William Vincent Astor was an American businessman and member of the prominent Astor family. Called Vincent, he was born in New York City on November 15, 1891, he was the elder son of John Jacob Astor IV, a wealthy businessman and inventor, his first wife, Ava Lowle Willing, an heiress from Philadelphia. He graduated in 1910 from St. George's School in Middletown, Rhode Island, attended Harvard University from 1911 to 1912, leaving school without graduating. Like his father, Astor belonged to the New York Society of Colonial Wars, he served as commodore of the New York Yacht Club from 1928 to 1930. Astor was interested in trains. In the early 1930s, he established an estate in Bermuda which included a private narrow-gauge railway and union station with the Bermuda Railway; the estate is now divided between none of whom are part of the Astor family. As as 1992, the remains of some of his rolling stock were visible. Vincent Astor was, according to family biographer Derek Wilson, "a hitherto unknown phenomenon in America: an Astor with a developed social conscience."
He was 20 when his father died, having inherited a massive fortune, dropped out of Harvard University. He set about to change the family image from that of miserly, aloof slum landlords who enjoyed the good life at the expense of others. Over time, he sold off the family's New York City slum housing and reinvested in reputable enterprises, while spending a great deal of time and energy helping others, he was responsible for the construction of a large housing complex in the Bronx that included sufficient land for a large children's playground, in Harlem, he transformed a valuable piece of real estate into another playground for children. Astor appeared as No. 12 on the first list of America's richest people, compiled by Forbes magazine. His net worth at the time was estimated at $75 million. Amongst his holdings was Newsweek magazine, he was its chairman; the magazine had for a time its headquarters in the former Knickerbocker Hotel, built by his father. He inherited Ferncliff, the Astor family's 2,800-acre estate near Rhinebeck, New York, where his father had been born.
Vincent Astor, would be the last family owner of the estate and occupant of the "Ferncliff Casino", a Stanford White—McKim Mead & White designed 1904 Beaux Arts style 40,000 square feet building, inspired by the Grand Trianon at Versailles. On his death in 1959, Astor bequeathed a main house at Ferncliff to the Benedictine Hospital in Kingston, New York, his widow, Brooke donated "Ferncliff Casino" to the Catholic Archdiocese of New York, sold off many parcels of the estate. In 1963, Homer Staley, a local retired businessman in the area, asked Brooke Astor to preserve the remaining natural acreage of woodlands from development, she donated the land to the Rotary Club of Rhinebeck, to become the Ferncliff Forest Game Refuge and Forest Preserve. Astor married Helen Dinsmore Huntington, on April 30, 1914. At the ceremony, he was stricken with a disease that made him sterile; the couple divorced in 1940. A year Helen became the second wife of Lytle Hull, a real-estate broker, a friend and business associate of her former husband.
Shortly after his divorce, Astor married Mary Benedict Cushing, the eldest daughter of Dr. Harvey Williams Cushing and Katharine Stone Crowell. Mary's sisters were Barbara "Babe" Cushing, they divorced in September 1953, the following month, Mary wed James Whitney Fosburgh, a painter who worked as an art lecturer at the Frick Museum. On October 8, 1953, several weeks after divorcing his second wife, Astor married the once-divorced, once-widowed Roberta Brooke Russell. According to an often-told story in society circles, Astor agreed to divorce his second wife only after she had found him a replacement spouse, her first suggestion was Janet Newbold Ryan Stewart Bush, the newly divorced wife of James Smith Bush II, who turned Astor down with startling candor, saying, "I don't like you." Astor proceeded to tell her that he was not well and, though only in his early 60s, he could not be expected to live for long, whereupon she would inherit his millions. At that, Janet Bush replied, "What if you do live?"
Mary Cushing proposed Brooke. Together and Brooke developed the Vincent Astor Foundation, a foundation, designed to give back to New York City. Brooke died in 2007 at the age of 105. Astor joined the Naval Reserve shortly after it was founded and was commissioned as an ensign on December 28, 1915, he was called to active duty as part of the New York Naval Militia in February 1917 by order of Governor Charles S. Whitman to help guard bridges and aqueducts against possible German sabotage. Astor was assigned to help guard the Manhattan bridges. Following the declaration of war against Germany, Astor took advice from his friend and future president Franklin Delano Roosevelt and volunteered for active duty with the Navy on April 7, 1917, he went overseas on June 9 on the USS Noma. He was assigned to the armed yacht USS Aphrodite, he was promoted to lieutenant on January 1, 1918, to lieutenant on July 1, 1918. He was joined in France by his wife, who did charity work with the YMCA at the naval base in Bordeaux, while he served as Port Officer at Royan.
His last assignment was as an officer on the captured German minelaying submarine U-117 during her voyage to the United States. Astor re
John Jacob Astor VI
John Jacob "Jakey" Astor VI was an American socialite, shipping businessman, member of the Astor family. He was dubbed the "Titanic Baby" for his affiliation with the RMS Titanic. Astor was known for his legal battles with the estate of his elder half-brother, Vincent Astor, to inherit a larger portion of their father's $85 million fortune, he was known for his many engagements and four marriages to prominent society women. John Jacob Astor VI was born at 840 Fifth Avenue in New York City on August 14, 1912, he was the son of socialite Madeleine Talmage Force. Jakey's parents' marriage, on September 9, 1911, had sparked much controversy both because of their 29-year age difference and since Colonel Astor had only been divorced from his first wife, socialite Ava Lowle Willing, one year earlier, on March 5, 1910; the newlyweds were returning home aboard the Titanic after about three months of honeymooning in Egypt and Europe. Madeleine was five months pregnant with Jakey when her husband put her in one of the ship's lifeboats.
She was rescued. After Jack's death, Madeleine raised their son at the Astors' Newport, Rhode Island, Beechwood, as part of the Astor family, she would remarry to banker William Karl Dick in June 1916, boxer Enzo Fiermonte in November 1933. Through Dick, she would have two more sons: William Force Dick and John Henry Dick II. Fiermonte taught her sons boxing. Jakey, who had become close to Dick opposed the union with Fiermonte and tried to convince his mother to end the relationship, he and his mother argued over the union. This caused a rift between the two, though they reconciled within several months of the marriage; when asked if his mother was marrying Fiermonte, he responded "Unfortunately, it's true". Jakey graduated from St. George's School from Harvard University. Under the terms of Colonel Astor's will, Madeleine received little from her husband's $85 million estate; this value included his estate in his yacht, the Noma. William Vincent Astor, the Colonel's son from his first marriage, received $69 million, while the Colonel's daughter from his first marriage, Ava Alice Muriel Astor, received a $10 million trust fund.
The Colonel's 19-year-old widow Madeleine received the annual income from a $5 million trust fund, sweetened by an annual payment of $500,000, as well as use of his New York mansion 65th & Fifth Avenue, all its furnishings, his Newport mansion Beechwood and all of its furnishings, the pick of whichever luxury limousine she wanted from his collection, five of his prized horses, provided that she did not remarry. While not listed by name, his father's will mentioned that any surviving child other than his children Vincent and Ava would receive a bequest of $3 million, to be held in trust until the child reached age 21. Jakey inherited the $3 million on his 21st birthday; when Madeleine died in late March 1940, she left him a diamond solitaire ring worth $50,000 and a pearl necklace worth $1,525. Elder half-brother Vincent's contempt for Madeleine led him to believe that Jakey was not a biological Astor. Having despised his younger half-brother since birth, Vincent left him nothing in his will.
Jakey felt cheated and resentfully stated Vincent "had the legal, not the moral right to keep all the money". After Vincent died childless in early February 1959, Jakey sued Vincent's widow Roberta Brooke Russell to inherit his money, he was convinced that Vincent was "mentally incompetent" when signing his last will in June 1958 due to alcoholism, though Brooke insisted Vincent was "fully competent". While Vincent was hospitalized, Brooke would bring him liquor. Jakey accused her of using the liquor to influence the will in her favor. Jakey ended up settling for $250,000; the rest of money remained with Brooke. Astor became engaged to Eileen Sherman Gillespie, the elder daughter of Lieutenant Lawrence Lewis Gillespie and Irene Muriel Augusta Sherman, in early December 1933. Irene's parents were Sophia Augusta Brown, they planned to marry on February 6, 1934. However, she called off the wedding on January 1934, after a bitter argument. Heartbroken, he went to Shanghai shortly afterwards to grieve, returning to America in early May 1934.
Astor blamed her parents for interfering with the relationship. He once suggested they could reconcile, stating "I was willing to marry her, if I were to think about it, I might still be willing to marry her." Eileen's daughter Marguerite "Margy" Slocum said of him: "She felt that he had grown up lonely... He was a bit eccentric, she felt he wasn't mature enough to get married."A few weeks after returning from Shanghai, he became engaged to Eileen's close friend socialite Ellen Tuck "Tucky" French, the elder daughter of Francis Ormond "Frank" French II (1888–
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, located 33 miles southeast of Providence, Rhode Island, 20 miles south of Fall River, Massachusetts, 73 miles south of Boston, 180 miles northeast of New York City. It is known as a New England summer resort and is famous for its historic mansions and its rich sailing history, it was the location of the first U. S. Open tournaments in both tennis and golf, as well as every challenge to the America's Cup between 1930 and 1983, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport, which houses the United States Naval War College, the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, an important Navy training center. It was a major 18th-century port city and contains a high number of buildings from the Colonial era; the city is the county seat of Newport County, which has no governmental functions other than court administrative and sheriff corrections boundaries. It was known for being the location of the "Summer White Houses" during the administrations of Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy.
The population was 24,027 as of 2013. Newport was founded in 1639 on Aquidneck Island, called Rhode Island at the time, its eight founders and first officers were Nicholas Easton, William Coddington, John Clarke, John Coggeshall, William Brenton, Jeremy Clark, Thomas Hazard, Henry Bull. Many of these people had been part of the settlement at Portsmouth, along with Anne Hutchinson and her followers, they separated within a year of that settlement and Coddington and others began the settlement of Newport on the southern side of the island. Newport grew to be the largest of the four original settlements which became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, which included Providence Plantations and Shawomett. Many of the first colonists in Newport became Baptists, the second Baptist congregation in Rhode Island was formed in 1640 under the leadership of John Clarke. In 1658, a group of Jews were welcomed to settle in Newport; the Newport congregation is now referred to as Congregation Jeshuat Israel and is the second-oldest Jewish congregation in the United States.
It meets in the oldest synagogue in the United States. The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations received its royal charter in 1663, Benedict Arnold was elected as its first governor at Newport; the Old Colony House served as a seat of Rhode Island's government upon its completion in 1741 at the head of Washington Square, until the current Rhode Island State House in Providence was completed in 1904 and Providence became the state's sole capital city. Newport became the most important port in colonial Rhode Island, a public school was established in 1640; the commercial activity which raised Newport to its fame as a rich port was begun by a second wave of Portuguese Jews who settled there around the middle of the 18th century. They had been practicing Judaism in secret for 300 years in Portugal, they were attracted to Rhode Island because of the freedom of worship there, they brought with them commercial experience and connections, a spirit of enterprise. Most prominent among those were Jacob Rodrigues Rivera, who arrived in 1745 and Aaron Lopez, who came in 1752.
Rivera introduced the manufacture of sperm oil which became one of Newport's leading industries and made the town rich. Newport developed 17 manufactories of oil and candles and enjoyed a practical monopoly of this trade until the American Revolution. Aaron Lopez is credited with making Newport an important center of trade, he encouraged 40 Portuguese Jewish families to settle there, Newport had 150 vessels engaged in trade within 14 years of his activity. He was involved in the slave trade and manufactured spermaceti candles, barrels, chocolate, clothes, shoes and bottles, he became the wealthiest man in Newport but was denied citizenship on religious grounds though British law protected the rights of Jews to become citizens. He appealed to the Rhode Island legislature for redress and was refused with this ruling: "Inasmuch as the said Aaron Lopez hath declared himself by religion a Jew, this Assembly doth not admit himself nor any other of that religion to the full freedom of this Colony. So that the said Aaron Lopez nor any other of said religion is not liable to be chosen into any office in this colony nor allowed to give vote as a free man in choosing others."
Lopez persisted by applying for citizenship in Massachusetts. From the mid-17th century, the religious tolerance in Newport attracted numbers of Quakers, known as the Society of Friends; the Great Friends Meeting House in Newport is the oldest existing structure of worship in Rhode Island. In 1727, James Franklin printed the Rhode-Island Almanack in Newport. In 1732, he published the Rhode Island Gazette. In 1758, his son James founded the weekly newspaper Mercury; the famous 18th century Goddard and Townsend furniture was made in Newport. Throughout the 18th century, Newport suffered from an imbalance of trade with the largest colonial ports; as a result, Newport merchants were forced to develop alternatives to conventional exports. In the 1720s, Colonial leaders arrested many pirates, acting under pressure from the British government. Many were buried on Goat Island. Newport was a major center of the slave trade in colonial and early America, active in the "triangle trade" in which slave-produced sugar and molasses from the Caribbean were carried to Rhode Island and distilled into rum, whi
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald was an American fiction writer, whose works helped to illustrate the flamboyance and excess of the Jazz Age. While he achieved popular success and fortune in his lifetime, he did not receive much critical acclaim until after his death; the most notable member of the "Lost Generation" of the 1920s, Fitzgerald is now regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century. He finished four novels: This Side of Paradise, The Beautiful and Damned, The Great Gatsby, Tender Is the Night. A fifth, unfinished novel, The Last Tycoon, was published posthumously. Four collections of his short stories were published, as well as 164 short stories in magazines during his lifetime. Born in 1896 in Saint Paul, Minnesota, to an upper-middle-class family, Fitzgerald was named after his famous second cousin, three times removed on his father's side, Francis Scott Key, but was always known as Scott Fitzgerald, he was named after his deceased sister, Louise Scott Fitzgerald, one of two sisters who died shortly before his birth.
"Well, three months before I was born," he wrote as an adult, "my mother lost her other two children... I think I started to be a writer."His father, Edward Fitzgerald, was of Irish and English ancestry, had moved to St. Paul from Maryland after the American Civil War, was described as "a quiet gentlemanly man with beautiful Southern manners", his mother was Mary "Molly" McQuillan Fitzgerald, the daughter of an Irish immigrant who had made his fortune in the wholesale grocery business. Edward Fitzgerald's first cousin once removed Mary Surratt was hanged in 1865 for conspiring to assassinate Abraham Lincoln. Scott Fitzgerald spent the first decade of his childhood in Buffalo, New York in West Virginia where his father worked for Procter & Gamble, with a short interlude in Syracuse, New York. Edward Fitzgerald had earlier worked as a wicker furniture salesman, his parents, both Catholic, sent Fitzgerald to two Catholic schools on the West Side of Buffalo, first Holy Angels Convent and Nardin Academy.
His formative years in Buffalo revealed him to be a boy of unusual intelligence with a keen early interest in literature. His doting mother ensured, her inheritance and donations from an aunt allowed the family to live a comfortable lifestyle. In a rather unconventional style of parenting, Fitzgerald attended Holy Angels with the peculiar arrangement that he go for only half a day—and was allowed to choose which half. In 1908, his father was fired from Procter & Gamble, the family returned to Minnesota, where Fitzgerald attended St. Paul Academy in St. Paul from 1908 to 1911; when he was 13, he saw his first piece of writing appear in print—a detective story published in the school newspaper. In 1911, when Fitzgerald was 15 years old, his parents sent him to the Newman School, a prestigious Catholic prep school in Hackensack, New Jersey. Fitzgerald played on the 1912 Newman football team. At Newman, he met Father Sigourney Fay, who noticed his incipient talent with the written word and encouraged him to pursue his literary ambitions.
After graduating from the Newman School in 1913, Fitzgerald decided to stay in New Jersey to continue his artistic development at Princeton University. He was cut the first day of practice, he dedicated himself at Princeton to honing his craft as a writer, became friends with future critics and writers Edmund Wilson and John Peale Bishop. He wrote for the Princeton Triangle Club, the Nassau Lit, the Princeton Tiger, he was involved in the American Whig-Cliosophic Society, which ran the Nassau Lit. His absorption in the Triangle—a kind of musical-comedy society—led to his submission of a novel to Charles Scribner's Sons where the editor praised the writing but rejected the book. Four of the University's eating clubs sent him bids at midyear, he chose the University Cottage Club known as "the'Big Four' club, most committed to the ideal of the fashionable gentleman". Fitzgerald's writing pursuits at Princeton came at the expense of his coursework, causing him to be placed on academic probation, in 1917 he dropped out of university to join the Army.
During the winter of 1917, Fitzgerald was stationed at Fort Leavenworth and was a student of future United States President and General of the Army Dwight Eisenhower whom he intensely disliked. Worried that he might die in the War with his literary dreams unfulfilled, Fitzgerald hastily wrote The Romantic Egotist in the weeks before reporting for duty—and, although Scribners rejected it, the reviewer noted his novel's originality and encouraged Fitzgerald to submit more work in the future, it was while attending Princeton that Fitzgerald met Chicago socialite and debutante Ginevra King on a visit back home in St. Paul. King and Fitzgerald had a romantic relationship from 1915 to 1917. Infatuated with her, according to Mizner, Fitzgerald "remained devoted to Ginevra as long as she would allow him to", wrote to her "daily the incoherent, expressive letters all young lovers write", she would become his inspiration for the character of Isabelle Borgé, Amory Blaine's first love in This Side of Paradise, for Daisy in The Great Gatsby, several other characters in his novels and short stories.
After their relationship ended in 1917 Fitzgerald had requested that Ginevra destroy the letters that he had written to her. He never destroyed the letter
Middletown, Rhode Island
Middletown is a town in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States. The population was 16,150 at the 2010 census, it lies to the south of Portsmouth and to the north of Newport on Aquidneck Island, hence the name "Middletown". Various issues including unjust taxation and a growing population caused the freeholders living in the northern section of Newport to petition the general assembly for independence; as a result of the petition, the land that Middletown occupies was set apart in 1731. The town was incorporated in 1743. During the 1980s, large sections of East Main Road and West Main Road running through Middletown began to be commercialized, by the late 1990s, the area had become Aquidneck Island's central business district. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 14.9 square miles, of which 13.0 square miles is land and 2.0 square miles is water. Middletown was known as the "farming community" of Aquidneck Island. Today most of the developed land is located towards the western part of the town, while what is left of its rural heritage is towards the east.
Middletown has several beaches. The town is governed by elected at-large in partisan elections. Executive authority is vested in an appointed town administrator; the town elects a non-partisan school committee. Middletown forms part of Rhode Island's 1st congressional district, represented by Democrat David Cicilline. At the state level, Middletown is part of three state house districts; the 12th Rhode Island Senate district, which includes parts of Newport, Little Compton and Tiverton, is held by Democrat Louis P. DiPalma. In the Rhode Island House of Representatives, Middletown forms part of the 72nd, 73rd, 74th districts; the 72nd, which includes portions of Newport and Portsmouth, is represented by Republican Daniel Reilly. The 73rd, predominantly Newport, is held by Democrat Russell Jackson; the 74th, shared between Middletown and Jamestown, is represented by Democrat Deb Ruggiero. At the 2000 census, there were 17,334 people, 6,993 households and 4,643 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,335.4 per square mile.
There were 7,603 housing units at an average density of 585.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 89.12% White, 2.72% African American, 2.36% Native American, 1.18% Asian, 1.11% Pacific Islander, 1.07% from other races, 2.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.93% of the population. There were 6,993 households of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families. Of all households 28.7% were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.01. 25.0% of the population were under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.7 males.
The median household income was $51,075 and the median family income was $57,322. Males had a median income of $41,778 and females $27,229; the per capita income for the town was $25,857. About 3.7% of families and 5.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.2% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of those age 65 or over. Newport State Airport, a public-use general aviation airport and the only airport on Aquidneck Island, is located in Middletown. West Main Road and East Main Road are the main roads running north–south through Middletown. Middletown is home to St Columba's Cricket Club, which hosts an annual cricket tournament for teams throughout the New England area; the Newport National Golf Club is located in Middletown. The town is home to the Middletown Islanders hockey, baseball and lacrosse teams, they are involved with Pop Warner football and cheerleading. More known as a middle school football league, Pop Warner hosts from young ages and separates them by age. Kids ages 6–8: Mighty Mights Kids ages 9 & 10: Junior Pee Wee Kids ages 11 & 12: Pee Wee Kids ages 13 & 14: Midget As of September 2009, the Middletown Public School District consists of four schools serving pre-kindergarten through 12th grade.
They are Aquidneck Elementary School, Forest Avenue Elementary School, Joseph H. Gaudet Middle School and Middletown High School. Starting in September 2009, all fourth grade students will attend Joseph H. Gaudet Middle School. John F. Kennedy, former elementary school, will be closed at the end of the 2008–2009 school year due to budget cuts. Middletown is home to private schools, including All Saints Academy, a Catholic school, St. George's School. Boyd's Windmill, built 1810 Bailey Farm, built 1838 Clambake Club of Newport, built in 1895 Gardiner Pond Shell Midden Hamilton Hoppin House, built in 1856 Lyman C. Joseph House, built 1882 Paradise School, built 1875 Prescott Farm, ca. 1715 Whitehall, built 1729 Witherbee School, built 1900 Israel T. Almy, Fall River architect, born in Middletown George Berkeley, 18th century Anglo-Irish philosopher.
This Side of Paradise
This Side of Paradise is the debut novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald, it was published in 1920. Taking its title from a line of Rupert Brooke's poem Tiare Tahiti, the book examines the lives and morality of post–World War I youth, its protagonist Amory Blaine is an attractive student at Princeton University who dabbles in literature. The novel explores the theme of love warped by status seeking; the novel famously helped F. Scott Fitzgerald gain Zelda Sayre's hand in marriage. In the summer of 1919, after less than a year of courtship, Zelda Sayre broke up with the 22-year-old Fitzgerald. After a summer of heavy drinking, he returned to St. Paul, where his family lived, to complete the novel, hoping that if he became a successful novelist he could win Zelda back. While at Princeton, Fitzgerald had written the unpublished novel The Romantic Egotist, 81 pages of the typescript of this earlier work was included in This Side of Paradise. On September 4, 1919, Fitzgerald gave the manuscript to his friend Shane Leslie to deliver to Maxwell Perkins, an editor at Charles Scribner's Sons in New York.
The book was nearly rejected by the editors at Scribners, but Perkins insisted, on September 16, it was accepted. Fitzgerald begged for early publication—convinced that he would become a celebrity and impress Zelda—but was told that the novel would have to wait until the spring. Upon the acceptance of his novel for publication he went and visited Zelda, she agreed to marry him; this Side of Paradise was published on March 1920, with a first printing of 3,000 copies. The initial printing sold out in three days. On March 30, four days after publication and one day after selling out the first printing, Fitzgerald wired Zelda to come to New York and get married that weekend. A week after publication and Scott married in New York on April 3, 1920; the book went through 12 printings in 1921 for a total of 49,075 copies. The novel did not provide a huge income for Fitzgerald. Copies sold for $1.75, for which he earned 10 % on 15 % beyond that. In total, in 1920 he earned $6,200 from the book, his new fame enabled him to earn much higher rates for his short stories.
The book is written in three parts. "Book One: The Romantic Egotist"—The novel centers on Amory Blaine, a young Midwesterner who, convinced that he has an exceptionally promising future, attends boarding school and Princeton University. He leaves behind his eccentric mother Beatrice and befriends Monsignor Darcy, a close friend of his mother. While at Princeton he goes back to Minneapolis, where he re-encounters Isabelle Borgé, a young lady whom he had met as a little boy, starts a romantic relationship with her. At Princeton, he writes more flowery poems, but Amory and Isabelle become disenchanted with each other after meeting again at his prom. "Interlude"—Following their break-up, Amory is shipped overseas to serve in the army in World War I. Amory's experiences in the war are not described, other than to say in the book that he was a bayonet instructor. "Book Two: The Education of a Personage"—After the war, Amory falls in love with a New York debutante named Rosalind Connage. Because he is poor, this relationship collapses as well.
A devastated Amory is further crushed to learn. The book ends with Amory's iconic lament "I know myself, but, all-". Most of the characters are drawn directly from Fitzgerald's own life: Amory Blaine—the protagonist of the book, is based on Fitzgerald. Both are from the Midwest, attended Princeton, had a failed romance with a debutante, served in the army had a failed romance with a second debutante. Beatrice Blaine—Blaine's mother was based on the mother of one of Fitzgerald's friends. Isabelle Borgé—Amory Blaine's first love is based on the Chicago debutante Ginevra King, Fitzgerald's first love. Monsignor Darcy—Blaine's spiritual mentor is based on a Sigourney Fay, to whom Fitzgerald was close. Fay was from Minneapolis. Rosalind Connage—Amory Blaine's second love is based on Zelda Sayre, Fitzgerald's second love. However, unlike Zelda, Rosalind was from New York. Rosalind is partially based on the character Beatrice Normandy from H. G. Wells's novel Tono-Bungay. Cecilia Connage—Rosalind's cynical younger sister.
Thomas Parke D'Invilliers—one of Blaine's close friends was based on the poet John Peale Bishop, Fitzgerald's friend and classmate. Eleanor Savage—a girl Amory meets in Maryland. Eleanor's character serves as a "love interest, therapeutic friend, conversational other". Educated and discussing poetry and philosophy, "Eleanor not only posits her desires in juxtaposition to the lingering Victorian expectations of women in her day but serves as soothsayer to the demands which would be placed on females". Clara Page—Amory's widowed cousin, whom he loves, but she doesn't love him; this Side of Paradise blends different styles of writing: It is, at times, a fictional narrative, at times free verse, at times a narrative drama, interspersed with letters and poems from Amory. In fact, the novel's blend of styles was the result of Fitzgerald's cobbling The Romantic Egotist, his earlier attempt at a novel, together with assorted short stories and poems that he had composed but never published; the occasional switch from third person to second p