The Saskatchewan Roughriders are a professional Canadian football team based in Regina, Saskatchewan. The Roughriders play in the West Division of the Canadian Football League; the Roughriders were founded in 1910 as the Regina Rugby Club. Although they were not the first team to play football in Western Canada, the club has maintained an unbroken organizational continuity since their founding; the Roughriders are the third-oldest professional gridiron football team in existence today, one of the oldest professional sports teams still in existence in North America. Of these teams, the Roughriders are both the oldest still in existence that continuously has been based in Western Canada as well as the oldest in North America to continuously have been based west of St. Louis, Missouri, they are the continent's oldest community-owned professional sports franchise, older than every American professional sports team outside baseball other than the aforementioned Cardinals and older than every Canadian sports team outside football except the Montreal Canadiens, who were founded about nine months prior to the Roughriders.
The team changed their name to the Regina Roughriders from the Regina Rugby Club in 1924 and to the current moniker in 1946. The Roughriders played their home games at historic Taylor Field from 1936 to 2016; the team draws fans from across Saskatchewan and Canada who are affectionately known as the Rider Nation. The Roughriders play in the smallest market in the CFL, the second-smallest major-league market in North America, they have finished first in the Western Division seven times and have won the Western championship a record 28 times. They won four Grey Cups; the team has had 20 players inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame. The Riders' biggest rival is the Winnipeg Blue Bombers; the Roughriders Football Club and the city of Regina have hosted the Grey Cup three times, including a Roughrider win in the 101st Grey Cup. Known as: Regina Rugby Club 1910–1923, Regina Roughriders 1924–1947 Past uniform colours: Old gold and purple and white, red and black Fight Song: "Green Is The Colour", "On Roughriders" and "Rider Pride" Main rivals: Winnipeg Blue Bombers, Edmonton Eskimos, Calgary Stampeders.
Western Division 1st Place: 7—1951, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1976, 2009 Western Division Championships: 19—1923, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1934, 1951, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1972, 1976, 1989, 1997, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2013 Grey Cup Championships: 4—1966, 1989, 2007, 2013 2018 regular season record: 12 wins, 6 losses The team was founded as the Regina Rugby Club on Tuesday, September 13, 1910, adopting the colours of old gold and purple. They played most of their home games at Park Hughes on 10th Avenue in Regina's north central section, where they would remain based for over a century; the team was a founding member of the Saskatchewan Rugby Football Union as it was organized on September 22 of that year. Regina played their first game against the Moose Jaw Tigers on October 1, 1910, at the Moose Jaw Baseball Grounds where they were defeated 16–6. For the 1911 season, the team changed their colours to blue and white to match the Regina Amateur Athletic Association and won their first SRFU championship, but lost in the first season of the Western Canada Rugby Football Union playoffs.
The Regina Rugby Club changed their colours again in 1912 to red and black and began an era of western football dominance. For every season of play in the SRFU, Regina won the league championship, exerting their prowess over teams from Moose Jaw and any other clubs in Saskatchewan. Beginning in the 1912 season, Regina won seven straight WCRFU titles, excluding 1917 and 1918 when World War I interrupted league play. In 1921, the western champion was invited to compete for the Grey Cup national championship for the first time, but it was the first time since 1911 that the Regina Rugby Club didn't win the West Championship as the Edmonton Eskimos traveled east to play in the 9th Grey Cup. In 1923, Regina returned to power as they won their eighth western championship over the Winnipeg Victorias and earned the right to compete in the national playoffs; the club was given a bye and advanced straight to the Grey Cup finals for the first time, but were outmatched, losing 54–0 to Queen's University at Varsity Stadium in Toronto.
This was, still is, the most lopsided defeat in Grey Cup history as the defending champion Queen's won their third straight national championship at the expense of the Regina Rugby Club. Following their first Grey Cup loss, the club changed their name to the Regina Roughriders in 1924 while retaining the colours of red and black. Ottawa had a team called the Ottawa Rough Riders, but the spelling was different and the two clubs played in different leagues then; the origin of the name has multiple theories, the most credible of which describes how the North-West Mounted Police were called Roughriders because they broke the wild horse broncos that were used by the force and the moniker was adopted from them. Giving credence to this theory is that during this time, the team played at the RNWMP/RCMP barracks when the then-rudimentary facilities at Park Hughes were
St. Benedict Catholic Secondary School (Cambridge)
St. Benedict Catholic Secondary School is a Catholic high school in Cambridge, Canada. St. Benedict CSS has 1800 students from grades 9 to 12, is part of the Waterloo Catholic District School Board, it is informally referred to as the "Home of the Saints". The school motto, "A Celebration of People" signifies the school as a welcoming, inclusive community. St. Benedict offers a wide variety of academic and technical programs; every morning from 7:40-8 am, they offer the Breakfast Club Program where students who do not have time to eat a healthy breakfast are welcome to enjoy cereal, granola bars, eggs, etc. Offered is the "brown bag" program where students can grab a paper bag in the atrium with an apple, a slice of cheese and a juice box inside for consumption; the school website offers a broad range of information, including school news and daily "Ranger" announcements. Parents and students can access homework information by using "ClassNet", a service provided by the Waterloo Catholic District School Board.
The school has an amazing variety of extra-curricular activities such as the RISK tournament, Chess team, Robotics Club, DECA, Science Team, Anime Club, Tech Crew, etc. The student council is a group of students with potential leadership skills looking to evolve the school community through various events like the Fall Fair, BBQ Fun Day and seasonal assemblies; the school helps out with a variety of charities throughout the year with Thursday mission collections dedicated to a different cause each week. The students partake with the Cambridge Firemen Christmas Basket and Food Drives during the seasons of giving. During the Haiti crisis, over $10 000 was raised and last year, the school's first Relay for Life event raised over $42 000 for the Canadian Cancer Society. St. Benedict has many student student found clubs and organizations. Students are encouraged to get involved with the extra-curricular activities available at school, including the annual play, bi-annual musical, participation in the Sears Drama Festival, the multiple clubs for miscellaneous subjects and its many sports teams.
Certain teachers are known for their participation in clubs and the formation of, Paul Riso and Andrew Renner in particular run or help many students set up clubs or other extra-curricular activities. St. Benedict has a close relationship to a brother school in Japan where Japanese students come visit the school for a week in Canada every 2 years to experience the different lifestyle and culture. An annual Colombian exchange program has formed during recent years along much of the same principles. C. Ernst Harth - Character actor known for such films as Smokin' Aces 2: Assassins' Ball, Scooby-Doo 2: Monsters Unleashed and Thir13en Ghosts. Ashley Newbrough - Actress from such shows as Privileged and Radio Free Roscoe Rebeccah Wyse - Contestant on Canada's Next Top Model, Cycle 3 List of high schools in Ontario Waterloo Catholic District School Board Site School Website
Resurrection Catholic Secondary School
Resurrection Catholic Secondary School is a Catholic high school in Kitchener, Waterloo Region, Canada. Resurrection CSS has a variety of awards. In addition, a collection of awards are presented to students who qualify for them based on merit or academic achievement. Most awards can be found here: https://resurrection.wcdsb.ca/student-services/guidance/pathways-night/ Resurrection has a strong athletics program, which has seen the following teams achieve success at the local and/or provincial levels: 2008 OFSAA Western Bowl Champions - Senior Boys football 2008 CWOSSA Champions - Senior Boys football 2008 WCSSAA Champions - Senior Boys football 2009 WCSSAA Champions - Senior Boys football 2009 CWOSSA AAAA Champions - Junior Boys Basketball 2010 CWOSSA AAAA Champions - Junior Boys Basketball 2010 CWOSSA AAAA Champions - Junior Girls Volleyball 2010 CWOSSA Champions - Girls Field Hockey 2010 OFSAA Gold Medalists - Girls Field Hockey 2011 CWOSSA Finalist - Girls Field Hockey 2011 OFSAA Gold Medalists - Girls Field Hockey 2012 CWOSSA Champions - Girls Field Hockey 2012 OFSAA Gold Medalists - Girls Field Hockey 2013 OFSAA Silver Medalists - Girls Field Hockey 2014 WCSSAA Champions - Jr.
Boys Football 2015 D8 Champions - Jr. Boys Football 2015 D8/CWOSSA Champions - Sr Boys Football 2015 OFSAA Metro Bowl Championships - Sr Boys Football 2016 D8 Champions - Jr. Boys Football 2017 D8 Champions - Jr. Boys FootballResurrection has introduced the PEAT athletics program, an enrichment program for self-motivated student-athletes who demonstrate exceptional athletic potential in a given sport. Applicants to the program must possess strong academic commitment, be positive contributors to the Resurrection community. Applicants must be working toward a provincial/ national/ international championship outside of high school sport; the PEAT program will focus on developing essential transferable skills including speed, endurance and flexibility. Resurrection is a member of the eight team District 8 Athletic Association. Resurrection is well known for putting on a wide variety of fantastic Musicals and Plays year after year! Upcoming Plays Previous Plays Footloose The Awesome 80's Prom The Berlin Blues Alice in Wonderland Fools Paradise Willy Wonka During the course of the 2011-2012 school year, Resurrection's Reach for the Top team won the regional tournament for Waterloo, therefore ended up attending the Provincial championships, where the team placed 13th in the Province.
A notable program Resurrection Catholic Secondary School has to offer is UCEP, where students in either grade 12 or 13 get to spend their first semester at the University of Waterloo, Wilfrid Laurier or St. Jerome's University; this program is known as a specialized co-op and it supplies those students who excel with an outstanding experience. The student is able to gain a co-op position with a professor on any of these campuses; the Waterloo Catholic Secondary School Board offers a program known as High Skills Major. In this program the student will receive a number of certifications and will be able to attend many courses related to a specific career path such as health and wellness; the student will have to take certain courses in your upper years that relate to this career path, for example in health and wellness you would have to take some science courses. It is a necessity to take co-op, to receive a placement in the career of the student's choice. Once all these requirements are met, students who participated in the program will receive a designation on their diploma.
Students who participate in co-curricular activities make a tremendous contribution to the Resurrection school community Many clubs are offered that attain to the interests of the student body, such clubs are: Arts Council Automotive/Skills Canada Club Badminton Club Cardistry and PenSpinning Club Charlie Awards Film Festival Club Choir – Noteworthy Computer Programming Club Dance Club Electric Car Club Jr./Sr. Concert Bands DECA Business Club Design and Technology Club Drama Productions Gardening Club Green Earth Movement Club Improv Club Jazz Band Model United Nations Multicultural Club Nutrition for Learning Odds n’ Ends Outers Club Peer Ministry Philosophy Club Photography Club Power Lifting Club Reach for the Top Club Rez Reads Robotics Club Safe Spaces Club Social Justice Youth Group Strength Training Club Student Council Resurrection Technical Theatre Union W. A. Y. V. E. Yearbook Yoga ClubAdditional Clubs and Updates Can be Found Here: https://resurrection.wcdsb.ca/student-services/guidance/student-handbook/clubs-activities/ Student Council otherwise abbreviated to SAC acts as the Student Government of Resurrection Catholic Secondary School.
The council is composed of two equal Presidents elected by the student body. As well as a teacher adviser chosen by the Principal; the two Presidents and the SAC director jointly appoint a council of 35 students each year to help organize events and activities and better represent the school community. The Presidents and the Director appoint a Cabinet composed of Students from the selected pool of student council members who have shown strong leadership in the past; these cabinet members are referred to as Ministers and each one is charged with leading one of the seven ministries all other members of Student Council are referred to as representatives. Together student council works to execute multiple events and carry out many initiatives to engage students and enrich student culture
Winnipeg Blue Bombers
The Winnipeg Blue Bombers are a professional Canadian football team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. They are members of the West Division of the Canadian Football League, they play their home games at Investors Group Field after many years of playing at the since demolished Canad Inns Stadium. The Blue Bombers were founded in 1930 as the Winnipeg Football Club, which remains the organization's legal name today. Since that time, they have won the league's Grey Cup championship 10 times, most in 1990. With 10 wins, they have the third-highest win total in the Grey Cup although they are the team with the longest Grey Cup drought; the Blue Bombers were the first team not located in Ontario or Quebec to win a championship and hold the record for most Grey Cup appearances with 24. Founded: 1930 Formerly known as: Winnipegs 1930–1937 Helmet design: Gold background, with a white "W" and blue trim Uniform colours: Blue, gold with white accents Past uniform colours: Green and white 1930 to 1932 Nicknames: Bombers and Gold, Big Blue Mascots: Buzz and Boomer Fight Song: "Bombers Victory March" Credited to T.
H Guild & J. Guild Stadium: Osborne Stadium, Canad Inns Stadium, Investors Group Field Local radio: 680 CJOB Main rivals: Saskatchewan Roughriders, Hamilton Tiger-Cats, a team they have played on numerous occasions for the Grey Cup, Toronto Argonauts, BC Lions, other prairie city teams the Edmonton Eskimos and the Calgary Stampeders. Western Division 1st place: 16—1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1947, 1950, 1952, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1972 East Division 1st Place: 7—1987, 1990, 1992, 1993, 1994, 2001, 2011 Western Division championships: 13—1936, 1939, 1941, 1947, 1950, 1952, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1972, 1984 Eastern Division championships: 7 — 1988, 1990, 1992, 1993, 2001, 2007, 2011 Grey Cup Championships: 10—1935, 1939, 1941, 1958, 1959, 1961, 1962, 1984, 1988, 1990 Division history: Western Football Conference, West Division, East Division, North Division, West Division, East Division, West Division, East Division, West Division 2018 regular season record: 10 wins, 8 losses, 0 ties The first football team in Winnipeg was formed in 1879, was called the Winnipeg Rugby Football Club.
On June 10, 1930, they amalgamated with all the other teams in the Manitoba Rugby Football Union to create the Winnipeg Winnipegs Rugby Football Club, adopting the colours green and white. The Winnipegs played their first game against St. John's Rugby Club on June 13, 1930, when St. John's won by a score of 7–3. In 1932, the Winnipegs and St. John's adopted the colours blue and gold. Western teams had been to the Grey Cup game 10 times since 1909, but they had always gone home empty-handed, it was clear in those days that the East was much more powerful, outscoring their opponents 236–29 in these games. On December 7, 1935, the Bombers got their first shot at winning the 23rd Grey Cup; the game was being held with the home-town Tigers being their opponents. It was a rainy day at Hamilton Amateur Athletic Association Grounds, with 6,405 fans in attendance. Winnipeg was up 5–0 before many fans had reached their seats. Hamilton player Jack Craig let the opening kickoff bounce to the turf while a Winnipeg player promptly recovered the ball at the Hamilton 15-yard line.
Winnipeg scored on a Bob Fritz pass to Bud Marquardt to get the early lead. After scoring another touchdown on a Greg Kabat catch in the endzone, Winnipeg went into halftime up 12–4, their lead was soon cut to three points in the second half after Hamilton scored a touchdown of their own, helped by a blocked kick that placed the ball on the Winnipeg 15-yard line. After a Hamilton rouge, Winnipeg's RB/KR Fritz Hanson caught a punt, after a few moves and a few missed tackles, was on his way to a 78-yard touchdown return, making the score 18–10. Hamilton would force a safety to bring themselves within six points, but failed to crack the endzone, getting as far as the Winnipeg four-yard line; the final score was Winnipeg 18, Hamilton 12. With that, Winnipeg had become the first team from Western Canada to win a Grey Cup. In 1935, before an exhibition game against North Dakota State, Winnipeg Tribune sports writer Vince Leah decided to borrow from Grantland Rice, who labelled Joe Louis as "The Brown Bomber".
He called the team the "Blue Bombers of Western football". Up to that point, the team had been called the "Winnipegs". From that day forward, the team has been known as the "Winnipeg Blue Bombers". In that same year, the Blue Bombers, Calgary Bronks, Regina Roughriders formed the Western Interprovincial Football Union as the highest level of play in Western Canada. From 1936 to 1949, the Bombers won the right to compete for the Grey Cup in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1945. Of these appearances, Winnipeg won only twice, in 1939 over the Ottawa Rough Riders and again in their 1941 rematch. Jack Jacobs, known as Indian Jack, was a Creek quarterback from Oklahoma, he came to the Bombers in 1950 after a successful career in the United States. He led the Bombers to two Grey Cup appearances, his exciting style of play and extreme talent increased ticket sales and overall awareness and popularity of the club. The revenue the Bombers were getting from their newfound popularity was enough to convince them to move from the small, outdated Osborne Stadium to the new Winnipeg Stadium.
Jacobs was so well liked, the fans referred to the new stadium as "The House that Jack Built". Jacobs retired in 1954 to bec
Education in Canada
Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly and overseen by federal and local governments. Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the province. Education in Canada is divided into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary. Within the provinces under the ministry of education, there are district school boards administering the educational programs. Education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in every province in Canada, except for Manitoba and New Brunswick, where the compulsory age is 18, or as soon as a high school diploma has been achieved. In some provinces early leaving exemptions can be granted under certain circumstances at 14. Canada has 190 school days in the year starting from September to the end of June. In British Columbia secondary schools, there are 172 school days during a school year.. In Alberta, high school students get an additional four weeks off to accommodate for exam break. Classes end on the 15th of those two months.
Elementary, intermediate and post-secondary education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and there are many variations between the provinces. The federal government's responsibilities in education are limited to the Royal Military College of Canada, funding the education of indigenous peoples. In 2016, 8.5% of men and 5.4% of women aged 25 to 34 had less than a high school diploma. In many places, publicly funded high school courses are offered to the adult population; the ratio of high school graduates versus non diploma-holders is changing partly due to changes in the labour market that require people to have a high school diploma and, in many cases, a university degree. Nonetheless, more than 54.0% of Canadians have a college or university degree, the highest rate in the world. The majority of schools, 67%, are co-educational. Canada spends about 5.4% of its GDP on education. The country invests in tertiary education. Recent reports suggest that from 2006 the tuition fees of Canadian universities have increased by 40 percent.
Since the adoption of section 23 of the Constitution Act, 1982, education in both English and French has been available in most places across Canada, although French Second Language education/French Immersion is available to anglophone students across Canada. According to an announcement of Canadian Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Canada is introducing a new, fast-track system to let foreign students and graduates with Canadian work experience become permanent eligible residents in Canada. Most schools have introduced one or more initiatives such as programs in Native studies, Aboriginal cultures and crafts. Although these classes are offered, most appear to be limited by the area or region in which students reside. "The curriculum is designed to elicit development and quality of people's cognition through the guiding of accommodations of individuals to their natural environment and their changing social order"Subjects that get assessed assume greater importance than non-assessed subjects or facets of the curriculum.
Some scholars view academics as a form of "soft power" helping to educate and to create positive attitudes, although there is criticism that educators are telling students what to think, instead of how to think for themselves, using up a large proportion of classroom time in the process. Efforts to keep students happy and correct come at the expense of academic achievement. Social promotion policies, grade inflation, lack of corrective feedback for students, teaching methods that slow the development of basic skills compared to past decades, reform mathematics, the failure to objectively track student progress have forced high schools and colleges to lower their academic standards; the Constitution of Canada provides constitutional protections for some types of publicly funded religious-based and language-based school systems. The Constitution Act, 1867 contains a guarantee for publicly funded religious-based separate schools, provided the separate schools were established by law prior to the province joining Confederation.
Court cases have established that this provision did not apply to Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, since those provinces did not provide a legal guarantee for separate schools prior to Confederation. The provision did apply to Ontario, Saskatchewan and Newfoundland and Labrador, since these provinces did have pre-existing separate schools; this constitutional provision was repealed in Quebec by a constitutional amendment in 1997, for Newfoundland and Labrador in 1998. The constitutional provision continues to apply to Ontario and Alberta. There is a similar federal statutory provision. Section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees the right of citizens who were educated in the minority language in a particular province to have their children educated in the minority language in
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
A uniform is a type of clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity. Modern uniforms are most worn by armed forces and paramilitary organizations such as police, emergency services, security guards, in some workplaces and schools and by inmates in prisons. In some countries, some other officials wear uniforms in their duties. For some organizations, such as police, it may be illegal for non members to wear the uniform. From the Latin unus and forma, form. Workers sometimes wear corporate clothing of one nature or another. Workers required to wear a uniform include retail workers and post office workers, public security and health care workers, blue collar employees, personal trainers in health clubs, instructors in summer camps, janitors, public transit employees and truck drivers, airline employees and holiday operators, bar and hotel employees; the use of uniforms by these organizations is an effort in branding and developing a standard corporate image but has important effects on the employees required to wear the uniform.
The term uniform may be misleading because employees are not always uniform in appearance and may not always wear attire provided by the organization, while still representing the organization in their attire. Academic work on organizational dress by Rafaeli & Pratt referred to uniformity of dress as one dimension, conspicuousness as a second. Employees all wearing black, for example, may appear conspicuous and thus represent the organization though their attire is uniform only in the color of their appearance, not in its features. Pratt & Rafaeli, described struggles between employees and management about organizational dress as struggles about deeper meanings and identities that dress represents, and Pratt & Rafaeli described dress as one of the larger set of symbols and artifacts in organizations which coalesce into a communication grammar. Uniforms are required in many schools. School uniforms vary from a standard issue T-shirt to rigorous requirements for many items of formal wear at private schools.
School uniforms are in place in many public schools as well. Countries with mandatory school uniforms include Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, India, Australia, U. A. E, Philippines, some schools in Taiwan, New Zealand, South Africa and the United Kingdom, among as many other places. In some countries, uniform types vary from school to school, but in the United Kingdom, many pupils between 11 and 16 of age wear a formal jacket and trousers for boys and blouse and trousers, skirt, or culottes for girls; the ties will have a set pattern or a logo embroidered for the school, jackets will carry a badge on the breast pocket with the school's name, coat of arms, motto or emblem. Jackets are being replaced in many schools by sweatshirts bearing the school badge. Children in many United Kingdom state primary schools will have a uniform jumper and/or polo shirt with the school name and logo. From about 1800 to after the Second World War, diplomats from most countries wore official uniforms at public occasions.
Such uniforms are now retained by only a few diplomatic services, are worn. A prison uniform is any uniform worn by individuals incarcerated in a prison, jail or similar facility of detention. Most, if not all, sports teams wear uniforms, made in the team's distinctive colors. In individual sports like tennis and golf, players may choose any clothing design allowed by the competition rules. To prevent the confusion that might result from two opposing teams wearing uniforms with similar colors, teams have different variations for "home" and "away" games, where one is dark and the other is light. In the four major North American sports leagues, one of the two uniforms is always predominantly white, each league except for the National Basketball Association has a rule to determine which team should wear its white uniform. Customarily, National Football League and National Hockey League teams wear their color uniforms for home games. By contrast, Major League Baseball teams wear their white uniforms for home games.
The NBA traditionally required home teams to wear white, or at least a light color, but as of the 2017–18 season allows home teams to wear any uniform color, mandating only that away teams wear a color that sufficiently contrasts with the home team's choice. These rules are not enforced, for any of the four major professional sports leagues in North America; some NFL teams, most notably the Dallas Cowboys, prefer to wear their white jerseys for home games. When Joe Gibbs was the head coach of the Washington Redskins — first from 1981-1992, again from 2004-2007 — the Redskins wore white jerseys at home games. In the United Kingdom in football, the terms "kit" or "strip" are more common. Military uniform is the standardised dress worn by members of the armed forces and paramilitaries of various nations. Military dress and military styles have gone through great changes over the centuries from colourful and elaborate to utilitarian. Military uniforms in the form of standardised and distinctive dress, intended for identification and display, are a sign of organised military forces equipped by a central authority.
The utilitarian necessities of war and economic frugality are now the dominant factors in uniform design. Most military forces, however, h