama, Trisikha became Indra. Harimedha begot a son named Hari, the incarnation of Vishnu for this Manvantara, by his wife Harini. Hari was born to liberate the devotee Gajendra. Saptarshis list: Hirannyaroma, Vedasrí, Vedabahu, Sudhaman and Mahámuni. In Raivata-manvantara, Lord Vishnu's avatar was called Vaikuntha, not to be confused with Vishnu’s divine realm, of the same name. Vaikuntha came as the twin brother of Tamasa, his sons were headed by Arjuna and Vindhya. Among the demigods were the Bhutarayas, among the seven brahmanas who occupied the seven planets were Hiranyaroma and Urdhvabahu. Saptarshis list: Sumedhas, Havishmat, Madhu, Abhináman, Sahishnnu. In Chakshusha-manvantara, Lord Vishnu's avatar was called Ajita.
Ajita came as the son of the demigod Chakshu. He had many sons, headed by Puru and Sudyumna. During the reign of Chakshusa Manu, the King of heaven was known as Mantradruma. Among the demigods were the Apyas, among the great sages were Havisman and Viraka. Saptarshis list: Kashyapa, Vashista, Gautama, Bharadvaja. During Vaivasvata-manvantara, Lord Vishnu's avatar is called Vamana The seventh Manu, the son of Vivasvan, is known as Sraddhadeva or Vaivasvat, he has ten sons, named Ikshvaku, Dhrsta, Narisyanta, Tarusa and Vasuman. In this manvantara, or reign of Manu, among the demigods are the Adityas, Rudras, Maruts, Asvini-kumaras and Rbhus; the king of heaven, Indra, is known as Purandara, the seven sages are known as Kashyapa, Vashista, Gautama and Bharadwaja. During this period of Manu, Lord Vishnu took birth from the womb of Aditi, the wife of Kashyapa. Saptarshis list: Diptimat, Parasurama, Drauni or Ashwatthama and Ris
Pariksit was a Kuru king who reigned during the Middle Vedic period. Along with his son and successor Janamejaya, he played a decisive role in the consolidation of the Kuru state, the arrangement of Vedic hymns into collections, the development of the orthodox srauta ritual, transforming the Kuru realm into the dominant political and cultural center of northern Iron Age India, he appears as a figure in legends and traditions. According to the Mahabharata and the Puranas, he succeeded his greatuncle Yudhishthira to the throne of Hastinapur. "Listen to the good praise of the King belonging to all people, who, a god, is above men, of Parikṣit! - ‘Parikṣit has just now made us peaceful dwelling. — ‘What shall I bring you, sour milk, the mantha [a barley/milk drink?' the wife keeps asking in the Realm of King Pariksit. — By itself, the ripe barley bends over the deep track of the path. The dynasty thrives auspiciously in the Realm of King Parikṣit.” Parikshit is eulogised in a hymn of the Atharvaveda as a great Kuru king, whose realm flowed with milk and honey and people lived in his kingdom.
He is mentioned as the raja vishvajanina. Few other details about his reign are recorded in Vedic literature. According to the Mahabharata, Parikshit married princess Madravati of the Madra Kingdom, reigned for 24 years, died at the age of 60, but this is a much text and cannot be confirmed as historical fact. Michael Witzel dates the Pārikṣita Dynasty of the Kuru Kingdom to the 12th-11th centuries BC. H. C. Raychaudhuri dates Parikshit in ninth century BC, he was succeeded by his son Janamejaya. Only one Parikshit is mentioned in Vedic literature. Historian H. C. Raychaudhuri believes that the second Parikshit's description better corresponds to the Vedic king, whereas the information available about the first is scanty and inconsistent, but Raychaudhuri questions whether there were two distinct kings, he suggests that the doubling was "invented by genealogists to account for anachronisms" in the parts of the Mahabharata, as "a bardic duplication of the same original individual regarding whose exact place in the Kuru genealogy no unanimous tradition had survived," and therefore there "is an intrusion into the genealogical texts" of the late, post-Vedic tradition, which has two of Parikshit's son Janamejaya.
There is no unanimity regarding the father of Parikshit among Puranas. He is depicted as the son of Avikshit, Kuru or Abhimanyu, but is more popular as Abhimanyu's posthumous son. According to the Shatapatha Brahmana, Parikshita had four sons, Bhimasena, Ugrasena and Śrutasena. All of them performed the Asvamedha Yajna, his bodily existence ended due to the curse of a Brahmana, who used the Nāga king, the ruler of Taxila as the instrument of death. Parikshit was succeeded by his son Janamejaya. According to the Mahabharata, he died at the age of sixty. A thesis based upon Ugrasravas’ narration suggests an alternate interpretation regarding Parikshit’s lineage. In this interpretation, Parikshit fathered a firstborn son with an unnamed putrika wife. Albeit the child was Parikshit’s firstborn, he was the son of a putrika and therefore could not succeed his father on the throne as he was to be the heir of his maternal grandfather; this son’s name was Sringin. As this would leave Parikshit without an heir, he had another son, with a second wife, Madravati.
Sringin and Samika are seen again in the hunting story. Their relationship served an additional motive for Sringin to murder Parikshit; the Bhagavata Purana states that the son of Drona, Ashwatthama had prepared a Brahmastra to kill King Parikshit while he was in his mother's womb, as a revenge against the Pandavas for killing his relatives in the Kurukshetra war. Uttarā was terrified by the powerful rays of the weapon and worried about her child, she prayed to her uncle-in-law Krishna for help. Krishna pacified her and protected the child in the womb from the deadly weapon and thus saved his life. Parikshit was thus born to Uttara and was throned as the heir to the Pandavas at Hastinapura. There seem to be two Parikhits and two Janamejayas, former being referred to in Vedas and the latter in the Puranic literature; the following is about the Puranic king. On hearing this, Parikshit's son Janamejaya II vowed to kill Takshaka within a week, he starts the Sarpamedha Yajna, which forced each and every snake of the entire universe to fall in the havan kund.
However one snake got stuck around Surya's chariot and because of the force of Yajna the chariot was getting pulled inside the hawankund. This could have ended up taking the Surya's chariot in the sacrificial altar and ending the regime of Sun from the universe; this resulted in plea from all the gods to stop the sacrifice. When Takshaka arrived this Yajna was stopped from doing so by Astika Muni, as a result of which Takshaka lived; that day was Shukla Paksha Panchami in the month of Shravan and is since celebrated as the festival of Nag Panchami. Kuru Kingdom Hindu mythology Janaka Bimbisara Garg, Gaṅgā Rām, Encyclopaedia of the Hindu Worl
Prahlada was a king, the son of Hiranyakashipu and Kayadhu, the father of Virochana. He belonged to the Kashyap gotra, he is described as a saintly boy from the Puranas known for his piety and bhakti to Lord Vishnu. Despite the abusive nature of his father, Hiranyakashipu, he continued his devotion towards Lord Vishnu, he is considered to be a mahājana, or great devotee, by followers of Vaishnava traditions and is of special importance to devotees of the avatār Narasiṁha. A treatise is accredited to him in the Bhagavata Purana in which Prahlāda describes the process of loving worship to his Lord Vishnu; the majority of stories in the Puranas are based on the activities of Prahlāda as a young boy, he is depicted as such in paintings and illustrations. Prahlāda was born to Kayadu and Hiranyakashipu, an evil daitya king, granted a boon that he could not be killed of anything born from a living womb, neither be killed by a man nor an animal, neither during the day nor at night, neither indoors nor outdoors, neither on land, nor in the air nor in water and of no man made weapon.
However, after repeated attempts of filicide by Hiranyakashipu unto Prahlāda, Prahlāda was saved by Lord Narasimha, a prominent avatar of Vishnu who descended to demonstrate the quality of Divine rage and redemption by killing the demon king. The word "Narsimha" is derived from the Sanskrit word" nara" meaning Man and "siṃha" meaning lion. Thus, the Lord took the form of part lion to kill the Asura. Lord Narasiṁha, being the transcendental Supreme Personality of Godhead, fulfilled all the proper requirements by which the otherwise nearly-invincible Hiranyakashipu could be killed. After the death of his father, Prahlāda took his father's kingdom and ruled peacefully and virtuously, he was known for his kindness. He sowed similar seeds in grandson Mahabali. Prahlāda—while being in his mother's womb—got to hear Narada's chants, he was taught by Narada in early childhood. As a result, he was devoted towards Vishnu, his father tried to warn Prahlāda. Despite several warnings from his father Hiranyakashipu, Prahlāda continued to worship Vishnu instead.
His father decided to commit filicide and poison Prahlāda, but he survived. He trampled the boy with elephants, but the boy still lived, he put Prahlāda in a room with venomous snakes, they made a bed for him with their bodies. Prahalada was thrown from a valley into a river but was saved by Lord Vishnu. Holika, the sister of Hiranyakashipu, was blessed in. Hiranyakashipu put Prahlāda on the lap of Holika. Prahlāda prayed to Vishnu to keep him safe. Holika burned to death as Prahlāda is left unscathed; this event is celebrated as the Hindu festival of Holi. After tolerating abuse from Hiranyakashipu, Prahlāda is saved by Narasiṁha, Lord Vishnu in the form of a man-lion chimera, who emerges from within a stone pillar, who places the king on his thighs, kills him with his sharp nails at the entrance to his home at dusk, thus nullifying all of Hiranyakashipu's boon of virtual immortality. Prahlāda becomes king of the daityas and attains a place in the abode of Vishnu after his death. In the Bhagavad Gita Krishna makes the following statement in regard to Prahlāda, showing his favour towards him: Translation: "Among the Daitya demons I am the devoted Prahlāda, among subduers I am time, among beasts I am the lion, among birds I am Garuda."
Because of his steadfast devotion towards Lord Vishnu as well as under the teachings of Shukracharya, Prahlada became the mighty king of the Asuras. Prahlada was more powerful than his father, Hiranyakashipu was, he enjoyed the respect of his subjects. Without lifting a single weapon, by virtue of his good behaviour, Prahlada conquered the three worlds and Indra ran away from the Heavens. Indra deceived Prahlada into giving him the power of his behaviour and Prahlada lost control of the three worlds; the Asuras grew angry at the Devas for taking advantage of their King's virtuous behaviour and invaded the heavens. The Devas, afraid of the Asuras, enlisted the help of human Kings such as Yayati and Kakutstha and defeated them. Prahlada always served thousands of Brahmins daily. One day, out of ignorance, Prahlada forgot to serve one Brahmin; the latter cursed the Asura that he would become unrighteous. The curse would be broken. Prahlada personally attacked the gods and defeated Indra in battle, forcing the King of the Gods to run for his life.
Indra sought help of Lord Vishnu. Infused with his power, Indra defeated Prahlada; the latter understood that Vishnu was helping Indra in battle and he withdrew his forces. Prahlada first gave his kingdom to Andhaka. So Prahlada undertook a Tirtha Yatra; when Prahlada found out that his blind and deformed cousin, had overcome his disabilities and became mighty and invincible due to the boon of Lord Brahma, he voluntarily ceded his lordship over the Asuras to Andhaka and became a vassal. Prahlada, Virochana and Bana had fought against Lord Shiva and the other gods when Andhaka attacked Mt. Kailash. Prahlada had advised to Andhaka against the invasion, but Andhaka refused. Andhaka was defeated by Lord Shiva and Prahlada once more became King of the Asuras. Prahlada was present during the churning of the ocean and fought in the Tarakamaya war against the Devas. Prahlada's son was Virochana, the father of Bali; the gods had Virochana killed by taking advantage of his generosity. Prahlada raised Bali. La