Good Friday is a Christian holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary. It is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum on the Friday preceding Easter Sunday, may coincide with the Jewish observance of Passover, it is known as Holy Friday, Great Friday, Black Friday. Members of many Christian denominations, including the Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, Lutheran and Reformed traditions, observe Good Friday with fasting and church services; the date of Good Friday varies from one year to the next on both the Julian calendars. Eastern and Western Christianity disagree over the computation of the date of Easter and therefore of Good Friday. Good Friday is a instituted legal holiday around the world, including in most Western countries and 12 U. S. states. Some countries, such as Germany, have laws prohibiting certain acts, such as dancing and horse racing, that are seen as profaning the solemn nature of the day. A common folk etymology claims "Good Friday" is a corruption of "God Friday".
The term in fact comes from the sense "holy" of the word good. The Oxford English Dictionary gives other examples with the sense "of a day or season observed as holy by the church" as an archaic sense of good as in good tide meaning "Christmas" or "Shrove Tuesday", Good Wednesday meaning the Wednesday in Holy Week. In German-speaking countries, Good Friday is referred to as Karfreitag: Mourning Friday; the Kar prefix is a cognate of the English word "care" in the sense of woes. The day is known as Stiller Freitag and Hoher Freitag. In the Nordic countries it is called "The Long Friday". In Greek and Hungarian, Good Friday is referred to as Great Friday. In Bulgarian, Good Friday is called either Велики петък - Great Friday, or, more Разпети петък which translates to "Crucified Friday". According to the accounts in the Gospels, the royal soldiers, guided by Jesus' disciple Judas Iscariot, arrested Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane. Judas received money for betraying Jesus and told the guards that whomever he kisses is the one they are to arrest.
Following his arrest, Jesus was taken to the house of Annas, the father-in-law of the high priest, Caiaphas. There he was interrogated with little result and sent bound to Caiaphas the high priest where the Sanhedrin had assembled. Conflicting testimony against Jesus was brought forth by many witnesses, to which Jesus answered nothing; the high priest adjured Jesus to respond under solemn oath, saying "I adjure you, by the Living God, to tell us, are you the Anointed One, the Son of God?" Jesus testified ambiguously, "You have said it, in time you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the Almighty, coming on the clouds of Heaven." The high priest condemned Jesus for blasphemy, the Sanhedrin concurred with a sentence of death. Peter, waiting in the courtyard denied Jesus three times to bystanders while the interrogations were proceeding just as Jesus had predicted. In the morning, the whole assembly brought Jesus to the Roman governor Pontius Pilate under charges of subverting the nation, opposing taxes to Caesar, making himself a king.
Pilate authorized the Jewish leaders to judge Jesus according to their own law and execute sentencing. Pilate told the assembly that there was no basis for sentencing. Upon learning that Jesus was from Galilee, Pilate referred the case to the ruler of Galilee, King Herod, in Jerusalem for the Passover Feast. Herod received no answer. Pilate told the assembly. Under the guidance of the chief priests, the crowd asked for Barabbas, imprisoned for committing murder during an insurrection. Pilate asked what they would have him do with Jesus, they demanded, "Crucify him". Pilate's wife had seen Jesus in a dream earlier that day, she forewarned Pilate to "have nothing to do with this righteous man". Pilate had Jesus flogged and brought him out to the crowd to release him; the chief priests informed Pilate of a new charge, demanding Jesus be sentenced to death "because he claimed to be God's son." This possibility filled Pilate with fear, he brought Jesus back inside the palace and demanded to know from where he came.
Coming before the crowd one last time, Pilate declared Jesus innocent and washed his own hands in water to show he had no part in this condemnation. Pilate handed Jesus over to be crucified in order to forestall a riot and to keep his job; the sentence written was "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews." Jesus carried his cross to the site of execution, called the "place of the Skull", or "Golgotha" in Hebrew and in Latin "Calvary". There he was crucified along with two criminals. Jesus agonized on the cross for six hours. During his last three hours on the cross, from noon to 3 pm, darkness fell over the whole land. Jesus spoke from the cross, quoting the messianic Psalm 22: "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?" With a loud cry, Jesus gave up his spirit. There was an earthquake
Philip II of France
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus, was King of France from 1180 to 1223, the seventh from the House of Capet. His predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself "King of France"; the son of King Louis VII and his third wife, Adela of Champagne, he was nicknamed Dieudonné because he was a first son and born late in his father's life. Philip was given the epithet "Augustus" by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the crown lands of France so remarkably; the only known description of Philip describes him as "a handsome, strapping fellow, bald but with a cheerful face of ruddy complexion, a temperament much inclined towards good-living and women. He was generous to his friends, stingy towards those who displeased him, well-versed in the art of stratagem, orthodox in belief and stubborn in his resolves, he made judgements with great exactitude. Fortune's favorite, fearful for his life excited and placated, he was tough with powerful men who resisted him, took pleasure in provoking discord among them.
Never, did he cause an adversary to die in prison. He liked to employ humble men, to be the subduer of the proud, the defender of the Church, feeder of the poor". After a twelve-year struggle with the Plantagenet dynasty in the Anglo-French War of 1202–14, Philip broke up the large Angevin Empire presided over by the crown of England and defeated a coalition of his rivals at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214; this victory would have a lasting impact on western European politics: the authority of the French king became unchallenged, while the English King John was forced by his barons to sign Magna Carta and deal with a rebellion against him aided by Philip, the First Barons' War. The military actions surrounding the Albigensian Crusade helped prepare the expansion of France southward. Philip did not participate directly in these actions, but he allowed his vassals and knights to help carry it out. Philip transformed France from a small feudal state into the most prosperous and powerful country in Europe.
He checked the power of the nobles and helped the towns to free themselves from seigniorial authority, granting privileges and liberties to the emergent bourgeoisie. He built a great wall around Paris, re-organized the French government and brought financial stability to his country. Philip was born in Gonesse on 21 August 1165. King Louis VII intended to make his son Philip co-ruler with him as soon as possible, in accordance with the traditions of the House of Capet, but these plans were delayed when Philip, at the age of thirteen, was separated from his companions during a royal hunt and became lost in the Forest of Compiègne, he spent much of the following night attempting to find his way out, but to no avail. Exhausted by cold and fatigue, he was discovered by a peasant carrying a charcoal burner, but his exposure to the elements meant he soon contracted a dangerously high fever, his father went on pilgrimage to the Shrine of Thomas Becket to pray for Philip's recovery and was told that his son had indeed recovered.
However, on his way back to Paris, the king suffered a stroke. In declining health, Louis VII had his 14-year-old son crowned and anointed as king at Reims on 1 November 1179 by Archbishop William of the White Hands, he was married on 28 April 1180 to Isabelle of Hainaut, the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, Margaret I, Countess of Flanders, who brought the County of Artois as her dowry. From the time of his coronation, all real power was transferred to Philip, as his father descended into senility; the great nobles were discontented with Philip's advantageous marriage, while his mother and four uncles, all of whom exercised enormous influence over Louis, were unhappy with his attainment of the throne, which caused a diminution of their power. Louis died on 18 September 1180. While the royal demesne had increased under Philip I and Louis VI, it had diminished under Louis VII. In April 1182 to enrich the French crown, Philip expelled all Jews from the demesne and confiscated their goods.
Philip's eldest son Louis was born on 5 September 1187 and inherited the County of Artois in 1190, when his mother Isabelle died. The main source of funding for Philip's army was from the royal demesne. In times of conflict, he could call up 250 knights, 250 horse sergeants, 100 mounted crossbowmen, 133 crossbowmen on foot, 2,000 foot sergeants, 300 mercenaries. Towards the end of his reign, the king could muster some 3,000 knights, 9,000 sergeants, 6,000 urban militiamen, thousands of foot sergeants. Using his increased revenues, Philip was the first Capetian king to build a French navy actively. By 1215, his fleet could carry a total of 7,000 men. Within two years, his fleet included 10 large ships and many smaller ones. In 1181, Philip began a war with Philip, Count of Flanders, over the Vermandois, which King Philip claimed as his wife's dowry and the Count was unwilling to give up; the Count of Flanders invaded France, ravaging the whole district between the Somme and the Oise before penetrating as far as Dammartin.
Notified of Philip's impending approach with 2,000 knights, he turned around and headed back to Flanders. Philip chased him, the two armies confronted each other near Amiens. By this stage, Philip had managed to counter the ambitions of the count by breaking his alliances with Henry I, Duke of Brabant, Philip of Heinsberg, Archbishop of Cologne. This, together with an uncertain outcome were he to engage the French in battle, forced the Count to conclude a peace. In July 11
Flamboyant is the name given to a florid style of late Gothic architecture in vogue in France from about 1350, until it was superseded by Renaissance architecture during the early 16th century. The term has been used to describe French buildings and sometimes the early period of English Gothic architecture called the Decorated Style. A version of the style spread to Portugal during the 15th century, it evolved from the Rayonnant style and the English Decorated Style and was marked by greater attention to decoration and the use of double curved tracery. The term was first used by Eustache-Hyacinthe Langlois, like all the terms mentioned in this paragraph except "Sondergotik" describes the style of window tracery, much the easiest way of distinguishing within the overall Gothic period, but ignores other aspects of style. In England the part of the period is known as Perpendicular architecture. In Germany Sondergotik is the more usual term; the name derives from the flame-like windings of its tracery and the dramatic lengthening of gables and the tops of arches.
A key feature is the ogee arch, originating in Beverley Minster, England around 1320, which spread to York and Durham, although the form was never used in England, being superseded by the rise of the Perpendicular style around 1350. A possible point of connection between the early English work and the development in France is the church at Chaumont; the Manueline in Portugal, the Isabelline in Spain were more extravagant continuations of the style in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. In the past the Flamboyant style, along with its antecedent Rayonnant, has been disparaged by critics. More some have sought to rehabilitate it. William W Clark commented: The Flamboyant is the most neglected period of Gothic architecture because of the prejudices of past generations; the time has come to look anew at Late Gothic architecture. Abbeville, St. Vulfran Collegiate Church Auch, Auch Cathedral Beauvais and chapels of the Church of Saint-Étienne de Beauvais Bourg-en-Bresse, Royal Monastery of Brou Caudebec-en-Caux, Church of Notre-Dame L'Épine, Notre-Dame de l'Épine Évreux, north transept of Évreux Cathedral Louviers, Notre-Dame de Louviers Nantes, Nantes Cathedral Paris, Church of Saint-Séverin Paris, Saint-Jacques Tower, bell tower of the former church of Saint-Jacques de la Boucherie Pont-de-l'Arche, Notre-Dame-des-Arts Rouen, Rouen Cathedral Rouen, Church of Saint-Maclou Rouen, abbey-church of Saint-Ouen Rue, Chapel of Saint-Esprit Saint-Nicolas-de-Port, Basilica of Saint-Nicolas Saint-Riquier, Abbey Senlis, transepts of Senlis Cathedral Sens, Sens Cathedral Thann, St Theobald's Church Toul, west façade of Toul Cathedral Tours, Tours Cathedral Vendôme, west façade of the Abbaye de la Trinité Vincennes, Sainte-Chapelle.
Beaune, hospices Beauvais, former episcopal palace Bourges, palace of Jacques-Cœur Paris, Hôtel de Cluny Paris, Hôtel de Sens Rouen, Palais de Justice St. Lorenz, Germany Milan Cathedral, a rare Italian building in the style, adopted fully here Vladislav Hall in Prague Castle, Czech Republic Seville Cathedral, Spain Batalha Monastery, Portugal Brussels Town Hall, Belgium Leuven Town Hall, Belgium Church of St. Anne, Lithuania French Gothic architecture Gothic architecture International Gothic Romano-Gothic Isabeline Gothic Manueline Perpendicular Sondergotik Yves Bottineau-Fuchs, Haute-Normandie Gothique: Architecture Religieuse. Paris: Picard, 2001. Ethan Matt Kavaler, Renaissance Gothic: Architecture and the Arts in Northern Europe, 1470-1540. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. Steven James Kerrigan, "Normandy's role in the development of the Flamboyant style: decoration and exchange in Late Gothic architecture." PhD diss. University of Iowa, 2013. Linda Elaine Neagley, Disciplined Exuberance: The Parish Church of Saint-Maclou and Late Gothic Architecture in Rouen.
University Park, Penn: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998. Roland Sanfaçon, L'architecture Flamboyante en France. Quebec: Les Presses de l'Université Laval, 1971
Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné
Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné was a French aristocrat, remembered for her letter-writing. Most of her letters, celebrated for their wit and vividness, were addressed to her daughter, she is revered in France as one of the great icons of French 17th-century literature. Marie de Rabutin-Chantal was born in the fashionable Place des Vosges, Paris, to an old and distinguished family from Burgundy, her father, Celse Bénigne de Rabutin, baron de Chantal, was the son of Saint Jane Frances de Chantal, a friend and disciple of Saint Francis de Sales. Her father was killed during the English attack on the Isle of Rhé in July 1627, his wife did not survive him by many years, Marie was left an orphan at the age of seven. She passed into the care of her maternal grandparents; when her grandfather, Philippe de Coulanges, died in 1636, her uncle, Christophe de Coulanges, abbé of Livry, became her guardian. She received a good education in his care and referred to him in her correspondence as "le Bien Bon".
Marie de Rabutin-Chantal married Henri, marquis de Sévigné, a nobleman from Brittany allied to the oldest houses of that province, but of no great estate. The marriage took place on 4 August 1644, the couple went immediately to the Sévigné manor house of Les Rochers, near Vitré, a place which she was to immortalize, she gave birth to a daughter, Françoise, on 10 October 1646, to a son, Charles, at Les Rochers on 12 March 1648. Henri was a serial philanderer who spent money recklessly, but through her uncle's careful financial oversight Marie was able to keep much of her fortune separate. On 4 February 1651, Henri de Sévigné was mortally wounded in a duel with the Chevalier d'Albret after a quarrel over his mistress, Mme de Gondran, died two days later. Though only twenty-four when her husband died, Mme de Sévigné never married again. Instead, she devoted herself to her children, she returned to Paris that November. Thereafter, she divided her time between the countryside. In Paris, she frequented salons that of Nicolas Fouquet, superintendent of finances to King Louis XIV.
Mme de Sévigné's most amusing correspondence before her daughter's marriage was addressed to her cousin and friend Roger de Bussy-Rabutin. However, in 1658, she quarrelled with him. On 29 January 1669, her daughter Françoise married François Adhémar de Monteil, comte de Grignan, a nobleman from Provence, married twice before; the couple intended to live in Paris, but Grignan was soon appointed as lieutenant governor of Provence, necessitating that they live there. Mme de Sévigné was close to her daughter, sent her the first of her famous letters on 6 February 1671, their correspondence lasted until Mme de Sévigné's death. By 1673, Mme de Sévigné's letters were being circulated. Therefore, she crafted them accordingly; the year 1676 saw several important events in Mme de Sévigné's life. For the first time she was ill and did not recover until she had visited Vichy; the letters depicting life at this 17th-century spa are among her best. The trial and execution of Madame de Brinvilliers took place that same year.
This event figures in the letters. The following year, in 1677, she moved into the Hôtel Carnavalet and welcomed the whole Grignan family to it, she returned to Provence in October 1678. On 17 March 1680, she had the grief of losing La Rochefoucauld, the most eminent and one of her closest friends; the proportion of letters that we have for the decade 1677-1687 is much smaller than that which represents the decade preceding it. In February 1684, her son Charles married Jeanne Marguerite de Mauron from Brittany. In the arrangements for this marriage, Mme de Sévigné divided all her fortune among her children and reserved for herself only part of the life interest. In 1688, the whole family was excited by the first campaign of the young marquis de Grignan, Mme de Grignan's only son, sent splendidly equipped to the siege of Philippsburg. In the same year, Mme de Sévigné attended the Saint-Cyr performance of Racine's Esther, some of her most amusing descriptions of court ceremonies and experiences date from this time.
In 1689, she wrote positively of the preacher Antoine Anselme. The year 1693 saw the loss of two of her oldest friends: her cousin Roger de Bussy-Rabutin and Madame de La Fayette. There was a family connection between these two great writers: in 1650, Mme de La Fayette's mother widowed, married Renaud de Sévigné, uncle of the great letter writer. Another friend as intimate, Mme de Lavardin, followed in 1694. During an illness of her daughter in 1696, Mme de Sévigné caught a "fever", died on 17 April at Grignan, was buried there, her daughter was not present during her illness. Mme de Sévigné corresponded with her daughter for nearly thirty years. A clandestine edition, containing twenty-eight letters or portions of letters, was published in 1725, followed by two others the next year. Pauline de Simiane, Mme de Sévigné's granddaughter, decided to publish her grandmother's correspondence. Working with the editor Denis-Marius Perrin of Aix-en-Provence, she published 614 letters in 1734-1737 772 letters in 1754.
The letters were selected according to Mme de Simiane's instructions: she rejected those that dealt too with family matters, or those that seemed poorly written. The remaining letters were rewritten in accordance with the style of the day; this raises a question of the letters' authentic
Gervasius and Protasius
Saints Gervasius and Protasius are venerated as Christian martyrs of the 2nd century. They are invoked for the discovery of thieves, their feast day in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church is 19 June, the day marking the translation of their relics. In the Eastern Orthodox Church and in the Eastern Rites of the Catholic Church, their feast takes place on 14 October /24 October, the traditional day of their death. In Christian iconography their emblems are the club and the sword; the acta may have been expanded from a letter to the bishops of Italy, falsely ascribed to Saint Ambrose. They are written in a simple style. According to these and Protasius were the twin sons of martyrs, their father, Saint Vitalis of Milan, a man of consular dignity, suffered martyrdom at Ravenna under Nero. Their mother, Saint Valeria, died for her faith at Milan. Gervasius and Protasius were imprisoned, visited in prison by Saint Nazarius; the sons are said to have large hands and had been scourged and beheaded, during the reign of the Emperor Nero, under the presidency of Anubinus or Astasius, while Caius was Bishop of Milan.
Some authors place the martyrdom under the Emperor Diocletian, but others object to this time, because it is not clear how, in that case, the place of burial, the names, could be forgotten by the time of Saint Ambrose, as is stated. It occurred during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Saint Ambrose, in 386, had built a magnificent basilica at Milan, now called the Basilica Sant'Ambrogio. Asked by the people to consecrate it in the same solemn manner as was done in Rome, he promised to do so if he could obtain the necessary relics. In a dream, he was shown the place, he ordered excavations to be made outside the city, in the cemetery Church of Saints Nabor and Felix, who were at the time the primary patrons of Milan, there found the relics of Saints Gervasius and Protasius. In a letter, St Ambrose wrote: "I found the fitting signs, on bringing in some on whom hands were to be laid, the power of the holy martyrs became so manifest, that whilst I was still silent, one was seized and thrown prostrate at the holy burial-place.
We found two men such as those of ancient days. All the bones were perfect, there was much blood."St Ambrose had their relics removed to the Basilica of Fausta, on the next day into the basilica, accompanied in the texts by many miracles, emblematic of divine favor in the context of the great struggle taking place between St Ambrose and the Arian Empress Justina. Of the vision, the subsequent discovery of the relics and the accompanying miracles, St Ambrose wrote to his sister Marcellina. Saint Augustine, not yet baptized, witnessed these facts, relates them in his "Confessions", in "De Civitate Dei" as well as in his "Sermon 286 in natal. Ss. Mm. Gerv. Et Prot.". They are attested by Saint Paulinus in his life of Saint Ambrose; the latter died in 397 and by his own wish was buried in his basilica by the side of these martyrs. It has been suggested that the Brescia Casket was used to hold the relics. J. Rendel Harris, in "The Dioscuri in the Christian Legends", addressed the subject of twin saints in Christian legend, who seem to be connected with the Dioscuri, whose cult was tenacious, surmised from an oration decrying their veneration by Dio Chrystostom.
The historicity of Gervasius and Protasius was defended in the "Analecta Bollandist.", XXIII, 427. After the discovery of the relics by Saint Ambrose, the cult of Saints Gervasius and Protasius was spread in Italy, churches were built in their honor at Pavia and other places. In Gaul, Around the year 400 churches were dedicated to them, at Mans and Soissons. At the Louvre in Paris, there is now a famous picture of the saints by Lesueur, in their church at Paris. According to the "Liber Pontificalis," Pope Innocent; the name of St Vitalis, their father, was added to the title of this church. Early on, their names were inserted into the Litany of the Saints. In 835, Angilbert II, Bishop of Milan, placed the relics of the three saints in a porphyry sarcophagus, where they were found in January 1864. A tradition claims that, after the destruction of Milan by Frederick Barbarossa, his chancellor, Rainald of Dassel, had taken the relics from Milan and deposited them at Breisach in Germany, whence some came to Soissons.
The claim is rejected by Milan. They were venerated by farmers in Germany and a German saying amongst harvesters was: "Wenn's regnet auf Gervasius / es vierzig Tage regnen muss". Thus, as with the cults of Saint Swithun, Saint Medard, the Seven Sleepers, Saint Godelieve, that of Sts Gervasius and Protasius was connected with the weather. A famous series of tapestries of the "Life of Gervasius and Protasius," donated to the Cathedral of Antwerp in 1509, is displayed in the cathedral's choir. Kantheesangal St-Gervais-et-St-Protais Church San Gervasio San Trovaso Ambrose, ed. & tr. by John Hugo Wolfgang Gideon Liebeschuetz, Ambrose Of Milan: Political Letters And Speeches, 2005, Liverpool University Press, ISBN 0853238294, 9780853238294.
Henry II of France
Henry II was King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559. The second son of Francis I, he became Dauphin of France upon the death of his elder brother Francis III, Duke of Brittany, in 1536. Henry was the tenth king from the House of Valois, the third from the Valois-Orléans branch, the second from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch; as a child and his elder brother spent over four years in captivity in Spain as hostages in exchange for their father. Henry pursued his father's policies in matter of arts and religion, he persevered in the Italian Wars against the House of Habsburg and tried to suppress the Protestant Reformation as the Huguenot numbers were increasing drastically in France during his reign. The Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis, which put an end to the Italian Wars, had mixed results: France renounced its claims to territories in Italy, but gained certain other territories, including the Pale of Calais and the Three Bishoprics. France failed to change the balance of power in Europe, as Spain remained the sole dominant power, but it did benefit from the division of the holdings of its ruler, Charles V, from the weakening of the Holy Roman Empire, which Charles ruled.
Henry suffered an untimely death in a jousting tournament held to celebrate the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis at the conclusion of the Eighth Italian War. The king's surgeon, Ambroise Paré, was unable to cure the infected wound inflicted by Gabriel de Montgomery, the captain of his Scottish Guard, he was succeeded in turn by three of his sons, whose ineffective reigns helped to spark the French Wars of Religion between Protestants and Catholics. Henry was born in the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, the son of King Francis I and Claude, Duchess of Brittany, his father was captured at the Battle of Pavia in 1525 by the forces of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, held prisoner in Spain. To obtain his release, it was agreed that his older brother be sent to Spain in his place, they remained in captivity for over four years. Henry married Catherine de' Medici, a member of the ruling family of Florence, on 28 October 1533, when they were both fourteen years old. At this time, his elder brother was alive and there was little prospect of Henry coming to the throne.
The following year, he became romantically involved with a thirty-five-year-old widow, Diane de Poitiers. Henry and Diane had always been close: the young lady had fondly embraced Henry on the day he, as a 7-year-old child, set off to captivity in Spain, the bond had been renewed after his return to France. In a tournament to honor his father's new bride, Eleanor and his older brother were dressed as chevaliers, in which Henry wore Diane's colors. Confident and intelligent, Diane left Catherine powerless to intervene, she did, insist that Henry sleep with Catherine in order to produce heirs to the throne. When his elder brother Francis, the Dauphin and Duke of Brittany, died in 1536 after a game of tennis, Henry became heir apparent to the throne, he succeeded his father on his 28th birthday and was crowned King of France on 25 July 1547 at Reims Cathedral. Henry's reign was marked by wars with Austria and the persecution of Protestants Calvinists known as Huguenots. Henry II punished them the ministers, for example by burning at the stake or cutting off their tongues for uttering heresies.
Henry II was made a Knight of the Garter, April 1515. The Edict of Châteaubriant called upon the civil and ecclesiastical courts to detect and punish all heretics and placed severe restrictions on Huguenots, including the loss of one-third of their property to informers, confiscations; the Edict strictly regulated publications by prohibiting the sale, importation or printing of any unapproved book. It was during the reign of Henry II that Huguenot attempts at establishing a colony in Brazil were made, with the short-lived formation of France Antarctique; the Eighth Italian War of 1551–1559, sometimes known as the Habsburg–Valois War, began when Henry declared war against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V with the intent of recapturing Italy and ensuring French, rather than Habsburg, domination of European affairs. Persecution of Protestants at home did not prevent Henry II from becoming allied with German Protestant princes at the Treaty of Chambord in 1552; the continuation of his father's Franco-Ottoman alliance allowed Henry II to push for French conquests towards the Rhine while a Franco-Ottoman fleet defended southern France.
An early offensive into Lorraine was successful. Henry captured the three episcopal cities of Metz and Verdun, secured them by defeating the Habsburg army at the Battle of Renty in 1554; however the attempted French invasion of Tuscany in 1553 was defeated at the Battle of Marciano. After the abdication of Charles V in 1556, the Habsburg empire was split between Philip II of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I; the focus of Henry's conflict with the Habsburgs shifted to Flanders, where Phillip, in conjunction with Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy, defeated the French at the Battle of St. Quentin. England's entry into the war that year led to the French capture of Calais, French armies plundered Spanish possessions in the Low Countries. Henry was nonetheless forced to accept the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis, in which he renounced any further claims to territories in Italy; the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis was signed between Henry and Elizabeth I of England on 2 April and between Henry and Philip II of Spain on 3 April 1559 at Le Cateau-Cambrésis.
Under its terms, France restored Piedmont and Savoy to
François Couperin was a French Baroque composer and harpsichordist. He was known as Couperin le Grand to distinguish him from other members of the musically talented Couperin family. Couperin was born into one of the best known musical families of Europe, his father Charles was organist at the Church of Saint-Gervais in Paris, a position occupied by Charles's brother Louis Couperin, a regarded keyboard virtuoso and composer whose career was cut short by an early death. As a boy, François must have received his first music lessons from his father. Charles died in 1679; the church council at Saint-Gervais hired Michel Richard Delalande to serve as new organist, with the condition that François would replace him at age 18. Meanwhile, the boy was taken care of and taught by organist Jacques-Denis Thomelin, who served both at the court and at the famous church of St Jacques-de-la-Boucherie. According to a biography by Évrard Titon du Tillet, Thomelin treated the boy well and became "a second father" to him.
François's talent must have manifested itself quite early, since by 1685 the church council agreed to provide him with a regular salary though he had no formal contract. Couperin's mother Marie died in 1690, but otherwise his life and career were accompanied by good fortune. In 1689 he married one Marie-Anne Ansault, daughter of a well connected family; the next year saw the publication of Couperin's Pieces d'orgue, a collection of organ masses, praised by Delalande. In three more years Couperin succeeded his former teacher Thomelin at the court; the new appointment was prestigious and brought Couperin in contact with some of the finest composers of his time, as well as numerous members of the aristocracy. His earliest chamber music dates from around that time; the numerous duties Couperin carried out at the court were accompanied by duties as organist at Saint Gervais, by the composition and publication of new music. He obtained a 20-year royal privilege to publish in 1713 and used it to issue the first volume of his harpsichord works, Pieces de clavecin.
A harpsichord playing manual followed in 1716, as well as other collections of keyboard and chamber music. In 1717 Couperin succeeded one of his most eminent colleagues, Jean-Baptiste-Henry d'Anglebert, as ordinaire de la musique de la chambre du roi pour le clavecin, one of the highest possible appointments for a court musician. However, his involvement in the musical activities at the court may have lessened after Louis XIV's death in 1715. Couperin's health declined throughout the 1720s; the services of a cousin were required by 1723 at Saint Gervais, in 1730 Couperin's position as court harpsichordist was taken up by his daughter Marguerite-Antoinette. Couperin's final publications were the fourth volume of harpsichord pieces; the composer died in 1733. The building where Couperin and his family lived since 1724 still stands and is located at the corner of the rue Radziwill and the rue des Petits Champs; the composer was survived by at least three of his children: Marguerite-Antoinette, who continued working as court harpsichordist until 1741, Marie-Madeleine, who became a nun and may have worked as organist at the Maubuisson Abbey, François-Laurent, who according to contemporary sources left the family after François died.
Couperin acknowledged his debt to the Italian composer Corelli. He introduced Corelli's trio sonata form to France. Couperin's grand trio sonata was subtitled ou L'apothéose de Corelli. In it he blended the Italian and French styles of music in a set of pieces which he called Les goûts réunis, his most famous book, L'art de toucher le clavecin, contains suggestions for fingerings, touch and other features of keyboard technique. Couperin's four volumes of harpsichord music, published in Paris in 1713, 1717, 1722, 1730, contain over 230 individual pieces, he published a book of Concerts Royaux which can be played as solo harpsichord pieces or as small chamber works; the four collections for harpsichord alone are grouped into ordres, a synonym of suites, containing traditional dances as well as pieces with descriptive titles. They are notable for Couperin's detailed indication of ornaments, which in most harpsichord music of the period was left to the discretion of the player; the first and last pieces in an ordre were of the same tonality, but the middle pieces could be in other related tonalities.
These volumes were admired by Johann Sebastian Bach, who exchanged letters with Couperin, by Brahms and by Ravel, who memorialized their composer in Le tombeau de Couperin. Many of Couperin's keyboard pieces have evocative, picturesque titles and express a mood through key choices, adventurous harmonies and discords, they have been likened to miniature tone poems. These features attracted Richard Strauss. Johannes Brahms's piano music was influenced by the keyboard music of Couperin. Brahms performed Couperin's music in public and contributed to the first complete edition of Couperin's Pièces de clavecin by Friedrich Chrysander in the 1880s; the early-music expert Jordi Savall has written that Couperin was the "poet musician par excellence", who believed in "the ability of Music to express itself in prose and poetry", that "if we enter into