Shri Raghavendra was a Hindu scholar and saint. He was known as Sudha Parimalacharya, his diverse oeuvre include commentaries on the works of Madhva and Vyasatirtha, interpretation of the Principal Upanishads from the standpoint of Dvaita and a treatise on Purva Mimamsa. He served as the pontiff of the Madhvacharya Mutt at Kumbakonam from 1624 to 1671. Raghavendra was an accomplished player of the Veena and he composed several songs under the name of Venu Gopala, his shrine at Mantralayam attracts thousands of visitors every year. Raghavendra was born as Venkatanatha in the town of Bhuvanagiri, Tamil Nadu into a family of musicians and scholars, his great-grandfather Krishnabhattar was a tutor to Vijayanagara king Krishnadeva Raya and his father Timmanacharya was an accomplished scholar and musician. After the fall of Vijayanagara empire, Timmanacharya migrated to Kanchi with his wife Gopikamba. Venkatanatha had two siblings: Venkatamba. Venkatanatha's education was undertaken by his brother-in-law Lakshminarasimhacharya, after the early demise of his father and he was subsequently married.
According to Raghavendra Vijaya, his triumph in debates at Thanjavur attracted the attention of Sudhindra Tirtha, the erstwhile pontiff of Kumbakonam mutt. Though uncertain about the prospect of renunciation, Venkatanatha relented to Sudhindra's demands and was ordained as a monk in 1621. After the death of Sudhindra Tirtha in 1623, Venkatanatha succeeded him as the pontiff the mutt and took on the name Raghavendra Tirtha, he undertook a pilgrimage visiting places including Udupi and Bijapur. He received grants from Dodda Kempadevaraja and settled down in the village of Mantralayam, presented to him by the Governor of Adoni. In 1801, while serving as the Collector of Bellary, Thomas Munro is believed to have come across an apparition of Raghavendra, he died in 1671 and his mortal remains are enshrined in Mantralayam. Traditional accounts report that Raghavendra asked his tomb to be built around him as he entered into a state of samadhi, he was succeeded by his disciple Yogeendra Tirtha. Forty works have been attributed to Raghavendra.
Sharma notes that his works are characterised by their compactness and their ability to explain the abstruse metaphysical concepts of Dvaita in understandable terms. His Tantradipika is an interpretation of the Brahma Sutra from the standpoint of Dvaita incorporating elements from Jayatirtha's Nyaya Sudha, Vyasatirtha's Tatparya Chandrika and the glosses by Vijayendra Tirtha. Bhavadipa is a commentary on Jayatirtha's Tattva Prakasika which, apart from elucidating the concepts of the source text, criticises the allegations against Madhva raised by Appaya Dikshita and grammarian Bhattoji Dikshita. Raghavendra's expertise in Purva Mimamsa and Vyakarana is evident from his works on Vyasatirtha's Tatparya Chandrika, which runs up to 18,000 stanzas, he wrote a commentary on Nyaya Sudha titled Nyaya Sudha Parimala. Apart from these works, he has authored commentaries on the Upanishads, first three chapters of Rig Veda and Bhagvad Gita; as an independent treatise, he has authored a commentary on Jaimini Sutras called Bhatta Sangraha which seeks to interpret the Purva Mimamsa doctrines from a Dvaita perspective.
Raghavendra Tirtha has been eulogised by Narayanacharya in his contemporaneous biography Raghavendra Vijaya and a hymn Raghavendra Stotra by Appannacharya. Outside the confines of Dvaita, he is regarded as a saint known for preaching the worship of Vishnu regardless of caste or creed. Hebbar notes "By virtue of his spiritual charisma, coupled with the innumerable miracles associated with him, the pontiff saint may well be said to possess an independent and cosmopolitan cult of his own with his devotees hailing not only from all walks of life but from all castes and creeds as well", his humanitarianism is evident in the devotional poems composed in his honour by Vijaya Dasa, Gopala Dasa and Jagannatha Dasa. Raghavendra has seen representation in the popular culture through Indian Cinema. Sharma, B. N. K. History of Dvaita school of Vedanta and its Literature, Vol 2. Bombay: Motilal Banarasidass. ISBN 81-208-1575-0. Rao, Krishna, M. V. Purandara and the Haridasa Movement. Dharwad: Karnatak University.
Pandurangi, K. T. Bhatta Sangraha. Bengaluru: Dvaita Vedanta Studies and Research Foundation. Aiyangar, Krishnaswami. Sources of Vijayanagar History. Chennai: University of Madras. Shah, Giriraj. Saints and mystics of India. 2. Cosmo Publications. P. 473. ISBN 978-81-7020-856-3. Rao, Raghavendra; the Proceedings Of The Indian History Congress 8th Session. The General Secretary Indian History Congress Allahabad. Hebbar, B. N; the Sri Krsna Temple at Udupi. Nataraj Books. ISBN 978-1881338505. Official website of Sri Raghavendra Swamy Mutt Mantralayam Raghavendra Vijaya: A Biography of Raghavendra Tirtha
Madhvacharya, sometimes anglicised as Madhva Acharya, known as Pūrna Prajña and Ānanda Tīrtha, was a Hindu philosopher and the chief proponent of the Dvaita school of Vedanta. Madhva called his philosophy Tatvavāda meaning "arguments from a realist viewpoint". Madhvacharya was born on the west coast of Karnataka state in 13th-century India; as a teenager, he became a Sanyasi joining Brahma-sampradaya guru Achyutapreksha, of the Ekadandi order. Madhva studied the classics of Hindu philosophy the Principal Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahma Sutras, he commented on these, is credited with thirty seven works in Sanskrit. His writing style was of condensed expression, his greatest work is considered to be the Anuvyakhyana, a philosophical supplement to his bhasya on the Brahma Sutras composed with a poetic structure. In some of his works, he proclaimed himself to be an avatar of the son of god Vishnu, he was a critic of Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita Vedanta teachings. He toured India several times, visiting places such as Bengal, Dwarka and Kanyakumari, engaging in philosophical debates and visiting Hindu centres of learning.
Madhva established the Krishna Mutt at Udupi with a murti secured from Dwarka Gujarat in CE 1285. Madhvācārya's teachings are built on the premise that there is a fundamental difference between Atman and the Brahman, these are two different unchanging realities, with individual soul dependent on Brahman, never identical, his school's theistic dualism teachings disagreed with the monist teachings of the other two most influential schools of Vedanta based on Advaita's nondualism and Vishishtadvaita's qualified nondualism. Liberation, asserted Madhva, is achievable only through the grace of God; the Dvaita school founded by Madhva influenced Vaishnavism, the Bhakti movement in medieval India, has been one of the three influential Vedānta philosophies, along with Advaita Vedanta and Vishishtadvaita Vedanta. Madhva's historical influence in Hinduism, state Kulandran and Kraemer, has been salutary, but not extensive; the biography of Madhvacharya is unclear. Many sources date him to 1238 -- 1317 period.
Madhvācārya was born in Pajaka near Udupi, a coastal district in the present day Indian state of Karnataka. Traditionally it is believed that Naddantillaya was the name of his father and Vedavati was Madhvācārya's mother. Born in a Tulu speaking Vaishnavite Brahmin household, he was named Vāsudeva, he became famous by the names Purnaprajna and Madhvacarya. Pūrnaprajña was the name given to him at the time of his initiation as a teenager; the name conferred on him when he became the head of his monastery was "Ānanda Tīrtha". All three of his names are found in his works. Madhvācārya or Madhva are names most found in modern literature on him, or Dvaita Vedanta related literature. Madhva began his school after his Upanayana at age seven, became a monk or Sannyasi in his teenage, he joined an Advaita Vedanta monastery in Dwarka, accepted his guru to be Achyutrapreksha, referred to as Achyutraprajna in some sources. Madhva studied the Upanishads and the Advaita literature, but was unconvinced by its nondualism philosophy of oneness of human soul and god, had frequent disagreements with his guru, left the monastery, began his own Dvaita movement based on dualism premises of Dvi – asserting that human soul and god are two different things.
Madhva never acknowledged Achyutrapreksha as his monastic lineage in his writings. According to Dehsen there were two individuals named Madhvacharya in 13th century India, with Anandatirtha – the younger Madhva being the most important early disciple of the elder Madhvacharya, their works and life overlapped in Udupi, Tattvavada being the name adopted for Dvaita Vedanta by Anandatirtha. Madhvacharya established a matha dedicated to Dvaita philosophy, this became the sanctuary for a series of Dvaita scholars such as Jayatirtha, Vadiraja Tirtha and Raghavendra Tirtha who followed in footsteps of Madhva. A number of hagiographies have been written by Madhva's followers. Of these, the most referred to is the sixteen cantos Sanskrit biography Madhvavijaya by Nārāyana Panditācārya – son of Trivikrama Pandita, who himself was a disciple of Madhva. In several of his texts, state Sarma and other scholars, "Madhvacharya proclaims himself to be the third avatar or incarnation of Vayu, wind god, the son of Vishnu".
He, asserted himself to be like Hanuman – the first avatar of Vayu, Bhima – a Pandava in the Mahabharata and the second avatar of Vayu. In one of his bhasya on the Brahma Sutras, he asserts that the authority of the text is from his personal encounter with Vishnu. Madhva, states Sarma, believed himself to be an intermediary between Vishnu and Dvaita devotees, guiding the latter in their journey towards Vishnu. Thirty seven Dvaita texts are attributed to Madhvacharya. Of these, thirteen are bhasya on earliest Principal Upanishads, a Madhva-bhasya on the foundational text of Vedanta school of Hinduism – Brahma Sutras, another Gita-bhasya on Bhagavad Gita, a commentary on forty hymns of the Rigveda, a review of the Mahabharata in poetic style, a commentary called Bhagavata-tatparya-nirnaya on Bhagavata Purana, plus stotras and texts on bhakti of Vishnu and his avatars; the Anu-Vyakhyana, a supplement to Madhvacharya's commentary on Brahma Sutras, is his masterpiece
Karnataka is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973; the state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore. Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, Kerala to the south; the state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres, or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most spoken and official language of the state alongside Konkani, Tulu, Telugu, Malayalam and Beary. Karnataka contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is spoken.
The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Vedavathi and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka Sharavathi in Shivamogga and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward. Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu nadu may be read as karu, meaning "black" and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state; the British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna. With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India; the philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day.
Karnataka has contributed to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions. The economy of Karnataka is the third-largest state economy in India with ₹15.88 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹174,000. Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region. Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE. Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed; the decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity.
The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi. These were the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi; these dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta and the Western Chalukya Empire, which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century. Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century; the Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it came under Hoysala rule. At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture.
The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana, on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district; the empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it controlled for over two centuries. In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota; the Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style. During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka from Salcette, while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.
In the period that followed
Vedanta or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy. Vedanta means "end of the Vedas", reflecting ideas that emerged from the speculations and philosophies contained in the Upanishads, it does not stand for one unifying doctrine. Rather it is an umbrella term for many sub-traditions, ranging from dualism to non-dualism, all of which developed on the basis of a common textual connection called the Prasthanatrayi; the Prasthanatrayi is a collective term for the Principal Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita. All Vedanta schools, in their deliberations, concern themselves with the following three categories but differ in their views regarding the concept and the relations between them: Brahman – the ultimate metaphysical reality, Ātman / Jivātman – the individual soul or self, Prakriti – the empirical world, ever-changing physical universe and matter; some of the better known sub-traditions of Vedanta include Advaita and Dvaita. Most other Vedantic sub-traditions are subsumed under the term Bhedabheda.
Over time, Vedanta adopted ideas from other orthodox schools like Yoga and Nyaya, through this syncretism, became the most prominent school of Hinduism. Many extant forms of Vaishnavism and Shaktism have been shaped and influenced by the doctrines of different schools of Vedanta; the Vedanta school has had a central influence on Hinduism. The word Vedanta means the end of the Vedas and referred to the Upanishads. Vedanta was concerned with the jñānakāṇḍa or Vedic knowledge part called the Upanishads; the denotation of Vedanta subsequently widened to include the various philosophical traditions based on to the Prasthanatrayi. The Upanishads may be regarded as the end of Vedas in different senses: These were the last literary products of the Vedic period; these mark. These were debated last, in the Brahmacharya stage. Vedanta is one of the six orthodox schools of Indian philosophy, it is called Uttara Mīmāṃsā, the'latter enquiry' or'higher enquiry'. Pūrva Mīmāṃsā deals with the karmakāṇḍa or rituals part in the Vedas.
The Upanishads, the Bhagavadgita and the Brahma Sutras constitute the basis of Vedanta. All schools of Vedanta propound their philosophy by interpreting these texts, collectively called the Prasthanatrayi three sources; the Upanishads, or Śruti prasthāna. The Brahma Sutras, or Nyaya prasthana / Yukti prasthana; the Bhagavad Gita, or Smriti prasthāna. The Brahma Sutras attempted to synthesize the teachings of the Upanishads; the diversity in the teaching of the Upanishads necessitated the systematization of these teachings. This was done in many ways in ancient India, but the only surviving version of this synthesis is the Brahma Sutras of Badarayana. All major Vedantic teachers, including Shankara, Ramanuja, Nimbarka and Madhva, have composed commentaries not only on the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras, but on the Bhagavad Gita; the Bhagavad Gita, due to its syncretism of Samkhya and Upanishadic thought, has played a major role in Vedantic thought. The Upanishads present an associative philosophical inquiry in the form of identifying various doctrines and presenting arguments for or against them.
They form Vedanta interprets them through rigorous philosophical exegesis. Varying interpretations of the Upanishads and their synthesis, the Brahma Sutras, led to the development of different schools of Vedanta over time of which three, five or six are prominent. Bhedabheda, as early as the 7th century CE, or the 4th century CE; some scholars are inclined to consider it as a "tradition" rather than a school of Vedanta. Upadhika, founded by Bhaskara in the 9th Century CE Svabhavikabhedabheda or Dvaitādvaita, founded by Nimbarka in the 7th century CE Achintya Bheda Abheda, founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Advaita, many scholars of which most prominent are Gaudapada and Adi Shankaracharya Vishishtadvaita, prominent scholars are Nathamuni, Yāmuna and Ramanuja Dvaita, founded by Madhvacharya Suddhadvaita, founded by Vallabha The history of Vedanta is divided into two periods: one prior to the composition of the Brahma Sutras and the other encompassing the schools that developed after the Brahma Sutras were written.
Little is known of schools of Vedanta existing before the composition of the Brahma Sutras. It is clear that Badarayana, the writer of Brahma Sutras, was not the first person to systematize the teachings of the Upanishads, as he quotes six Vedantic teachers before him – Ashmarathya, Audulomi, Kashakrtsna and Atreya. References to other early Vedanta teachers – Brahmadatta, Pandaya and Dravidacharya – are found in secondary literature of periods; the works of these ancient teachers have not survived, but based on the quotes attributed to them in literature, Sharma postulates that Ashmarathya and Audulomi were Bhedabheda scholars and Brahmadatta were Advaita scholars, while Tanka and Dravidacharya were either Advaita or Vishistadvaita scholars. Badarayana summarized and interpreted teachings of the Upanishads in the Brahma Sutras called the Vedanta Sutra "written from a Bhedābhed
A matha or mutt is a Sanskrit word that means "cloister, institute or college", it refers to a monastery in Hinduism. Monastic life, for spiritual studies or the pursuit of moksha traces it roots to the 1st millennium BCE, in the Vedic tradition; the earliest Hindu monasteries are indirectly inferred to be from the centuries around the start of the common era, based on the existence of Sannyasa Upanishads with Advaita Vedanta content. The matha tradition in Hinduism was well established in the second half of 1st millennium CE, as is evidenced by archeological and epigraphical evidence. Mathas grew over time, with the most famous and still surviving centers of Vedanta studies being those started by Adi Shankara. Other major and influential mathas belong to various schools of Hindu philosophy, such as those of Vaishnavism and Shaivism; the monastery host and feed students, sannyasis and are led by Acharyas. These monasteries are sometimes attached to Hindu temples and have their codes of conduct and election ceremonies.
The mathas in the Hindu tradition have not been limited to religious studies, historical evidence suggest that they were centers for diverse studies such as medieval medicine and music. The term matha is used for monastery in Jainism, the earliest monasteries near Jain temples are dated to be from about the 5th-century CE. A matha refers to "cloister, institute or college", in some contexts refers to "hut of an ascetic, monk or renunciate" or temple for studies; the root of the word is math, which means "inhabit" or "to grind". The roots of monastic life are traceable in the Vedic literature, which states Jacobi predates Buddhism and Jainism. According to Hermann Jacobi, Max Muller, Hermann Oldenberg and other scholars, the Jainism and Buddhism traditions adopted the five precepts first developed in the Vedic-Brahmanical traditions for monk life: Do not injure living beings Be truthful Never take anyone's property Self-restaint Be liberalHowever, in 20th century, scholars such as Richard Garbe suggested that the pre-Upanishad Vedic tradition may not have had a monastic tradition, that the Upanishads and Buddhism may have been new movements that grew in opposition, on the foundations and ideas of earlier Vedic practices.
The asceticism and monastic practices emerged in India in the early centuries of the 1st millennium BCE. Johannes Bronkhorst has proposed a dual model, wherein monastic traditions and matha began in parallel, both in Vedic and non-Vedic streams of traditions, citing evidence from ancient Hindu Dharmasutras dated to have been composed between 500 BCE to about the start of the common era. Other evidence of mathas is found in the Brahmanas layer of the Vedic texts, such as in chapter 10.6 of Shatapatha Brahmana as well as in the surviving Aranyaka layer of the Vedas such as in chapter 15 of Shankhayana Aranyaka. Scholars such as Patrick Olivelle state that the history of Hindu monasteries played a role in the composition of the Sannyasa Upanishads of Hinduism. Six of these Upanishads were composed before the 3rd-century CE starting sometime in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE; these six Sannyasa Upanishads are Aruni Upanishad, Kundika Upanishad, Kathashruti Upanishad, Paramahamsa Upanishad, Jabala Upanishad and Brahma Upanishad.
The oldest Sannyasa Upanishads have a strong Advaita Vedanta outlook, these pre-date Adi Shankara. Most of the Sannyasa Upanishads present a Yoga and nondualism Vedanta philosophy; this may be, states Patrick Olivelle, because major Hindu monasteries belonged to the Advaita Vedanta tradition. All medieval Sannyasa Upanishads are Advaita Vedantin because of these monasteries; the only significant exception is the 12th-century Shatyayaniya Upanishad, which presents qualified dualistic and Vaishnavism philosophy and is linked to a Vaishnavism monastery. In addition to the Upanishads, evidence of matha tradition in Hinduism is found in other genre of its literature, such as chapter 12.139 of the Mahabharata and section 3.1 of Baudhayana Dharmasutras. Matha-s were regionally known by other terms, such as Khandika-s; the oldest verifiable Ghatika for Vedic studies, from inscription evidence is in Kanchi, from the 4th-century CE. The matha tradition of Hinduism attracted royal patronage, attracting endowments to support studies, these endowments established, states Hartmut Scharfe, what may be "the earliest case on record of a university scholarship".
Some of these medieval era mathas of Hinduism in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, were for Vedanta studies, but some mathas from the 700 to 1000 CE period predominantly focussed on Shaivism, military, martial arts, painting or other fields of knowledge including subjects related to Buddhism and Jainism. There is evidence, states Hartmut Scharfe, of mathas in eastern and northern India from 7th century CE onwards, such as those in Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh in the Hindu holy city of Kashi, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha, but these are not from ancient temple inscriptions, but implied from traveller records who visited these regions. Brahmins were involved in the education and oral culture of textual transmission in ancient India through the gurukul tradition, but inscription evidence collected by E. Hultzsch suggests that at least some matha attached to temples were dominated by non-Brahmins by the early 2nd millennium CE; the mathas and attached temples hosted debating, Vedic recital and student competitions, these were part of community festivals in the history of South Asia.
These mathas were also
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Smṛti; these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Āgamas.
Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha. Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius, it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia.
Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean, North America, other countries. The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu; the Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola. It is believed that Hindu was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by'Abd al-Malik Isami. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.
The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas, with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma", it was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, broader than the Western term religion; the study of India and its cultures and religions, the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by th
Kanaka Dasa was a poet, philosopher and composer from modern Karnataka. He is known for compositions in the Kannada language for Carnatic music. Like other Haridasas, he used simple Kannada language and native metrical forms for his compositions. Thimmappa Nayaka was his original name and he belonged to a chieftain family of Kaginele in Haveri district, he was born to the couple Beerappa and Bachchamma at Baada village, near Bankapura and he was warrior at Bankapura fort. Kanaka Dasa was capable of analyzing the society microscopically. Based on one of his compositions it is interpreted that after he got injured in a war and was miraculously saved, he gave up his profession as a warrior and devoted his life to composing music and literature with philosophy explained in common man's language. At a young age he authored poetries titled Narasimha stotra, Ramadhyana Mantra, Mohanatarangini. Bankapura fort was defeated by Adilshahi in 1567. There is a traditional folklore behind this popular quotation.
Kanakadasa's Master Vyasatirtha|date=July 2015}} once poses a question to him, that who among the scholars present in the convention could attain salvation. Every scholar present was asked the question, Kanakadasa answers in the negative, he answers in the negative when asked about the chances of his own master attaining salvation. Scholars in the convention get agitated by this episode and they feel that Kanakadasa must be inconsiderate to deny the salvation to his own master let alone the remaining scholars, but asked about his own chances he says in the affirmative by saying ನಾನು ಹೋದರೆ ಹೋದೇನು adding to the fury of the clueless scholars. His master who could understand the real wisdom behind Kanakadasa's affirmation, asks him to elaborate his thoughts. Kanakadasa expresses a philosophical idea behind his thought. Kanakadasa had made a Pun giving different philosophical meanings. Though it seemed on the surface that Kanakadasa is claiming that he alone may attain salvation, he had in fact put forth a thoughtful message that no matter what is one's scholarly prowess, one cannot achieve anything until the ego is eliminated.
Kanakadasa has a special association with Udupi. On the request of Vyasaraya Swamiji of Vyasaraja Matt he had come to Udupi, but it was an era. The Brahmin priests would not let him enter the temple as he was from a "low" caste though Vyasaraya swamiji asked them to let Kanakadasa into the temple. Kanakadasa was outside the temple meditating on Lord Krishna and singing songs in praise of his Lord Krishna, he did this for weeks, he is believed to have camped outside the temple for weeks cooking his own food and during this time he was so distraught, he composed poems in praise of Lord Krishna and composed Kirthanas which are relevant today about how all humans are equal, every one is born the same way physically, everyone shares the same water, same sun for their life on earth. Hindu temples and the deity in a Hindu temple always faces east, but in Udupi, Lord Krishna, the deity faces west. It is believed that something unnatural happened those days, when Kanakadasa was outside the temple for days waiting to see Lord Krishna and waiting to be let into the temple.
It is believed that the during those days, Kanaka was not allowed to have darshan of Lord Krishna, so with devotion when he sang kirthanas for his dear Lord, the temple wall fell down and the deity of Lord Krishna turned around and there was a crack in the outer walls of the temple through which the ardent devotee of Krishna, Kanakadasa was able to see his Lord. This left the orthodox community flabbergasted as to. Since the Krishna deity has been facing west though the main entrance has been facing east and this has remained a mystery every since. Today that window stands as a tribute to Kanakadasa; the devotees who visit Udupi Krishna temple try to have a darshan of the Lord Krishna through this small window wishing to relive the ecstasy where Kanakadasa had the divine ‘darshan’. It is a memorial to Kanakadasa and a testimony to the eclectic Hindu belief that devotion and sainthood are above caste and creed and certainty above orthodoxy, it is said that Kanakadasa lived in a hut in this place in front of the “gopura”.
A small shrine was built in his memory and it came to be known as “Kanakana Kindi” or “Kanakana Mandira”. Although many saints such as Purandaradasa and Vijayadasa visited Udupi and were devotees of Lord Krishna, it is Kanakadasa's association to Lord Krishna, which has a deeper meaning. Click: http://www.sumadhwaseva.com/dasaru/kanaka-dasaru/ His writing started showing his innovativeness in using day-to-day activities of common man. For e.g. Ramadhanya Charite is a poetic expression of conflicts between rich and poor classes where he uses Ramadhanya ragi and rice to synonymously represent poor and rich, he became a follower of Vyasaraja who named him as Kanakadasa. His poems and krithi expose the futility of external rituals, they stress the need for cultivation of moral values in life. His compositions addressed social issues in addition to devotional aspect. Kanaka Dasa was aggressive and straight forward in criticizing evils of society such as superiority claims using caste system, his poem "Kula Kula Kulavendu hodedhadadiri" asks humans not to segregate themselves from one another, because every human is born the same way, everyone eats the same