Ipoh is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Perak. Located by the Kinta River, it is nearly 180 km north of Kuala Lumpur and 123 km southeast of George Town in neighbouring Penang; as of 2010, Ipoh contained a population of 657,892, making it the third largest city in Malaysia by population. A village, Ipoh began to grow in the 1880s after huge deposits of tin were discovered within its vicinity. By 1895, it was the second largest town within the Federated Malay States, which consisted of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang. Ipoh was declared a city in 1988. However, following the depletion of its tin deposits and the collapse of tin prices in the 1970s, the city suffered decades of decline and neglect. In recent years, Ipoh's popularity as a tourist destination has been boosted by efforts to conserve its British colonial-era architecture; the city is well known for its cuisine and natural attractions, such as its limestone hills and caves within which Buddhist temples were built. In addition, Ipoh has managed to maintain its reputation as one of the cleanest cities in Malaysia.
Ipoh's location between Kuala Lumpur and George Town has made it a major land transportation hub within West Malaysia, with both the Malayan Railway's West Coast Line and the North-South Expressway cutting through the city. Aside from the land transportation links, Ipoh is served by the Sultan Azlan Shah Airport. Ipoh is known as the Hipster Capital of Malaysia by various tourism official agencies. Ipoh grew out from the Malay village of Palau along the banks of the Kinta River in the 1880s, its geographic location in the rich tin-bearing valley of the Kinta River made it a natural centre of growth. The Great Fire of Ipoh in 1892 destroyed over half the town, but presented an opportunity to rebuild the town in a more orderly grid pattern. Ipoh was subsequently rebuilt in time for the second tin rush and grew as a result of the booming tin mining industry in the 1920s and 1930s. A local Hakka miner, millionaire Yau Tet Shin, started developing a large tract of the town in the early 1930s, today known as the'New Town', from the eastern bank of the Kinta River to Greentown.
In 1937, Ipoh was made the capital of Perak. Ipoh was invaded by the Japanese on 15 December 1941. In March 1942, the Japanese Civil Administration or Perak Shu Seicho was set up at the St. Michael's Institution. After the liberation of Malaya by British forces, Ipoh remained the capital of Perak to this day; the decline of the tin mining industry during the latter half of the 20th century caused the growth of Ipoh to stagnate. With the closure of the tin mines, its urban population was forced to seek employment in other cities within Malaysia. In spite of this, Ipoh remains one of the largest cities in Malaysia in terms of population, with tourism now a main driver of the city's economy. Ipoh gained Municipal status in 1962, in 1988, was declared a city by the Sultan of Perak, Sultan Azlan Shah. Ipoh is in the state of Perak, in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia; the city is in the middle of the Kinta Valley, on the bank of the Kinta River and the confluence of smaller rivers, Sungai Pinji and Sungai Pari.
The city is surrounded by limestone hills, which can be found around suburban areas to the northeast and southeast. The Kledang mountain range stretches from the north to the west of the city; this range runs parallel to the Bintang mountain range with the Perak River flowing on its left bank and the Kinta River to its right. This range is interrupted to the north of Ipoh by a tributary of the Perak River called the Pelus River, sourced from the Titiwangsa mountain range, which runs to the east of Ipoh. Ipoh features a tropical rainforest climate more subject to the Intertropical Convergence Zone than the trade winds and with rare cyclones so an equatorial climate. Temperatures are about the same throughout the year, showing little variation; the city's average temperature is 28 °C. Ipoh sees high precipitation throughout the year with an average of 200 mm of rain each month and averaging 2,427.9 mm of rain per year. The wettest month is October. Ipoh's driest month is January. Limestone outcrops rise on the outskirts of Ipoh.
There are many caves in these outcrops. Sam Poh Tong is a notable one along with Kek Lok Tong, which lies on the other side of the same outcrop, it is accessible through the Gunung Rapat housing area. It has a clean and cool environment. Other cave temples in Ipoh include Nan Tian Tong, Kwan Yin Tong and Perak Tong. Gua Tempurung, near Gopeng south of Ipoh, is a show cave open to the public and popular among spelunkers. More than 3 km long, it is one of the longest caves in Peninsular Malaysia. Part of it has been developed with electric lighting and walkways, there are tours of different lengths and difficulty. A river passage runs about 1.6 km through the hill. There are five large chambers and some stalactites and stalagmites. Ipoh has a vibrant food scene with a vast proliferation of hawker restaurants, it is well known for dishes such as "Sar Hor Fun" a complete one-dish rice noodle meal with prawn, fish, vegetables and a savoury sauce. Other well known dishes from Ipoh include "Hor Hee", flat white rice noodles served with fish cakes and/or fish balls, "Nga Choi Kai", chicken with soy sauce and beansprouts topped with pepper,"Kai Shi Hor Fun" rice noodles with Chicken, "Hakka Mee", yellow rice noodles served with
Malacca City, is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Malacca. As of 2010 it has a population of 484,885, it is the oldest Malaysian city on the Straits of Malacca, having become a successful entrepôt in the era of the Malacca Sultanate. The present-day city was founded by Parameswara, a Sumatran prince who escaped to the Malay Peninsula when Srivijaya fell to the Majapahit. Following the establishment of the Malacca Sultanate, the city drew the attention of traders from the Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, as well as the Portuguese, who intended to dominate the trade route in Asia. After Malacca was conquered by Portugal, the city became an area of conflict when the sultanates of Aceh and Johor attempted to take control from the Portuguese. Following a number of wars between these territories, Aceh declined in influence while Johor survived and expanded its influence over territory lost to Aceh in Sumatra when Johor co-operated with the Dutch who arrived to establish dominance over Java and Maluku Islands.
However, due to royal internal strife between the Malay and Bugis, the Johor-Riau Empire was divided into the sultanates of Johor and Riau-Lingga. This separation became permanent when the British arrived to establish their presence in the Malay Peninsula; the Dutch, who felt threatened in the presence of the British, began conquering the Riau-Lingga Sultanate along with the rest of Sumatra, while Johor came under British influence following the signing of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824. When the British succeeded in extending their influence over the Malay Peninsula, the city soon became an area of development under the Straits Settlements as part of the British Empire; the development and burgeoning prosperity were, halted when the Japanese arrived in World War II and occupied the area from 1942 to 1945. During the occupation, many of the city's residents were taken and forced to construct the Death Railway in Burma. After the war, the city was remained as the capital of Malacca; the status as a capital remained until the formation of Malaysia in 1963, in 2008 it was listed, together with George Town of Penang, as a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its long history.
The economy of Malacca City is based on tourism. As the economic centre of the state of Malacca, it hosts several international conferences and trade fairs; the city is located along the Maritime Silk Road, proposed by China in 2013. Among the tourist attractions in Malacca City are A Famosa, Jonker Walk, Little India, Portuguese Settlement, Maritime Museum, Christ Church, Malacca Sultanate Palace Museum and Taming Sari Tower. According to legend, the site, now Malacca City was named Malaka when Parameswara, a Sumatran prince arrived there. While he was resting under a tree known as a Malacca tree, he saw his warrior's hunting dogs were challenged and kicked into a river by a tiny mouse deer. Amused by this, he chose to name the site Malaka after the tree; when the city came under Portuguese administration, its name was spelled "Malaca", under Dutch administration as "Malakka" or "Malacka", under British rule, "Malacca". The Straits of Malacca were named after the city at the time of the Malacca Sultanate.
Malacca was established when Parameswara, who had escaped from Palembang in Sumatra, decided to build a new kingdom following Malay Srivijaya's fall in 1377 after being attacked by Javanese Majapahit. Before he reached the site, he arrived in Temasek, which he decided to make the centre of the new Malay Kingdom's administration, but when Parameswara lived there, he killed Temagi, a Regent of Singapura who served under the Siamese King to take over the throne from Temagi. Fearing further reprisals by Siam when the news reached the Siamese Kingdom, Parameswara decided to move to a new place. After he left Temasek, it was attacked by Majapahit. Parameswara headed to the north of Malay Peninsula and arrived at Muar, where he tried to establish another new kingdom at either Biawak Busuk or Kota Buruk, but found the locations unsuitable. Parameswara continue his journey to the north, where he visited Sening Ujong before arriving at a Malay fishing village at the mouth of Bertam River, he decided to stop there to rest.
While he was resting under a tree, he saw his follower's hunting dogs fighting with a small mouse deer before they were kicked into a river by the deer. Amused by this, he thought. Soon, the site became the centre of the Malay world in the 15th and 16th centuries and the most prosperous entrepôt in the Malay Archipelago. During this time, many Arabs, Gujaratis, Tamils and Chinese come to trade. Other groups found riches in the prosperous entrepôt including the Japanese and Jews. To prevent the Malaccan empire from falling to the Siamese and Majapahit, he forged a relationship with the Ming dynasty of China for protection. Following the establishment of this relationship, the prosperity of the Malacca entrepôt was recorded by the first Chinese visitor, Ma Huan, who travelled together with Admiral Zheng He. On his descriptions, he wrote. Inside the walled towers was a second fortification, a kind of citadel, within whose confines were the merchants' godowns, the treasury and food storehouses; the Malacca River divided the city into two equal halves, the southern half being the inner citadel and the ruler's compound and the northern half, reached by a bridge some distance from the river mouth, containing the reside
Brickfields is a neighbourhood located on the western flank central Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is known as Kuala Lumpur's Little India due to the high percentage of Indian residents and businesses. Brickfields been ranked third in Airbnb's list of top trending destinations. Brickfields is notable for being home to Kuala Lumpur's main public transportation hub. In 1881, a flood swept in the wake of a disastrous fire; these successive problems destroyed the town's structures of atap. As a response, Frank Swettenham, the British Resident of Selangor, required that buildings be constructed of brick and tile. Hence, Kapitan Yap Ah Loy bought a sprawling piece of real estate, now Brickfields, for the setting up of a brick industry which would spur the rebuilding of Kuala Lumpur; the area was developed by Yap Kwan Seng, the fifth and last Kapitan Cina of Kuala Lumpur. As a businessman, he foresaw an increased demand for bricks in fast-growing Kuala Lumpur and established a kiln in the district; the area soon became the centre for brick-making in the early days because the whole area was a clay pit and good quality bricks are made from clay.
Therefore, Brickfields became synonymous with good quality bricks. Brickfields used to be the site of the main depot for Keretapi Tanah Melayu during the administration of the British; the British authorities brought in people from Sri Lanka to work the depot. Many lived in quarters around Brickfields. Since the Indian community have lived and remained here and became citizens of Malaysia; some of the old quarters can still be found around Jalan Rozario. Today the depot has been transformed into the main railway hub of the city. Brickfields is one of the pioneer settlements in Kuala Lumpur. Indeed, the whole stretch of Jalan Tun Sambanthan is interspersed with old colonial structures. Along Jalan Tun Sambanthan 4 is the century old Young Men's Christian Association, which has become an integral landmark in Brickfields. Further down along Jalan Tun Sambanthan is the charming Vivekananda Ashramam, built in the early 19th century. Brickfields houses historical government quarters built during the British era which are under harm from rapid development.
The 100 railway quarters in Jalan Rozario are still there although modern buildings have cropped up all around. The "Hundred Quarters" are located at Jalan Chan Ah Tong, it was built in 1915 as terrace houses for junior servants. It is planned to be demolished for commercial development; as of June 2014 there has been no demolition works. Brickfields is popular for its Indian food delights the unique banana leaf rice and thosai; the Malaysian Association for the Blind, located along Jalan Tebing, houses a number of blind people. They can be seen walking around Brickfields. Many have become familiar with the area that they encounter much problem walking around here. Most parts of Brickfields have been equipped with tactile guided pathways designed to aid the blind in walking around the area; the Temple of Fine Arts is located along Jalan Berhala. It is a cultural organisation offering various courses relating to Southern Indian music and arts, it was founded in 1981 and has similar centres in Johor Bahru, Penang, as well as centres around the world including India and Singapore.
Besides offering courses, the organisation organises Indian performances around Kuala Lumpur, has produced many artists progressing to international standards.. They will be launching their state of art building soon, built upon the founding architecture old Temple of Fine Arts adjacent to the Maha Vihara Buddhist Temple; the new building will be symbolic icon to the progress of arts and culture in Brickfields. Brickfields is tagged as a "Divine Location" as many religious structures, some over 100 years old, are concentrated in the area Jalan Berhala; the aptly named road houses the Buddhist Maha Vihara Temple and the Sri Sakthi Karpaga Vinayagar Temple. The Sri Kandaswamy Temple is one of the most prominent Sri Lankan Tamil or Ceylonese Tamil temple located along Jalan Scott, it is huge and showcases rich Tamil Architecture and has become a popular tourist attraction in Kuala Lumpur. This temple was built in 1902, they provide religious services such as child 31st day ceremony. The Kalamandapam hall, officiated by the 2nd Prime Minister of Malaysia holds wedding ceremonies and is owned by this temple.
Both the Sri Kandaswamy Temple and Buddhist Maha Vihara Temple stand testament to the influence of the Ceylonese in Brickfields, who were brought in to work on the Malayan Railways before World War II. A sprinkling of churches of different denominations can be found here. Among the larger churches in the area are the Holy Rosary Church, Our Lady of Fatima, the Zion Lutheran Church. Most of which are located along Jalan Sultan Abdul Samad. There is an Indian Orthodox Church called the St. Mary's Orthodox Syrian Cathedral in Jalan Tun Sambanthan Satu. There is a Surau located on Jalan Sultan Abdul Samad called Madrasatul Gouthiyyah; this mosque is attended by Indian-Muslims, the sermons are sometimes conducted in Tamil. Another major landmark in Brickfields is the 50-year-old Three Teachings Chinese Temple along Jalan Thambillay. Being the Little India of Kuala Lumpur, it has numerous shops. There are spice shops, grocery outlets and snacks shops, textile shops, hotels, restaurants
Petaling Jaya is a major city located in the Greater Kuala Lumpur,Petaling district, Selangor. Petaling Jaya is part of the metropolitan area of Kuala Lumpur with an area of 97.2 square kilometre. Petaling Jaya is the closest city to Kuala Lumpur, the only city that adjoining and direct link to Kuala Lumpur. Petaling Jaya is govern by the Petaling Jaya City Council and was granted city status on 20 June 2006. Petaling Jaya city be considered the most important and popular city in Selangor state, by reason of Petaling Jaya is located in the central hub of Greater Kuala Lumpur; as it is located in between Kuala Lumpur and surrounding suburbs or municipalities. Petaling jaya surrounded by the Malaysian capital, Kuala Lumpur to the east, Sungai Buloh to the north, Shah Alam, the capital of Selangor and Subang Jaya to the west and Bandar Kinrara and Puchong to the south. Petaling Jaya city has a extraordinary comprehensive road system, supported by extensive public transport networks such as the Mass Rapid Transit, Light Metro, Bus Rapid Transit, commuter rail, these public transport has make peoples in Petaling Jaya city much more convenient, For extras, in the year of 2015, the Petaling Jaya government provides free bus service that only for journeying in Petaling Jaya city.
Petaling Jaya has the largest shopping mall in Malaysia and the 7th largest in the world, 1 Utama. The city was developed during British Malaya on a piece of 1,200 acres rubber estate around Old Klang Road to address the overpopulation of the capital Kuala Lumpur in the 1950s. Since 1952, PJ witnessed a dramatic growth in terms of geographical importance; the development of Petaling Jaya commenced in 1952 with the construction of 800 houses centred on the area known as "Old Town" today. Lieutenant-General Sir Gerald Templer planned for Petaling Jaya to be a satellite town to prevent people from assisting the communists; the first two main roads built in Petaling Jaya were called "Jalan 1" or Road 1 and "Jalan 2" or Road 2. Road 1 was named Jalan Templer while Road 2 was named Jalan Othman after Othman Mohamad, former Menteri Besar of Selangor; until the end of 1953, the town was administered by the Kuala Lumpur district officer. The Petaling Jaya Town Authority headed by N. A. J. Kennedy commenced administrating Petaling Jaya in 1954.
On 24 August 1959, Encik Abdul Aziz bin Haji Mohd Ali became the first Malayan to head the PJ Authority. Administratively and it was considered part of Kuala Lumpur. However, Petaling Jaya ceased to be part of Kuala Lumpur when the latter became a Federal Territory on 1 February 1974, it became a township in its own right within the state of Selangor. PJ South, from Section 8 to PJ Old Town, had the first settlements, which were established around 1953; as development progressed, PJ North, on the other side of the Federal Highway was developed. The first shopping complex in Petaling Jaya was Jaya Shopping Centre, located in Section 14, built in 1974. On 1 January 1977, the Petaling Jaya Town Authority was upgraded to become Petaling Jaya Municipal Council or Majlis Perbandaran Petaling Jaya. Petaling Jaya progressed due to the massive rural-urban migration; as more people from rural areas immigrated, Sungai Way and Subang districts along with areas such as Subang Jaya, Seksyen 52 developed in areas under the jurisdiction of the municipality.
In a boundary realignment exercise in early 1997, parts of Petaling Jaya including Subang Jaya, USJ, Putra Heights, Bandar Sunway were placed under the jurisdiction of the newly formed Subang Jaya Municipal Council or MPSJ. Petaling Jaya is the central hub of Klang Valley as it is located in between Kuala Lumpur and surrounding suburbs. Due to the proximity of the city to the capital of Malaysia, Petaling Jaya had and have been the headquarters of many federal government departments such as Jabatan Pendaftaran Negara, Jabatan Arkib Negara Malaysia and Jabatan Kimia Malaysia. Petaling Jaya is one of the wettest cities in Malaysia, it is warm with an average maximum of 30 degrees Celsius and receives heavy rainfall all year round more than 3,300 mm of average rainfall annually. The city has no particular true dry season; each month average rainfall receives more than 200 mm. Thunderstorms and extreme rainstorms are common, it is one of the highest lightning strike areas in the world, but due to normal global temperature variations, Petaling Jaya is experiencing severe drought with frequent water rationing among neighbourhoods.
On 20 June 2006, Petaling Jaya was granted a city status and Dato' Ahmad Termizi Puteh, a former Yang di-Pertua MPPJ, automatically became the first mayor of Petaling Jaya. Petaling Jaya's local council changed its name to Majlis Bandaraya Petaling Jaya or Petaling Jaya City Council following the granting of city status. On 15 August, Dato' Ahmad Termizi Puteh retired from the post of mayor, he was replaced by Dato' Hj. Mohamad Roslan Sakiman; the residents of Petaling Jaya are served by four Members of Parliament from Pakatan Harapan, DAP's Tony Pua in Damansara, PKR's Maria Chin Abdullah in Petaling Jaya, PKR's Sivarasa Rasiah in Sungai Bul
Sitiawan is a region in Manjung District, Malaysia. The region covers an area of 331.5 square kilometers and as of year 2000, its population was 95,920 and has risen to more than 150,000 by 2015. Sitiawan town, the principal town of Sitiawan sub-district, is located at 4°13′N 100°42′E. Folklore mentions Sitiawan as Kampung Sungai Gajah Mati, it became a thriving settlement for industrious migrants from Foochow. They were from the district of Kutien in Fuzhou, China. According to legend, Kampung Sungai Gajah Mati was the place where two large elephants drowned after one of them, overladen with tin ore, got stuck in the mud of the Dinding River at low tide. Efforts to save the elephant were in vain and everyone gave up and left. However, the second elephant refused to budge and hung on to its friend, resulting in them drowning together in the rising tide, thus the setia kawan name was derived. In the late 19th century, together with rubber sheets, formed the main commodities of commerce, they were carried by elephants and loaded onto waiting steamships destined for Penang.
In the 1870s, when an outbreak of smallpox struck the settlement, in line with the Chinese belief of naming a place to enhance its feng-shui, the locals chose to name the locality Setia Kawan—the "loyal friend" -- to harmonise with nature and appease the dead elephants. The name became shortened to Sitiawan. Another folklore mentions about the ancient tree, located in Sitiawan, how an old man's spirit is found wandering around the tree. Nowadays, the ancient tree, located at the famous Shi Zi Lu, has become a common area for people waiting for bus to travel around Malaysia. Instead of a spirit, a middle age old man nickname "Hei Ren" can be seen selling bus tickets. In September 1903, the settlement got a boost with the arrival of more than 360 Christian Foochows desperate to escape the violence against the Qings Dynasty; the Chinese Christians were attacked by the Boxer party known as Yihetuan in Chinese 义和团 and the Qing Dynasty government support the cause causing mess in Fujian in 1901 known as Boxer Rebellion.
They were settled down in what is today known as Kampung Koh. Most of these immigrants worked in rubber plantations in Sitiawan; the Foochows built four wells, two in the 1930s and another two in the 1950s. These heritage wells still are no longer used. Chin Peng, who led the Malayan Communist Party for many years, was born in Sitiawan in 1924. Sitiawan has a Tropical Rainforest Climate. Sitiawan consist of 0.2 % others. Sitiawan is one of the driest places after Kuala Klawang Town, Malacca City and Lubok Merbau in Malaysia with average annual rainfall just a bit below 2,000 mm. Most of the time, the average rainfall is just above 100 mm with October and November being wetter months while June is the driest month of the year. In recent years Sitiawan has suffered from haze swept in by winds from raging open fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. Sitiawan grew from a small settlement with rubber tapping and latex processing as its main economic activities; the town was flanked by various Chinese settlements composed of the descendants of immigrants from the Kutien district of Fuzhou, China.
The original settlers were encouraged by the British to plant rice. The settlers, found that paddy-planting is not suited to the soil of the region and so they switched to livestock farming before discovering that the land was much better suited for rubber plantations; the rapid development of urban settlements saw the plantation and estate areas develop, converted into residential and commercial areas. In the 1980s, a large remainder of the rubber estates underwent mass conversions into oil palm plantations, due to better yield and profits compared to rubber sheets and latex. Oil palm is a much less labour-intensive crop when compared to rubber, as rubber needs to be tapped regularly. Tourism has not been a major economic activity, but the town centre derives some economic advantages from its close proximity to Pangkor Island, a famous niche tourist destination; the development of the town had been rapid in the 1990s. One of the main reasons was the establishment of the Royal Malaysian Navy's Naval Base in Lumut 10 km from the town centre.
The Naval Base is the largest in Malaysia. The base has acted as a catalyst for the development of commercial activities in the town, serving both the residents of the base and sailors visiting from other countries. Located at the western coast of Perak with direct access to the Straits of Malacca, it is no surprise that port-related activities, marine services and industries play a major role, its main port, Lumut Port consists of the Lumut Maritime Terminal and Lekir Bulk Terminal and it serves the surrounding regions and the state of Perak. LMT, a Royal Malaysian Customs Gazetted Port, is a river port, located along the banks of the Dindings River; the Terminal is an integrated common user port facility, is International Ship Port Security code compliant. Since 1995, the Terminal has been improved and upgraded and its facilities have been extended to include additional open and covered storage; the main berth has been extended for another 280m in 2001, with the alongside depth of 12m ACD, resulting in a total overall linear berth length of 510m.
LBT is a deepwater seaport, with a natural depth of 20 metres, LBT is South-East Asia’s largest dry bulk unload
De La Salle Brothers
The Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools is a Catholic religious teaching congregation, founded in France by a priest named Jean-Baptiste de la Salle, now based in Rome. The Brothers use the post-nominal abbreviation FSC to denote their membership of the order, the honorific title Brother, abbreviated Br.. The Lasallian Christian Brothers are not the same order as the Irish Christian Brothers. There are 560 Lasallian educational institutions around the world which, assisted by more than 73,000 lay colleagues, teach over 900,000 students in over 82 countries, from impoverished nations such as Nigeria to post-secondary institutions such as Bethlehem University, Manhattan College, the La Salle Universities in Philadelphia; the central administration of the Brothers operates out of the Generalate in Rome and is made up of the Superior General and his councillors. A number of Lasallian institutions have been accused of, have admitted and apologised for and serious physical and sexual abuse against their charges.
The order was founded in the name of Saint Jean-Baptiste de la Salle, a French priest from a wealthy family, in 1725. In March, 1679, La Salle met Adrian Nyel in a chance encounter at the Convent of the Sisters of the Infant Jesus. Nyel asked for De La Salle's help in opening free schools for the poor boys in Reims. A novitiate and normal school were established in Paris in 1694. La Salle spent his life teaching poor children in parish charity schools, was canonized as a saint on 15 May 1900. In 1950 Pope Pius XII declared him to be the "Special Patron of All Teachers of Youth in the Catholic Church"; the order, approved by Pope Benedict XIII in 1725 spread over France. It was dissolved by a decree of the National Assembly set up after the French revolution in February 1790, but recalled by Napoleon I in 1804 and formally recognized by the French government in 1808. Since its members penetrated into nearly every country of Europe, Asia and Australia; as religious, members take the three usual vows of poverty and obedience.
The Institutes headquarters is in Italy. The order has five global regions: North America, Asia/Oceania, Europe/Mediterranean and Latin America. During the International Year of Literacy/Schooling, UNESCO awarded the NOMA prize to Lasallian Institutions; the order says that its key principles are faith, proclamation of the gospel, respect for all people, quality education, concern for the poor and social justice. In 2017 the Institute had 3,800 brothers, 75% fewer than in 1965; the decline is due to many brothers reaching retirement age, the small number of new recruits. In the same period the number of students in Lasallian schools increased from about 700,000 to over a million. La Salle initiated a number of innovations in teaching, he recommended dividing up of the children into distinct classes according to their attainments. He taught pupils to read the vernacular language. In accordance with their mission statement "to provide a human and Christian education... the poor" the Brothers' principal activity is education of the poor.
As of 2017 the Institute conducted educational work in 82 different countries, in both developed and developing nations, with more than 1,000,000 students enrolled in its educational works. There are 92,000 lay women who are Lasallian Partners in their institutions; the Guadalupana De La Salle Sisters were founded by Br. Juan Fromental Cayroche in the Archdiocese of Mexico, they teach in ten countries. The motherhouse is in Mexico City; the Congregation of the Lasallian Sisters was founded in 1966 by the Brothers of the Christian School in Vietnam to take care of the needs of poor children abandoned because of the civil war there. The office is in Bangkok. Lasallian Volunteers are lay people who volunteer for one or two years to engage in teaching and other Lasallian activities, they receive a living stipend. In 1981, the Institute started Christian Brothers Investment Services, a "socially responsible investing service" for Catholic organisations, that it "encourage companies to improve policies and practices through active ownership".
The Brothers arrived in Martinez, California, US on the southern edge of the Carquinez Strait, part of the greater San Francisco Bay in 1868. In 1882 they began making wine as sacramental wine, they began to distill brandy, beginning with the pot-still production method, used in the cognac region. In 1932, in the period when alcohol was prohibited in the US, they relocated the winery to the Mont La Salle property in the Napa Valley and continued making wine. In 1935 Brother Timothy Diener became wine master, he served in this position for 50 years. In the 1950s they acquired Greystone Cellars near California. Varietal wine was made at the Napa Valley facility, generic wine and brandy were produced at Reedley in the San Joaquin Valley, barrel aging was handled at Greystone; the Christian Brothers winery operated under the corporate name "Mont La Salle Vineyards". In 1988 the winery employed 250 people and produced 900,000 cases of wine, 1.2 million cases of brandy, 80,000 cases of altar wine. Proceeds from sales helped to fund the Christian Brothers programs and sc
St. Paul's Institution
Saint Paul's Institution is an all-boys and one of the oldest schools in Seremban and in the country. The school is known as SPI and the students of St Paul's Institution are called Paulians; the school is named after Saint Paul. SPI Secondary was founded in 1899 by Father Catesson of the Paris Foreign Missions Society in Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, its aim was to provide an English education to "The boys of Seremban and its outstations". St Paul's School, as it was called, was the first English school in Negeri Sembilan, it was declared open on 18 June 1899 by Sir Charles Mitchell, assisted by the British Resident for Negeri Sembilan, Mr. E. W. Birch. There was an initial enrolment of 25 students, accommodated in a provisional building under headmaster Mr. P. V. Coelho, it was taken over by the La Sallian Brothers, which saw its student enrolment rise and new buildings being erected. The La Sallian Brothers initial foothold in the region had been in Singapore and Penang, their good work there did not go unnoticed among the education authorities.
As early as 1904, Rev Bro Gabriel, Visitor of the Christian Brothers' Schools, had been asked if the Order would take over St. Paul's Institution, but demand for the Brothers was heavy - 1904 saw the establishment of St. John's Institution, Kuala Lumpur - and there was no immediate response. In Seremban, all was not well. Mr. Coelho was an excellent Headmaster, but he was encountering great difficulty finding good teachers. Both the Mission and Mr. R. J. Wilkinson, the Federal Inspector of schools, saw the Brothers as the solution to St. Paul's Institution's woes. Still, it was not till 1 April 1909 that urgent requests by the Bishop of Malacca and Director of Education bore fruit. Rev Bro Gilbert, Director of SJI, arrived in Seremban to take over St. Paul's Institution's on behalf of his Order; the school's rapid growth soon proved that long - distance supervision from Kuala Lumpur was not practical. On-the-spot management would be necessary, so Rev Bro Isidore-Albert was appointed Director, his tenure was short.
In the years following 1914, when Rev. Bro. Adrian Edmund replaced Rev. Bro. Basilian, St. Paul's grew under a succession of Directors; the acquisition of neighbouring buildings relieved the congestion in the original blocks, which were now reserved for residential purposes, offices and a library. Rev. Bro. Lewis Edward raised a temporary hall, made of wood, for concerts and badminton. Bro Edward was a great sportsman - the St. Paul's Athletic Association won the premier state football trophy, the Hose Cup, for three straight years. A permanent school hall was built during the Directorship of Bro. Joseph Brophy, he purchased a large bungalow from Towkay Siow Kon Chia and a large shophouse in Jalan Tuan Sheikh for conversion into additional classrooms. Bro. Joseph's improvements. Barnitus Kennedy and Rev. Bro. John Lynam, shaped the school quadrangle into a fine set of modern buildings as the 1930s wore on. A small playing field was devised by removing some old buildings, although the need for a proper-sized field was still felt.
The improving facilities were matched by a rising enrolment. Many pupils were boarders-boys from outside Seremban. To cater for the waxing student population, the number of teaching staff - Lay Masters - rose proportionally. By 1933 there were more than 550 students - at which plateau student numbers stabilised till after the War. By 1941, war was drawing closer to Malaya by the day. St. Paul's was under military occupation, Rev. Bro. Henry had to improvise classrooms in borrowed buildings. Rev. Mother St. Pauline placed the I J Convent Hall and some classrooms at his disposal. Came the invasion. On 13 January 1942, Japanese troops took Seremban - but the Brothers did not flee; some endured the ignominy of detention. Christian Lane died of Cerebral Malaria at the Bahau jungle community. Others were pillars of strength for their fellow inmates - Changi Prison internees so valued Bro. Sylvester's selflessness. For a brief spell, St. Paul's reopened as a private school with 165 students, it served out the rest of the War as a Japanese Technical School, with a staff drawn from several schools in the area.
Bro. Henry remained as Headmaster until January 1944. St. Paul's rehabilitation was rapid and enrolment began to skyrocket, straining resources. Rev. Bro. Lawrence Henry did what he could to stem the tide, but by 1950 St. Paul's had 1,000 students and was bursting at the seams. A separate secondary school was urgently needed and the Brothers began to plan for one, it was Rev. Bro. Casimir L'Angellier, in charge during these years. A site in the Lobak area, renamed Mont La Salle, was gifted by the Government and plans were drawn up for a secondary school that would accommodate 700 students. With the third school term of 1958, the old buildings beside the N. S. Padang were those of the primary school, with Mr. Walter de Silva as Headmaster of St. Paul's Institution Primary; the new secondary school, St. Paul's Institution Secondary was opened by Almarhum DYMM Tuanku Munawir ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman on 27 June 1959. A combined Board of Governors was set up on 3 October 1958 under Dato' T. Mahima Singh.
In 2011, SPI Primary BoG is chaired by Old Paulian and former Dewan Ne