St. Alban's Church, Copenhagen
St. Alban's Church, locally referred to as the English Church, is an Anglican church in Copenhagen, Denmark, it was built from 1885 to 1887 for the growing English congregation in the city. Designed by Arthur Blomfield as a traditional English parish church in the Gothic Revival style, it is in a peaceful park setting at the end of Amaliegade in the northern part of the city centre, next to the citadel Kastellet and the Gefion Fountain and Langelinie; the church is part of Church of England's Diocese in Europe. It is dedicated to the first martyr of Great Britain; the first sizable British community in Denmark settled in Elsinore in the early 16th century. The town was an important logistical hub for the collection of Sound Dues. First to arrive was a community of Scots which had a Scottish altar dedicated to Saint Jacob, Saint Andrew and the Scottish Saint Ninian in the local Saint Olaf's Church; the altar has now been moved to the National Museum of Denmark. Much of the Øresund traffic was British and over the course of time many English shipping agencies were established in Elsinore.
There was a British consul there while Copenhagen only had a vice-consul. However, under the King's Law from 1665, which had instituted absolutism in Denmark, Lutheranism was the only faith allowed to hold religious services in Denmark. During the second half of the 18th century more and more foreign denominations were granted royal exemptions to this prohibition. Up through the 19th century the English community in Copenhagen grew as the city's significance as a centre of commerce increased. An English congregation held religious services in rented rooms in Store Kongensgade near Kongens Nytorv from 1834; the congregation had ambitions to build their own church and a Church Building Committee was established in 1854 but remained unable to find the means needed for the project. In 1864, it made an appeal to the Prince of Wales, his consort, the Danish-born Princess Alexandra, took it upon her to assist, she managed to raise funds as well as provide a attractive site for its construction when she persuaded the Danish Ministry of War to grant permission to have the church built on the esplanade outside the citadel Kastellet.
The foundation stone of St. Alban's Church was laid on 19 September 1885; the church was designed by Arthur Blomfield. It was consecrated two years on 17 September 1887. Present on the opening day was a large display of European royalty, including the Prince and Princess of Wales, King Christian IX and Queen Consort Louise of Denmark, Tsar Alexander III and Tsarina Maria Feodorovna of Russia and George I and Olga of Greece. Like Princess Alexandra, both George I and Maria Feodorovna were born Danish, issue of the Danish King and Queen Consort. Present were the entire Diplomatic Corps, representatives of the Army and Navy, church officials, Greek and Roman Catholic Priests. After the consecration, the Prince and Princess of Wales hosted a lunch on board the Royal Yacht HMY Osborne to which all those, connected with the realisation of the church were invited. St. Alban's Church is designed as a traditional English church by Arthur Blomfield who designed a number of parish churches around Britain and received the Royal Institute of British Architects' Royal Gold Medal in 1891.
It is built in the Gothic Revival style inspired by the Early English Style known as Lancet Gothic. The church is built in limestone from the Faxe south of Copenhagen, knapped flint from Stevns and Åland stone for the spire; the conspicuous use of flint as a building material, unusual in Denmark, is another typical trait from England where it is seen in church buildings in the south of the country East Anglia. The tiles on the roof are from Broseley in Shropshire; the tower contains fifteen tubular bells. It was not deemed strong enough to support regular bells, a set of eight was presented by the Prince of Wales when the church was built; these can be played manually on an Ellacombe Frame, on which the player pulls a rope for the relevant bell. In 2013 the Prince of Wales contributed to a new fund, which enabled a further seven bells to be installed, for all fifteen to be played automatically by computer; every quarter-hour the 80 louvres open while the bells sound a quarter chime, after striking the hour play a hymn tune.
The original bells are by the English firm of Harringtons, as are the additional seven, which were made redundant by Holy Trinity Church and retuned to suit. The striking system is by the Dutch firm of Fritsen. Many items of the church's inventory and fittings were donated, including the tiles on the floor and dado which are from Campbell Tile Co. and the carved oakwood pews which were a gift from Thomas Cook and Son. The altarpiece and font were donated by Doulton, London.a leading manufacturer of stoneware and ceramics. For the first time, they were all made in terra cotta with salt glazed details, they were designed by the artist George Tinworth. The church organ was made by J. W. Walker & Sons Ltd and is located in the choir in the southern transept, it was renovated in 1966 by the same company
Alexander Nevsky Church, Copenhagen
The Alexander Nevsky Church is the only Russian Orthodox church in Copenhagen. It was built by the Russian Government between 1881 and 1883, prompted by Princess Dagmar of Denmark's marriage to Alexander Alexandrovich on 9 November 1866 and their ascent to the Russian throne as Tsar Alexander III of Russia and Tsaritsa Maria Feodorovna; the church is dedicated to the Russian patron saint Alexander Nevsky. From the middle of the 18th century, the Russian delegation held services in Copenhagen, first in a small chapel in Laksegade and in Store Kongensgade; the Alexander Nevsky Church was built from 1881 to 1883 by the Russian government. The acquisition of the site on Bredgade was arranged by Carl Frederik Tietgen and it has been reported that the Tsar disapproved of the selected location for religious reasons, since tradition called for a free-standing building; the church was designed by Russian architect David Ivanovich Grimm, a professor at the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg.
His project had been chosen among 15 entries in architectural competition. The Danish architect Albert Nielsen was charged with the practical execution of the building under supervision of Ferdinand Meldahl. In September 1883 Provost Yanysev, Chancellor of the Theological Academy in St. Petersburg, came to Copenhagen to consecrate the church, assisted by the congregation's priest and a monk from Alexander Nevsky Lavra in St. Petersburg. Representatives of the Danish and Greek Royal families were present at the ceremony; the exterior of the church is dominated by the three onion domes which top the gable facing the street. The design takes its inspiration from 17th century Muscovite architecture; the facade is executed in grey bricks with sandstone ornamentations. High on the facade, in a niche above the bells, is an icon of Alexander Nevsky, the church's patron saint, painted by Fyodor Bronnikov. Embassy of Russia in Copenhagen
St. Paul's Church, Copenhagen
St. Paul's Church is a Lutheran church in central Copenhagen, Denmark colloquially known as Nyboder's Church due to its location in the middle of the Nyboder area, it was designed by Johannes Emil Gnudtzmann and constructed from 1872 to 1877. The church is part of a wave of church constructions which took place in Copenhagen in the 1870s to provide capacity for the city's growing population. Unlike the other new churches—St. Stephen's and St. James' in Østerbro and St. Mathew's in Vesterbro—St. Paul's was not built in one of the emerging districts outside the city's old fortifications which had just been decommissiom Johannes Emil Gnudtzmann was charged with the design of the new church, his first independent work as an architect, it opened on 15 February 1877; the church is built in red brick and the masonry is decorated with blinds, arches and pinnacles on all corners. The church's first altarpiece was a painting by Hendrick Krock entitled The Eucharist. In 1887 it was replaced by a gilded crucifix created by the sculptor Jens Adolf Jerichau, a donation from pastor Christian Møller.
The space surrounding the church is called Sankt Pauls Plads. On the southeast side of the church are some of the so'called Grey Tows of the Nyboder development, they were designed by Olaf Schmidth and are younger than the more well-known terraces of the neighbourhood. On the other side of the church street are a row of apartment buildings from the 1870s. To the rear of the church is the former Gernersgade Barracks, now Bygningskulturens Hus. Two of Nyboder's Yellow Rows flank Adelgade in front of the church. Architecture of Denmark Official website
Church of Holmen
The Church of Holmen is a Parish church in central Copenhagen in Denmark, on the street called Holmens Kanal. First built as an anchor forge in 1563, it was converted into a naval church by Christian IV, it is famous for having hosted the wedding between Margrethe II of Denmark, current queen of Denmark, Prince Henrik in 1967. It is the burial site of such notabilities as naval heroes Niels Juel and Peter Tordenskjold, composer Niels Wilhelm Gade, contains artwork by, among others, Bertel Thorvaldsen and Karel van Mander; the appearance of the Church of Holmen today resembles that of the renovation in 1872, except for the colour. The windows are in clear glass and predominantly set in iron; the spire is dressed in copper just like small spire on the confessional's roof. The church is of Lutheran denomination; the church's pipe organ was made by Lambert Daniel Kastens and installed in 1738, the façade remains in place today. The actual organ, however, is from 1956; the current pulpit was installed in 1662 and was carved by Abel Schrøder and stands in the natural colour of its oak, except for the king and queen's monograms and crowns which are gilded.
It is the oldest preserved pulpit in Copenhagen, the most richly decorated. It stands from floor to ceiling, depicts Christian history from Moses holding the basket up to Jesus Christ; the oldest baptismal font in the church stands 117 centimetres tall. A white marble font was installed in 1756, created by Carl Frederik Stanley in classicist style, but is no longer in the church; the new baptismal font from 1872 was made by the sculptor Evens by Ludvig Fenger's design, in black marble and sandstone. A model of Niels Juel's ship Christianus Quintus hangs from the ceiling in the church. In medieval Copenhagen, Holmen was an actual island. However, in the 16th century, city restructuring made it less of an island and more of a peninsula surrounded by Holmens Canal. On this peninsula, Christian III of Denmark founded a shipyard which became synonymous with the name Holmen; when the shipyard moved to Nyholm on Christianshavn, the name Holmen followed, Bremerholm became Gammelholm, a name, used today.
Holmens Canal was filled in the 1860s. In 1562–63, Frederick II of Denmark built an anchor forge for Holmen, placed on the other side of the canal; the building was atypically shaped, as special consideration was given not to spoil the view from the king's castle, Christiansborg. The actual forge was hidden behind a taller building, called the tower, given a handsome front in Italian style facing the castle, and, erected by Peter de Dunckers. In 1617, Christian IV of Denmark has built houses for the navy's personnel between the Church of Saint Nikolaj and Holmen; this created an influx in population which made it necessary to build a larger church, which the king had set up in the former anchor forge. At first, the reconstruction into a church caused no redesign of the building's blueprints; the church was consecrated on September 5, 1619, but craftsmen were still working on the church during 1620. The building had certain similarities to a village church, with the higher tower as a bell tower in one end, but the tower was not an actual part of the church, the bells were situated in the opposite end of the building.
Not much is known about the decoration of the first church. The church became too small, in 1641, it was decided to expand it into a cruciform church; the tower was incorporated into the church, the remainder of the church was brought to the same height. The two new arms are shorter than the two old ones. Leonhard Blasius was the builder of the church, but indications are that the king decided on the layout of the church, modeled after the Glücksburg castle church; the walls are tile on a high foundation of granite blocks. The new arms were built in yellow bricks. In order for the building to have a uniform look, the walls were painted in yellow and red vertical stripes on which white lines were painted in order to resemble a brick wall; the spire was built in two stories with the bells in the bottom half. This spire has caused significant problems over the years, as the wooden construction of the roof was not strong enough to carry the weight; the construction was reinforced in 1698 and in 1793, but not until 1930 was the collapse halted by the introduction of an iron construction.
It is estimated. The major Copenhagen fires of 1728 and 1795 did not affect The Church of Holmen, the bombardments in 1659 and 1807 only caused minor damage to the church, thus the fundamental shape of the church today is the same as when it was first constructed. However, a cannonball is visible in the plinth on the northern side of the choir from the Swedish assault in 1658. In 1697 a chapel was built for Niels Juel in the church, designed by Ernst Brandenburger; this building was removed after the construction of Niels Juel's mausoleum. When Roskilde Cathedral was renovated, Christian IV of Denmark's portal from 1635 was transferred to the eastern gable of The Church of Holmen; the sculpting and stucco were repaired early in the 20th century, as had become necessary due to the sinking of spire construction. In preparation for the wedding between Hereditary Princess Margrethe and Prince Henrik in 1967, which took place in the church, the church underwent major restoration; this included changing the wooden floor to stone.
Cemetery of Holmen Statue of Peter Jansen Wessel Tordenskiold, Copenhagen Danmarks Kirker, vol. 2: Holm
Nicolas Steno was a Danish scientist, a pioneer in both anatomy and geology who became a Catholic bishop in his years. Steno was trained in the classical texts on science, he questioned explanations for tear production, the idea that fossils grew in the ground and explanations of rock formation. His investigations and his subsequent conclusions on fossils and rock formation have led scholars to consider him one of the founders of modern stratigraphy and modern geology. Born to a Lutheran family, Steno converted to Catholicism in 1667. After his conversion, his interest for natural sciences waned giving way to his interest in theology. At the beginning of 1675, he decided to become a priest. Four months after, he was ordained in the Catholic clergy in Easter 1675; as a clergyman, he was appointed Vicar Apostolic of Nordic Missions and Titular Bishop of Titopolis by Pope Innocent XI. Steno played an active role in the Counter-Reformation in Northern Germany; the canonization process for him was begun in 1938.
Pope John Paul II beatified Steno in 1988. Nicolas Steno was born in Copenhagen on New Year's Day 1638, the son of a Lutheran goldsmith who worked for King Christian IV of Denmark, he became ill at age three, suffering from an unknown disease, grew up in isolation during his childhood. In 1644 his father died, after. In 1654–1655, 240 pupils of his school died due to the plague. Across the street lived Peder Schumacher. At the age of 19, Steno entered the University of Copenhagen to pursue medical studies. After completing his university education, Steno set out to travel through Europe. In the Netherlands, France and Germany he came into contact with prominent physicians and scientists; these influences led him to use his own powers of observation to make important scientific discoveries. At the urging of Thomas Bartholin, Steno first travelled to Rostock to Amsterdam, where he studied anatomy under and lodged with Gerard Blasius, focusing on the lymphatic system. Within a few months Steno moved to Leiden, where he met the students Jan Swammerdam, Frederik Ruysch, Reinier de Graaf, Franciscus de le Boe Sylvius, a famous professor, Baruch Spinoza.
At the time Descartes was publishing on the working of the brain, Steno doubted Descartes's explanation of the origin of tears as produced by the brain. Invited to Paris by Henri Louis Habert de Montmor and Pierre Bourdelot, he there met Ole Borch and Melchisédech Thévenot who were interested in new research and in demonstrations of his skills. In 1665 Steno travelled to Saumur and Montpellier, where he met Martin Lister and William Croone, who introduced Steno's work to the Royal Society. After travelling through France, he settled in Italy in 1666 – at first as professor of anatomy at the University of Padua and in Florence as in-house physician of Grand Duke of Tuscany Ferdinando II de' Medici, who supported arts and science and whom Steno had met in Pisa. Steno was invited to live in the Palazzo Vecchio. Steno met Pope Alexander VII and Marcello Malpighi, whom he admired. On his way back he watched a Corpus Christi procession in Livorno and wondered if he had the right belief. In Florence Steno focused on the nature of muscle contraction.
He had long discussions with Francesco Redi. Like Vincenzo Viviani, Steno proposed a geometrical model of muscles to show that a contracting muscle changes its shape but not its volume. During his stay in Amsterdam, Steno discovered a undescribed structure, the "ductus stenonianus" in sheep and rabbit heads. A dispute with Blasius over credit for the discovery arose, but Steno's name remained associated with this structure known today as the Stensen's duct. In Leiden, Steno studied the boiled heart of a cow, determined that it was an ordinary muscle and not the center of warmth as Galenus and Descartes believed. Steno was the first to describe the lateral line system in fishes. In October 1666 two fishermen caught a huge female shark near the town of Livorno, Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, ordered its head to be sent to Steno. Steno dissected the head and published his findings in 1667, he noted that the shark's teeth bore a striking resemblance to certain stony objects, found embedded within rock formations, that his learned contemporaries were calling glossopetrae or "tongue stones".
Ancient authorities, such as the Roman author Pliny the Elder, in his Naturalis Historia, had suggested that these stones fell from the sky or from the Moon. Others were of the opinion following ancient authors, that fossils grew in the rocks. Steno's contemporary Athanasius Kircher, for example, attributed fossils to a "lapidifying virtue diffused through the whole body of the geocosm", considered an inherent characteristic of the earth – an Aristotelian approach. Fabio Colonna, had shown in a convincing way that glossopetrae are shark teeth, in his treatise De glossopetris dissertatio published in 1616. Steno added to Colonna's theory a discussion on the differences in composition between glossopetrae and living sharks' teeth, arguing that the chemical composition of fossils could be altered without changing their form, using the contemporary corpuscular theory of matter. Steno'
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organization and doctrine. Individual bodies, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, such as church or sometimes fellowship. Divisions between one group and another are defined by doctrine. Groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs and historical ties—are sometimes known as "branches of Christianity"; these branches differ in many ways through differences in practices and belief. Individual denominations vary in the degree to which they recognize one another. Several groups claim to be the direct and sole authentic successor of the church founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. Others, believe in denominationalism, where some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices; because of this concept, some Christian bodies reject the term "denomination" to describe themselves, to avoid implying equivalency with other churches or denominations.
The Catholic Church which claims 1.2 billion members – over half of all Christians worldwide – does not view itself as a denomination, but as the original pre-denominational church, a view rejected by other Christians. Protestant denominations account for 37 percent of Christians worldwide. Together and Protestantism comprise Western Christianity. Western Christian denominations prevail in Western, Northern and Southern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania; the Eastern Orthodox Church, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents, is the second-largest Christian organization in the world and considers itself the original pre-denominational church. Unlike the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church is itself a communion of independent autocephalous churches that mutually recognize each other to the exclusion of others; the Eastern Orthodox Church, together with Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East, constitutes Eastern Christianity. Eastern Christian denominations are represented in Eastern Europe, North Asia, the Middle East, Northeast Africa and South India.
Christians have various doctrines about the Church and about how the divine church corresponds to Christian denominations. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox hold that their own organizations faithfully represent the One Holy catholic and Apostolic Church to the exclusion of the other. Sixteenth-century Protestants separated from the Catholic Church because of theologies and practices that they considered to be in violation of their own interpretation. Members of the various denominations acknowledge each other as Christians, at least to the extent that they have mutually recognized baptisms and acknowledge orthodox views including the Divinity of Jesus and doctrines of sin and salvation though doctrinal and ecclesiological obstacles hinder full communion between churches. Since the reforms surrounding the Second Vatican Council of 1962–1965, the Catholic Church has referred to Protestant communities as "denominations", while reserving the term "church" for apostolic churches, including the Eastern Orthodox.
But some non-denominational Christians do not follow any particular branch, though sometimes regarded as Protestants. Each group uses different terminology to discuss their beliefs; this section will discuss the definitions of several terms used throughout the article, before discussing the beliefs themselves in detail in following sections. A denomination within Christianity can be defined as a "recognized autonomous branch of the Christian Church". "Church" as a synonym, refers to a "particular Christian organization with its own clergy and distinctive doctrines". Some traditional and evangelical Protestants draw a distinction between membership in the universal church and fellowship within the local church. Becoming a believer in Christ makes one a member of the universal church; some evangelical groups describe themselves as interdenominational fellowships, partnering with local churches to strengthen evangelical efforts targeting a particular group with specialized needs, such as students or ethnic groups.
A related concept is denominationalism, the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices.. Protestant leaders differ from the views of the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, the two largest Christian denominations; each church makes mutually exclusive claims for itself to be t
Jerusalem's Church, Copenhagen
Jerusalem's Church is the main church of the Methodist community in Denmark. It is located in Rigensgade (, central Copenhagen; the first Methodist congregation in Denmark was founded on 11 January 1859 and was based in rented rooms in Store Kongensgade. The congregation grew and funds were raised for a new church, completed in 1866 to designs by Ferdinand Vilhelm Jensen; the church was known as St. Paul's Church until 1894 when that name was taken over by the nearby St. Paul's Church, it was called St. Mark's Church until 1912 when it received its current name; the church was destroyed in a fire in 1914. It was subsequently reinaugurated the following year; the church is designed in a mixture of Romanesque Byzantine Revival styles. It is 27 metres long, 16 metres wide and the tower stands 50.6 metres tall. The Jerusalem Church contains an organ built in 1916, it was restored in 1982-84, is considered one of the best organs in Denmark from before World War II. The church has three gospel choirs with different profiles: Kefas has existed since 1976, Saints and Sinners has existed since 1994 and Revelation Gospel Choirer is the youngest.