The Queen's College, Oxford
The Queen's College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford, England. The college was founded in 1341 by Robert de Eglesfield in honour of Queen Philippa of Hainault, it is distinguished by its predominantly neoclassical architecture, which includes buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren and Nicholas Hawksmoor. In 2018, the college had an endowment of £ 291 million; the college was founded in 1341 as "Hall of the Queen's scholars of Oxford" by Robert de Eglesfield, chaplain to Queen Philippa of Hainault, after whom the hall was named. Robert's aim was where he lived in Westmorland. In addition, the college was to provide charity for the poor; the college's coat of arms is that of the founder. The current coat of arms was adopted by d'Eglesfield because he was unable to use his family's arms, being the younger son. D'Eglesfield had grand plans for the college, with a provost, twelve fellows studying theology, up to thirteen chaplains, seventy-two poor boys. However, the college did not have the funding to support such numbers, had just two fellows.
The college gained land and patronage in the mid-15th century, giving it a good endowment and allowing it to expand to 10 fellows by the end of the century. By 1500, the college had started to take paying undergraduates sons of the gentry and middle class, who paid the fellows for teaching. There were 14 of these in 1535; the college added lectureships in philosophy. Provost Henry Robinson obtained an Act of Parliament incorporating the college as'The Queen's College' in 1585, so Robinson is known as the second founder. Following the new foundation, the college flourished until the 1750s. Joseph Williamson, admitted as a poor boy and went on to become a fellow, rose to Secretary of State and amassed a fortune, he funded a new range on Queen's Lane built in 1671–72. Following a bequest of books from Thomas Barlow, a new library was built between 1693 and 1696 by master builder John Townesend. A further bequest from Williamson of £6,000, along with purchase of the buildings along the High Street, allowed a new front quad to be built and for the remaining medieval buildings to be replaced.
This was completed by 1759 by John's son William Townesend. The college gained a large number of benefactions during this time, which helped to pay for the buildings and bring in more scholars from other northern, towns. From the 1750s, as with other Oxford colleges, standards dropped; the Oxford commission of 1850–1859 revised the statues and removed the northern preference for fellows and most of the students. Over the coming years, requirements for fellows to be unmarried were relaxed, the number of fellows required to have taken orders and studied theology was reduced, in 1871 the Universities Tests Act allowed non-conformists and Catholics. Like many of Oxford's colleges, Queen's admitted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, after more than six centuries as an institution for men only; the college is named for Queen Philippa of Hainault. Established in January 1341'under the name of the Hall of the Queen's scholars of Oxford', the college was subsequently called the'Queen's Hall','Queenhall' and'Queen's College'.
An Act of 1585 sought to end this confusion by providing that it should be called by the one name'the Queen's College'. The full name of the College, as indicated in its annual reports, is The Provost and Scholars of The Queen’s College in the University of Oxford. Queens' College in Cambridge positions its apostrophe differently and has no article, as it was named for multiple Queens. In April 2012, as part of the celebrations of the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II, a series of commemorative stamps was released featuring A-Z pictures of famous British landmarks; the Queen's College's front quad was used on the Q stamp, alongside other landmarks such as the Angel of the North on A and the Old Bailey on O. One of the most famous feasts of the College is the Boar's Head Gaudy, the Christmas dinner for members of the College who were unable to return home to the north of England over the Christmas break between terms, but is now a feast for old members of the College on the Saturday before Christmas.
The main entrance on the High Street leads to the front quad, built between 1709 and 1759. There are symmetrical ranges on the east and west sides, while at the back of the quad is a building containing the chapel and the hall. Nicholas Hawksmoor provided a number of designs that were not used directly but that influenced the final design. Above the college entrance is a statue of Caroline of Ansbach by the sculptor Henry Cheere; the chapel is noted for its Frobenius organ in the west gallery. It was installed in 1965, replacing a Rushworth and Dreaper organ from 1931; the earliest mention of an organ is 1826. The Chapel Choir has been described as "Oxford's finest mixed-voice choir" and continues to perform termly concerts, recent examples of which inclu
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
St. Patrick's Church (Toronto)
St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church on McCaul Street in Toronto, Canada, is the church for the city's fifth oldest Roman Catholic parish. St. Patrick subway station nearby and the adjacent St. Patrick Street were named after the church. St. Patrick's is the home of the Canadian National Shrine of Our Mother of Perpetual Help; the German-speaking Catholic community in Toronto holds services in the church as well. The parish was established in 1861 and had its own church in 1908; the Romanesque Revival church was designed by architect Arthur W. Holmes; the St. Patrick's Gregorian Choir was established on October 28, 2006 at St. Patrick's Church for the Saturday 5:00 p.m. Holy Mass, under director, organist and composer Surinder S. Mundra. One of the first choirs in the Toronto region specializing in Gregorian chant in its proper liturgical context; the aim of the choir from its beginning is to promote through the chant, a deep love and reverence towards the Sacrifice of Holy Mass. In addition to serving their regular function as resident choir for the Saturday Masses, they have organized regular Christmas Organ Fundraising concerts held yearly in the church, have sung at celebrations of Tridentine Mass at many other churches.
Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer Official website of St. Patrick's Catholic Church, Toronto Official Facebook page of the St. Patrick's Gregorian Choir
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is surrounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, on the south and east by the American state of New York, whose water boundaries meet in the middle of the lake. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. Many of Ontario's most populous cities, including Toronto, Canada's most populous city, Hamilton, are on the lake's northern or western shores. In the Huron language, the name Ontarí'io means "Lake of Shining Waters", its primary inlet is the Niagara River from Lake Erie. The last in the Great Lakes chain, Lake Ontario serves as the outlet to the Atlantic Ocean via the Saint Lawrence River, it is the only Great Lake not to border the state of Michigan. Lake Ontario is the easternmost of the Great Lakes and the smallest in surface area, although it exceeds Lake Erie in volume, it is the 13th largest lake in the world. When its islands are included, the lake's shoreline is 712 miles long.
As the last lake in the Great Lakes' hydrologic chain, Lake Ontario has the lowest mean surface elevation of the lakes at 243 feet above sea level. Its maximum length is 193 statute miles and its maximum width is 53 statute miles; the lake's average depth is 47 fathoms 1 foot, with a maximum depth of 133 fathoms 4 feet. The lake's primary source is the Niagara River, draining Lake Erie, with the St. Lawrence River serving as the outlet; the drainage basin covers 24,720 square miles. As with all the Great Lakes, water levels change both among years; these water level fluctuations are an integral part of lake ecology, produce and maintain extensive wetlands. The lake has an important freshwater fishery, although it has been negatively affected by factors including over-fishing, water pollution and invasive species. Baymouth bars built by prevailing winds and currents have created a significant number of lagoons and sheltered harbors near Prince Edward County and the easternmost shores; the best-known example is Toronto Bay, chosen as the site of the Upper Canada capital for its strategic harbour.
Other prominent examples include Hamilton Harbour, Irondequoit Bay, Presqu'ile Bay, Sodus Bay. The bars themselves are the sites of long beaches, such as Sandbanks Provincial Park and Sandy Island Beach State Park; these sand bars are associated with large wetlands, which support large numbers of plant and animal species, as well as providing important rest areas for migratory birds. Presqu'ile, on the north shore of Lake Ontario, is significant in this regard. One unique feature of the lake is the Z-shaped Bay of Quinte which separates Prince Edward County from the Ontario mainland, save for a 2-mile isthmus near Trenton. Major rivers draining into Lake Ontario include the Niagara River, Don River, Humber River, Trent River, Cataraqui River, Genesee River, Oswego River, Black River, Little Salmon River, the Salmon River; the lake basin was carved out of soft, weak Silurian-age rocks by the Wisconsin ice sheet during the last ice age. The action of the ice occurred along the pre-glacial Ontarian River valley which had the same orientation as today's basin.
Material, pushed southward by the ice sheet left landforms such as drumlins and moraines, both on the modern land surface and the lake bottom, reorganizing the region's entire drainage system. As the ice sheet retreated toward the north, it still dammed the St. Lawrence valley outlet, so the lake surface was at a higher level; this stage is known as Lake Iroquois. During that time the lake drained through present-day Syracuse, New York into the Mohawk River, thence to the Hudson River and the Atlantic; the shoreline created during this stage can be recognized by the beaches and wave-cut hills 10 to 25 miles from the present shoreline. When the ice receded from the St. Lawrence valley, the outlet was below sea level, for a short time the lake became a bay of the Atlantic Ocean, in association with the Champlain Sea; the land rebounded from the release of the weight of about 6,500 feet of ice, stacked on it. It is still rebounding about 12 inches per century in the St. Lawrence area. Since the ice receded from the area last, the most rapid rebound still occurs there.
This means the lake bed is tilting southward, inundating the south shore and turning river valleys into bays. Both north and south shores experience shoreline erosion, but the tilting amplifies this effect on the south shore, causing loss to property owners; the name Ontario is derived from the Huron word Ontarí'io, which means "great lake". The lake was a border between the Huron people and the Iroquois Confederacy in the pre-Columbian era. In the 1600s, the Iroquois drove out the Huron from southern Ontario and settled the northern shores of Lake Ontario; when the Iroquois withdrew and the Anishnabeg / Ojibwa / Mississaugas moved in from the north to southern Ontario, they retained the Iroquois name. It is believed the first European to reach the lake was Étienne Brûlé in 1615; as was their practice, the French explorers introduced other names for the lake. In 1632 and 1656, the lake was referred to as Lac de St. Louis or Lake St. Louis by Samuel de Champlain and cartographer Nicolas Sanson In
Arthur W. Holmes
Arthur William Holmes was an architect who designed numerous buildings churches, in Toronto and other places in Ontario during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. He was born in London and before he left for Canada in 1885, he trained under the supervision of George Edmund Street. From 1887 to 1891 he worked as a assistant for Joseph Connolly. At some point during his first years in Toronto he converted to become a Roman Catholic. From on, most of his work was the designing and construction of Roman Catholic churches, schools and residences. From 1898, he worked exclusively on Roman Catholic parish churches. After Joseph Connolly died in 1904, Holmes completed the bell tower on St. Paul's in Toronto. Demand for Holmes as an architect increased so he hired an assistant, Charles Read, to help him with his work. Much of work shows considerable emulation of Catholic churches in Europe. From 1910 to 1913, he worked on St. Augustine's Seminary in Scarborough, which show the influence of the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence.
He used the refectory of Oxford as the model for the college chapel. In 1914, he designed the Church of the Holy Name in Toronto and drew on the Church of the Gesù in Rome. From 1926 to 1927 he worked on St. Thomas Aquinas Church, next to the Newman Centre on the St. George Campus of the University of Toronto, he used the Gothic Revival architecture style more such as the Teefy and Brennan Halls of St. Michael's College, Toronto, built in 1936, he was buried in Mount Hope Catholic Cemetery. His wife, Madeleine Kormann Holmes, predeceased him. Joseph Connolly
Scarborough is an administrative division in Toronto, Canada. Situated atop the Scarborough Bluffs, it occupies the eastern part of the city. Scarborough is contained within the borders of Victoria Park Avenue on the west, Steeles Avenue to the north, Rouge River and the city of Pickering to the east, Lake Ontario to the south, it borders East York and North York in the west and the city of Markham in the north. Scarborough was named after the English town of North Yorkshire. First settled by Europeans in the 1790s, Scarborough has grown from a collection of small rural villages and farms to become urbanized with a diverse cultural community. Incorporated in 1850 as a township, Scarborough became part of Metropolitan Toronto in 1953 and was reconstituted as a borough in 1967. Scarborough developed as a suburb of Old Toronto over the next decade and became a city in 1983. In 1998, Scarborough and the rest of Metropolitan Toronto were amalgamated into the present city of Toronto. Scarborough still exists as an unofficial borough of Toronto.
The Scarborough Civic Centre, the former city‘s last place of government, is occupied by City of Toronto offices. Scarborough is a popular destination for new immigrants in Canada to reside; as a result, it is one of the most diverse and multicultural areas in the Greater Toronto Area, being home to various religious groups and places of worship. It includes some such as the Toronto Zoo and Rouge Park; the northeast corner of Scarborough is rural with some of Toronto’s last remaining farms, leading to Scarborough’s reputation of being greener than any other part of Toronto. The area was named after Scarborough in England, United Kingdom by Elizabeth Simcoe, the wife of John Graves Simcoe, the first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada; the bluffs along Scarborough's Lake Ontario shores reminded her of the limestone cliffs in Scarborough, England. On August 4, 1793, she wrote in her diary, "The shore is bold, has the appearance of chalk cliffs, but I believe they are only white sand, they appeared so well that we talked of building a summer residence there and calling it Scarborough."
Before that, the area was named Glasgow, after the Scottish city. Scarborough has acquired several nicknames; the most popular is Scarberia, a portmanteau of Scarborough and Siberia, a reference to its distant eastern location from downtown Toronto and apparent lack of notable attractions. The word originated sometime in the 1960s and has remained a source of contention since. In May 1988, Joyce Trimmer, campaigning to be mayor of the city of Scarborough, said, "The city of Scarborough needs strong leadership if it is to shed its'Scarberia' image". Scarborough has acquired nicknames related to its diversity; such nicknames use the prefix "Scar" and a suffix derived from the name of a region, nation, or ethnicity. The first known evidence of people in Scarborough comes from an archaeological site in Fenwood Heights, dated to 8000 BCE; the site contains the remains of a camp of nomadic hunters and foragers, there is no evidence of permanent settlers. In the 17th century, the area was inhabited by the Seneca at the village of Ganatsekwyagon, who were displaced by the Mississaugas, who were themselves displaced by the settlers who began to arrive in the late 18th century.
After the land was surveyed in 1793, it was opened to settlement by British subjects with the first issue of land patents in 1796, although squatters had been present for a few years. The first settlers were Andrew Thomson, they were stonemasons. They each built mills; this activity led to the creation of a small village known as the Thomson Settlement. The first post office opened in Scarborough Village. During the early part of life in Upper Canada, local administration and justice was administered by the colonial government. From 1792 to 1841, magistrates were appointed by District Councils. There were four districts in the colony. Due to a political reorganization, a result of the Durham Report, Scarborough gained elected representation on the Home District Council. Scarborough elected two councillors. In 1850, Scarborough was incorporated as a township. After incorporation, Scarborough government was led by a reeve, a deputy-reeve and three councillors, each elected annually; the council met in the village of Woburn but it was relocated to Birchcliff in 1922, where most of the population was located.
During the Great Depression the local government was on the verge of bankruptcy. The Ontario Municipal Board stepped in and appointed an oversight committee which prevented the collapse of local government; the expansion of Toronto in the east, in the 19th century, led to the development of housing stock along the Kingston Road and Danforth Road corridors in Scarborough. This led to the creation of a transit line. In 1893, the Toronto and Scarboro' Electric Railway and Power Company built a single-track radial line along Kingston Road to Blantyre. Over the next 13 years this was extended to West Hill. In 1904, the line became the Scarboro Division of the York Radial Railway. Service continued along this line until 1936. On April 15, 1953, Scarborough was included within Metropolitan Toronto, a new upper level of municipal government with jurisdiction over regional services such as arterial roads and transit and ambulance services. Scarborough retained it
Wycliffe College, Toronto
Wycliffe College is a graduate theological school of the University of Toronto. It is affiliated with the Anglican Church of Canada and is evangelical and low church in orientation. On the other hand, the University of Toronto's other Anglican college, the University of Trinity College, is Anglo-Catholic in outlook. While being an Anglican seminary, Wycliffe College attracts students from many Christian denominations; as a founding member of the Toronto School of Theology, students are free to participate in the wide range of courses from Canada's largest ecumenical consortium. It trains those pursuing ordination as well as those preparing for academic careers of scholarship and teaching. In response to the Liberal Catholic perspective of Trinity College, the Toronto diocesan seminary, the Church Association of the Diocese of Toronto, a lay Evangelical group at the Cathedral Church of St. James, founded the independent Protestant Episcopal Divinity School in 1877 to provide an alternative source for evangelical and low-church theological training.
Like its Oxford counterpart, Wycliffe Hall, the name "Wycliffe College" was inspired by John Wycliffe, a 14th-century English scholastic philosopher, Biblical translator and theology professor at Oxford. The name was given first to the college's building and to the college itself. To ensure its long-term viability, Wycliffe College began considering various forms of union with the University of Toronto towards the end of the 19th century. Wycliffe College became affiliated with the University of Toronto in 1885 and federated in 1889. Wycliffe College had a close association with the Anglican Church of the Epiphany in Parkdale; the church's founding rector, the Rev. Bernard Bryan, had been one of the nine men who constituted the first class at Wycliffe in 1877; this connection continued in 1959 when the Church of the Epiphany's rector, the Rev. Leslie Hunt, was appointed Principal of Wycliffe College. George Martel Miller designed Convocation Hall, 1902. Henry Bauld Gordon designed the Dining Hall and Dormitory Wing, 1907.
William Faulkner billeted at Wycliffe College while a student at the School of Aeronautics in 1918. In 1969, the Toronto School of Theology was created as an independent federation of seven schools of theology, including the divinity faculties of Wycliffe College. Within its own federation, the University of Toronto granted degrees except theology or divinity degrees. Since 1978, by virtue of a change made in its charter, the University of Toronto has granted theology degrees conjointly with Wycliffe College and other TST member institutions. An act respecting Wycliffe College, being chapter 112 of the Statutes of Ontario, 1916, was repealed and the Wycliffe College Act, 2002 was substituted. Wycliffe College's arms were registered with the Canadian Heraldic Authority on March 15, 2007; the Wycliffe College Chapel sanctuary features several stained glass windows, including "Our Lord", "St. Paul", "St. John", "Timothy" by Robert McCausland Limited. Wycliffe College is situated in the centre of the University of Toronto campus, on the corner of Hoskin Avenue and Queen's Park.
Next door is Hart House, which houses athletic facilities, a theatre, an art gallery, reading rooms, sitting rooms, offices, a library, music rooms, student meeting and study space. Along with classrooms and a chapel, Wycliffe houses 75 graduate residents, many of whom are studying other disciplines at the University of Toronto and its affiliates. Students have access, moreover, to the services of the University of Toronto, including the athletic facilities, library systems, student union clubs; the college was accredited by the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada in 1978. In the fall semester of 2017 it had 246 students, it awards the following degrees conjointly with the University of Toronto: Master of Divinity Master of Theological Studies Doctor of Ministry Master of Arts in Theological Studies Master of Theology Doctor of PhilosophyAs a founding member of the Toronto School of Theology, students are able to participate in the wide range of courses from Canada's largest ecumenical consortium.
A Certificate in Anglican Studies is available for candidates for the Anglican priesthood and vocational diaconate who hold an MDiv from a non-Anglican seminary. Refresh is the college's annual continuing education conference. Past speakers have included Alister McGrath, Lauren Winner, N. T. Wright, William P. Young, Graham Alan Cray, Graham Kendrick. In addition to Wycliffe's collection of theological texts, students have access to the libraries of the member schools of the Toronto School of Theology, including Knox's Caven Library, St. Michael's Kelly Library and Wycliffe's John W. Graham Library, the libraries of Emmanuel College, Regis College, St. Augustine's Seminary. Students, have access to the library system of the University of Toronto, including Robarts Library, Canada's largest library and the fourth largest academic library system in North America; the Wycliffe College Institute of Evangelism provides resources, including teachers and practitioners of evangelism, print and A/V materials, conferences and seminars in order to help nurture and grow evangelizing communities.
The mission of the Institute of Evangelism is to "encourage and equip the church for the work of evangelism, empowering it to engage in this ministry confidently and expectantly." R. K. Harrison, Professor of Old Testament Studies Jakob Jocz, Professor of Systematic Theology of Jewish background Richard Longenecker New Testament scholar Oliver O'Donovan Christian ethicist John Bainbridge Webster British Anglican systematic theologian Stephen Andrews - Principal Christop