Mexican War Streets
The Mexican War Streets known as the "Buena Vista Tract", is a historic district in the Central Northside neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the United States. The district is densely filled with restored row houses, community gardens, tree-lined streets and alleyways; the area dates to around the time of the Mexican–American War. The 27-acre district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975 with 119 buildings deemed to contribute to the historic character of the district. In 2008, the district's listing was increased to include an additional 288 contributing buildings over a 25.7-acre area. In the late 19th century, Pennsylvania, became known for its stately homes, occupied by some of the area's wealthy families. One such area became known as the Mexican War Streets, it developed from land owned by William Robinson Jr. ex-mayor of the city of Allegheny, who subdivided the property into streets and lots in 1847. Surveys for the development were made by Alexander Hays.
A number of the streets are named after battles and generals of the Mexican–American War, including Buena Vista Street, Monterey Street, Palo Alto Street, Resaca Place, Sherman Avenue, Taylor Avenue. Fremont Street had been named in recognition of John C. Frémont. Mexican War Streets Society Allegheny City Central Association Pittsburgh City Council description
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
Central Northside (Pittsburgh)
Central Northside is a neighborhood in the North Side of the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. It has a zip code of 15212, has representation on Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 6. Known as "The Buena Vista Tract", it is densely filled with restored row houses, community gardens and tree lined streets and alleyways. In the late 19th century, Pennsylvania became known for its stately homes, occupied by some of the area's wealthy families. One such area became known as the Mexican War Streets; the Mexican War Streets were laid out in 1847, during the Mexican–American War, by William Robinson Jr. ex-mayor of the city of Allegheny. Robinson, who contrary to some tellings did not serve in the war, subdivided his land and named the new streets after the war's battles and generals. Central Northside has seven city neighborhood borders with Perry South to the north, Fineview to the northeast, East Allegheny to the southeast, Allegheny Center to the south, Allegheny West to the southwest, Manchester to the west and California-Kirkbride to the northwest.
The 1979 sports/cult classic The Fish That Saved Pittsburgh used the neighborhoods southern border of North Avenue's gritty former "burlesque row" adjacent to the Garden Theater to depict Stockard Channing's gypsy fortune teller characters office and residence. Thirty years in 2010, the Katherine Heigl film One for the Money uses the same exact buildings complete with Garden Theater marquee to once again depict a gritty inner city environment—though much of the characters and vice of the North Avenue corridor has been corrected, the structures still adapt well on the areas southern border. On 10 September 2012, the Central Northside Neighborhood Council voted to change the neighborhood's name to Allegheny City Central. However, according to an FAQ published by the CNNC in August 2012, the Council reported that official city maps would "probably not" reflect the name change and that the city planning department is "always reluctant" to alter established names; the same document refers to the name change as a "branding initiative", part of a "new brand and marketing strategy".
List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods City of Pittsburgh's Central Northside page Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map Mexican War Streets Society Allegheny City Central
Cultural District, Pittsburgh
The Cultural District is a fourteen-square block area in Downtown Pittsburgh, USA bordered by the Allegheny River on the north, Tenth Street on the east, Stanwix Street on the west, Liberty Avenue on the south. The Cultural District features six theaters offering some 1,500 shows annually, as well as art galleries and retail shops, its landmarks include: Allegheny Riverfront Park, Benedum Center, Byham Theater, Harris Theater, Heinz Hall, O'Reilly Theater, Pittsburgh Creative and Performing Arts School, Three Rivers Arts Festival Gallery, Wood Street Galleries, the August Wilson Center for African American Culture. Major arts organizations based here include: Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre, Pittsburgh Civic Light Opera, Pittsburgh Dance Council, Pittsburgh Opera, Pittsburgh Public Theater, Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, Bricolage Production Company, Pittsburgh Playwrights Theatre Company; the cultural district was the brainchild of H. J. Heinz II, known as Jack Heinz, is managed by the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust.
The Pittsburgh Cultural Trust was formed in 1984 to realize Jack's vision of an entire cultural district for blocks of the Penn-Liberty Avenue corridor, a blighted area. Built as the Loew's and United Artists' Penn Theatre, construction of the building was completed in 1927. Motion picture business magnate and pioneer Marcus Loew engaged the architectural firm of Rapp & Rapp to design the movie palace; the Grand Lobby was impressive, with its 50-foot -high vaulted Venetian ceiling, massive ornamental columns, marble staircase and crystal chandeliers and silk drapes. Like many 1920s-era film palaces, Loew's Penn Theatre fell on hard times in the 1960s. Competition from television and suburban theaters along with high maintenance costs put a squeeze on profitability; the theater was scheduled for demolition. Henry J. Heinz II and Charles Denby, President of the Pittsburgh Symphony Society, together with the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Allegheny Conference and the Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh, purchased the site and rescued the theater for the purpose of creating a new home for the Pittsburgh Symphony.
Jack Heinz and others, including his son, United States Senator from Pennsylvania John Heinz, William Rea, began the changes that would follow in the district with the purchase and renovation of the former movie palace, Loew's Penn Theater, transformed into the opulent and newly renamed Heinz Hall. This magnificent concert hall reopened after a complete restoration in 1971 as the new home for the Pittsburgh Symphony; the current seating configuration is 2,676. Heinz Hall is operated by the Pittsburgh Symphony Society; the Trust's first major project was the restoration of another visually stunning former movie palace, the Stanley Theater. The Stanley Theater was designed by the renowned theater architectural firm of Hoffman & Henon and opened on February 27, 1928. At the time, it had the distinction of being the largest theater in Western Pennsylvania, was known as "Pittsburgh's Palace of Amusement". After a $43 million restoration returning it to its original splendor, it reopened in 1987 as the newly renamed Benedum Center for the Performing Arts, is able to host about 2,885 people.
The Benedum Center is operated by the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust. The Byham Theater, a landmark building at 101 Sixth Street in Downtown Pittsburgh, was the second major theater venue restoration project of the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust. Built in 1903, the called Gayety Theater was a stage and Vaudeville house, it featured stars such as Ethel Barrymore, Gertrude Lawrence, Helen Hayes, it was renamed The Fulton in the 1930s. In 1990, the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust bought the theater and refurbished the Fulton as part of its plan for the Cultural District; the Byham family of Pittsburgh made a major naming gift for a 1995 renovation, it has been the Byham Theater since. The current seating configuration is 1,300; the Byham Center is operated by the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust. Today the 14-square block area continues to transform and flourish from a red-light district with only two cultural facilities—Heinz Hall and the Convention Center—to a dynamic arts and residential neighborhood with more than fourteen arts venues, including the Pittsburgh Creative and Performing Arts School, public parks and plazas, new commercial development.
The Pittsburgh Cultural Trust applies a holistic approach and vision to urban redevelopment: streetscaping programs, facade restorations, new cultural facilities, public open spaces and art projects. The Cultural District's transformation is praised and serves as a model for urban redevelopment through the arts. Brendan Lemon of The New York Times wrote, "To describe Pittsburgh's unconventional, un-Disneyfied remodeling of its Cultural District... is to explore how theater can help transform urban identity". The Cultural District is home to the Pittsburgh Film Office, a non-profit organization that markets the greater southwestern Pennsylvania region as a great location for movie and commercial productions. Since its inception in 1990, the PFO has assisted more than 102 feature films and television productions to southwestern Pennsylvania to generate an economic impact of more than $575 million for the region. Benedum Center Byham Theater Harris Theater Heinz Hall O'Reilly Theater The August Wilson Center for African American Culture The Cabaret at Theatre Square Bricolage Production Company Pittsburgh Playwrights Theatre Company
South Hills (Pennsylvania)
The South Hills is the southern suburbs of Pittsburgh and the neighborhoods in the City of Pittsburgh south of the South Side Slopes. The Pittsburgh neighborhoods include Knoxville, Mt. Oliver, Mt. Washington, Allentown, Beechview, Brookline and Overbrook. Two suburban municipalities that are included in the South Hills outside of Pittsburgh are Bethel Park and Mt. Lebanon, as well as the boroughs of Castle Shannon and Green Tree; the South Hills includes the townships of Baldwin, Peters, South Park, Upper St. Clair, plus the boroughs of Baldwin, Bridgeville, Mt. Oliver, Whitehall, Pleasant Hills, Jefferson Hills, West Mifflin. Much of the South Hills was a land grant to John Ormsby. All of these places are located within Allegheny County, with the exception of Peters Township, in Washington County. Major roads in this area include Brownsville Road, Pennsylvania Route 51, U. S. Route 19 and Pennsylvania Route 88; the Port Authority of Allegheny County operates a light rail system that connects the communities in the South Hills with downtown Pittsburgh and the North Shore
Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Allegheny County is a county in the southwest of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of 2017 the population was 1,223,048, making it the state's second-most populous county, following Philadelphia County; the county seat is Pittsburgh. Allegheny County is included in the Pittsburgh, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, in the Pittsburgh Designated Market Area. Allegheny was Pennsylvania's first to bear a Native American name, being named after the Allegheny River; the word "Allegheny" is with uncertain meaning. It is said to mean "fine river", but sometimes said to refer to an ancient mythical tribe called "Allegewi" that lived along the river before being destroyed by the Lenape. Little is known of the region's inhabitants prior to European contact. During the colonial era, various native groups claimed or settled in the area, resulting in a multi-ethnic mix that included Iroquois, Lenape and Mingo. European fur traders such as Peter Chartier established trading posts in the region in the early eighteenth century.
In 1749, Captain Pierre Joseph Céloron de Blainville claimed the Ohio Valley and all of western Pennsylvania for Louis XV of France. The captain traveled along the Ohio and Allegheny rivers inserting lead plates in the ground to mark the land for France. Since most of the towns during that era were developed along waterways, both the French and the British desired control over the local rivers. Therefore, the British sent Major George Washington to expel the French from their posts, with no success. Failing in this objective, he nearly drowned in the ice-filled Allegheny River while returning; the English tried in 1754 to again enter the area. They sent 41 Virginians to build Fort Prince George; the French learned of the plan and sent an army to capture the fort, which they resumed building with increased fortification, renaming it Fort Duquesne. The loss cost the English dearly because Fort Duquesne became a focal point of the French and Indian War; the first attempt to retake the fort, the Braddock Expedition, failed miserably.
It was recaptured in 1758 by British forces under General John Forbes. The British built a new, larger fort on the site, including a moat, named it Fort Pitt; the site is now Pittsburgh's Point State Park. Both Pennsylvania and Virginia claimed the region, now Allegheny County. Pennsylvania administered most of the region as part of its Westmoreland County. Virginia considered everything south of the Ohio River and east of the Allegheny River to be part of its Yohogania County and governed it from Fort Dunmore. In addition, parts of the county were located in the proposed British colony of Vandalia and the proposed U. S. state of Westsylvania. The overlapping boundaries, multiple governments, confused deed claims soon proved unworkable. In 1780 Pennsylvania and Virginia agreed to extend the Mason–Dixon line westward, the region became part of Pennsylvania. From 1781 until 1788, much of what had been claimed as part of Yohogania County, was administered as a part of the newly created Washington County, Pennsylvania.
Allegheny County was created on September 24, 1788, from parts of Washington and Westmoreland counties. It was formed due to pressure from settlers living in the area around Pittsburgh, which became the county seat in 1791; the county extended north to the shores of Lake Erie. In the 1790s, a whiskey excise tax was imposed by the United States federal government; this started the so-called Whiskey Rebellion when the farmers who depended on whiskey income refused to pay and drove off tax collector John Neville. After a series of demonstrations by farmers, President George Washington sent troops to stop the rebellion; the area developed in the 1800s to become the nation's prime steel producer. In 1913 the County's 125th anniversary was celebrated with a week long chain of events, the final day September 27 was marked with a steamboat parade consisting of 30 paddle wheelers which sailed from Monongahela Wharf down the Ohio to the Davis Island Dam; the boats in line were the flag ship. Woodward, Volunteer, A. R. Budd, J. C.
Risher, Rival, Jim Brown, Charlie Clarke, Robt. J. Jenkins, Bertha, Midland Sam Barnum, Cadet and Troubadour. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 745 square miles, of which 730 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Three majors traverse Allegheny County: the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River converge at Downtown Pittsburgh to form the Ohio River; the Youghiogheny River flows into the Monongahela River at McKeesport, 10 miles southeast. There are several islands in these courses; the rivers drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Although the county's industrial growth caused the clearcutting of the area's forests, a significant woodland remains. Butler County Armstrong County Beaver County Westmoreland County Washington County Until January 1, 2000, Allegheny County's government was defined under Pennsylvania's Second Class County Code; the county government was charged with all local activities, including elections, airports, public health, city planning.
All public offices were headed by elected citizens. There were three elected county commissioners. On January 1, 2000 the Home-Rule Charter went into effect, it replaced the three elected commissioners wi
Upper St. Clair Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Upper St. Clair Township is a township with home rule status in Allegheny County, United States. An affluent suburb located about 10 miles south of Pittsburgh, Upper St. Clair possesses a nationally recognized school district; the population was 19,229 at the 2010 census. The first European settler in present-day Upper St. Clair was John Fife, who settled near what is now the intersection of Washington and McLaughlin Run roads in 1762. St. Clair Township was named after General Arthur St. Clair of Revolutionary War fame, the 9th President of the United States in Congress Assembled. Under his administration as President from February 2, 1787 to October 29, 1787, the Northwest Ordinance and United States Constitution of 1787 were passed. St. Clair was one of the original townships of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania at the county's creation in 1788. In 1836, the St. Clair Township was divided into two separate townships, Upper St. Clair and Lower St. Clair; the residents of Upper St. Clair formed their township to ensure better government service that could be obtained by separating from the more densely populated northern part of the township.
Upper St. Clair Township was further subdivided throughout the 19th and 20th centuries as several parts of the original township separated to form new townships and boroughs. In 1973, Upper St. Clair Township adopted a home rule charter that took effect on January 5, 1976, is no longer governed by the Pennsylvania Township Code; the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 had its roots in Upper St. Clair. Formed as a volunteer militia company in 1844 by residents of the township, the "St. Clair Guards" became Company H of the 62nd Pennsylvania Infantry; the community was home to several mines beginning in the late 19th century. Freehold Real Estate Co. built the first major residential development in March 1913 along Washington Road, which at the time was conveniently close to streetcar service. Today, the community has many fashionable homes and is considered one of the wealthiest suburbs of Pittsburgh. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township is located at 40°20′8.2986″N 80°4′46.9956″W.
It has a total area of 9.8 square miles. Upper St. Clair has six borders, including South Fayette Township to the west, Bridgeville to the northwest, Scott Township and Mt. Lebanon to the north, Bethel Park to the east, Peters Township in Washington County to the south. Upper St. Clair High School School tax millage rate- The Upper Saint Clair School District in 2017 was 25.16. This ranked 8th highest/most expensive out of Allegheny County's 45 school districts; as of the census of 2000, there were 20,053 people, 6,966 households, 5,823 families residing in the township. The population density was 2,055.7 people per square mile. There were 7,091 housing units at an average density of 726.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 93.79% White, 0.18% African American, 0.02% Native American, 4.02% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.07% from other races, 0.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 0.78% of the population. There were 6,966 households, out of which 60.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 76.3% were married couples living together, 5.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.4% were non-families.
15.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.14. In the township the population was spread out, with 28.3% under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 22.6% from 25 to 44, 28.3% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 93.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males. The structure of Upper St. Clair is a managerial government along with an elected Board of Commissioners consisting of seven members. In a Commission/Manager form of government, the main responsibility of the Board of Commissioner is to function as a policy-making body of government, while the managerial body is responsible for the administrative functions of the Township. Matthew Serakowski is the current Township Manager and Mark Mansfield is the current Assistant Township Manager; the elected Board of Commissioners are Mark D. Christie, Nicholas J. Seitanakis, Russell Del Re, C.
Elise Logan, Robert W. Orchowski, Daniel R. Paoly, Ronald J. Pardini. Jonathan Wharton is the current Chief of Police, appointed in August of 2018. Upper St. Clair was ranked as one of the 10 best places to live in the United States in 2009, according to U. S. News & World Report. Sean Casey, former Major League Baseball first baseman, current baseball analyst for MLB Network Stephen Chbosky, novelist and film director best known for the coming-of-age novel The Perks of Being a Wallflower Dave Giusti, former American Major League baseball player Chuck Greenberg, former owner of the Texas Rangers and Altoona Curve.