The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning administration. When now used in a sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. This structure of governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese and it can be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese. An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese, an archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance. The archbishop may have authority over any other suffragan bishops. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the bishopric is used to describe the bishop himself. Especially in the Middle Ages, some bishops held political as well as religious authority within their dioceses, in the organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. With the adoption of Christianity as the Empires official religion in the 4th century, a formal church hierarchy was set up, parallel to the civil administration, whose areas of responsibility often coincided.
With the collapse of the Western Empire in the 5th century, a similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was largely retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division, modern usage of diocese tends to refer to the sphere of a bishops jurisdiction. As of January 2015, in the Catholic Church there are 2,851 regular dioceses,1 papal see,641 archdioceses and 2,209 dioceses in the world, in the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy. Eastern Orthodoxy calls dioceses metropoleis in the Greek tradition or eparchies in the Slavic tradition, after the Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as provinces and this usage is relatively common in the Anglican Communion.
Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics and these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory. The Lutheran Church-International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure and its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes. The Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States, in the COGIC, each state is divided up into at least three dioceses that are all led by a bishop, but some states as many as seven dioceses
Trinitatis Church is located in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is part of the 17th century Trinitatis Complex, which includes the Rundetårn astronomical observatory tower, built in the time of Christian IV, the church initially served the students of Copenhagen University. It is situated at the corner of Landemærket and Købmagergade, the interior was seriously damaged in the fire of 1728 but was rebuilt in 1731. The humanistically inspired combination was from a commission of Christian IV, there were three builders, namely Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger, Leonhard Blasius, and Albertus Mathiesen. At the time of construction, the church was the second largest in the city, second only to the Church of Our Lady. As the church was intended to be used by university students and professors, it may appear oversized. The foundation stone was laid July 7,1637, and the Round Tower was completed in 1642, the church was consecrated on Trinity Sunday 1656. The Copenhagen University Library was installed in the loft in 1657.
After marrying the widow of J. M. Radeck in 1685, during the fire of 1728, Trinitatis Church was not as badly damaged as other churches in the city. The roof structure was ignited, a spire crashed into the library, Church walls and vaults withstood the fire and subsequent repairs did not decisively change the churchs appearance. A new cornice and spire were required, the new roof was covered with black glazed tiles. New dormer windows were inserted but only in one row, the interior bases and capitals of the columns and arches were repaired. All wood furnishings were replaced, and the floor was covered with tiles from Öland, the reconstruction was in Northern Gothic-Baroque style. The church was rededicated October 7,1731 and the remains of the university library were moved again, the furnishings were renewed with an altarpiece and pulpit by Friederich Ehbisch and a large Baroque clock. The church was refurbished in 1763, the Trinitatis Complex was hit during the 1807 British bombardment of Copenhagen, and damaged by major fires.
Four bombs struck the library, but did not penetrate through to the church, thanks to the efforts of churchwarden Tvermoes, injuries were minimized. Building repairs amounted to relatively modest 3,000 rigsdaler, alterations were necessary in 1817 to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Reformation. The small shops on the corner of Landemærket were closed, as was the remainder of the north of the church
Parken Stadium, known for sponsorship reasons as Telia Parken, is a football stadium in the Indre Østerbro district of Copenhagen, built from 1990–1992. It currently has a capacity of 38,065 for football games, and is the ground of FC Copenhagen. The capacity for concerts exceeds the capacity for matches – the stadium can hold as many as 50,000 people with a setup and 55,000 with a center-stage setup. Telia Parken has been announced as one of 13 host venues of the UEFA Euro 2020 and it will host three group stage matches, as well as a round of 16 match. Telia Parken, originally named just Parken, was built on the site of former Denmark national stadium, Idrætsparken, from 1990 to 1992. The stadium was rebuilt by investors Baltica Finans A/S in turn of the guarantee from the Danish Football Association, the re-construction, tore down and re-built three of the original four stands, cost 640 million Danish kroner. Parken was included in UEFAs list of 4-star stadiums in the Autumn of 1993, being a 4-star stadium, Parken can not apply for the biggest European club game, the UEFA Champions League final, as that demands 50,000 seats.
On 2 June 2007, Parken was the venue for the UEFA Euro 2008 qualifier fan attack, on 1 May 2014 a new stadium covering Wi-Fi solution, powered by Telia was published. The deal provides free high speed Wi-Fi for all spectators at any event at the stadium, the agreement includes a 7 year long naming sponsorship, and on 17 July 2014, the stadium name was changed to Telia Parken. Parken is used as a venue, and hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2001. As a direct consequence of this, and to make Parken a more useful venue in general, a retractable roof was applied to the existing structure. E. M. Metallica, Bruce Springsteen, Tina Turner, David Bowie, Roger Waters, Paul McCartney, Lady Gaga, Justin Bieber, One Direction and Michael Jackson have performed at Parken. The biggest concert ever held in Parken was a performance by Michael Jackson on 14 August 1997, during his HIStory tour, speedway Grand Prix of Denmark Official website Tourist info from copenhagen. com Stadium Guide Article Parken Stadium
Frederiks Church, popularly known as The Marble Church for its rococo architecture, is an Evangelical Lutheran church in Copenhagen, Denmark. The church forms the point of the Frederiksstaden district, it is located due west of Amalienborg Palace. Fredericks Church has the largest church dome in Scandinavia with a span of 31m, the dome rests on 12 columns. The inspiration was probably St. Peters Basilica in Rome, the foundation stone was set by king Frederick V on October 31,1749, but the construction was slowed by budget cuts and the death of Eigtved in 1754. In 1770, the plans for the church were abandoned by Johann Friedrich Struensee. The church was incomplete and, in spite of several initiatives to complete it. The deal was at the highly controversial. On 25 January 1877, a case was brought by the Folketing at the Court of Impeachment, tietgen got Ferdinand Meldahl to design the church in its final form and financed its construction. Due to financial restrictions, the plans for the church to be built almost entirely from marble were discarded.
The church was opened to the public on August 19,1894. Inscribed in gold lettering on the entablature of the front portico are the words, a series of statues of prominent theologians and ecclesiastical figures, including one of the eminent Danish philosopher Kierkegaard, encircles the grounds of the building
Jerusalem's Church, Copenhagen
Jerusalems Church is the main church of the Methodist community in Denmark. It is located in Rigensgade (, central Copenhagen, the first Methodist congregation in Denmark was founded on 11 January 1859 and was based in rented rooms in Store Kongensgade. The congregation grew rapidly and funds were raised for a new church which was completed in 1866 to designs by Ferdinand Vilhelm Jensen, the church was known as St. Pauls Church until 1894 when that name was taken over by the nearby St. Pauls Church. Marks Church until 1912 when it received its current name, the church was destroyed in a fire in 1914. It was subsequently rebuilt by Jens Christian Kofoed and reinaugurated the following year, the church is designed in a mixture of Romanesque Revival and Byzantine Revival styles. It is 27 metres long,16 metres wide and the tower stands 50.6 metres tall, the Jerusalem Church contains an organ built in 1916. It was restored in 1982-84, and is considered one of the best organs in Denmark from before World War II.
The church has three gospel choirs with different profiles, Kefas has existed since 1976, Saints and Sinners has existed since 1994 and Revelation Gospel Choirer is the youngest
Fortifications of Copenhagen (17th century)
The fortifications of Copenhagen underwent a comprehensive modernization and expansion in the 17th century. The project was commenced and was largely the masterplan of Christian IV in the early 17th century but was continued and completed by his successors, the ring fortification consisted of four bastioned ramparts and an annexed citadel as well as various outworks. Today only the Christianshavn Rampart and the citadel Kastellet remain intact, Christian IVs modernization of the fortifications of Copenhagen commenced in 1606 and would take 20 years to complete. The course of the fortifications was kept but Slotsholmen was now incorporated into the complex. A large bastion in masonry was constructed on its southwestern tip, in the same time, Østervold was taken around parts of Bremerholm to meet the sea. A total of 12 bastions were constructed and just outside the entire fortification a moat was dug, due to topographical variations in the terrain, it was constructed as a series of basins, separated by dams, to solve the problem of variations in the terrain.
The uppermost basin was fed by water from Peblingesøen, the Western and Northern City Gates were renovated and given tall spires and a new Eastern City Gate was built. From 1618-23 Christianshavn was laid out and incorporated as a market town. Strategically situated in the middle of a shallow-watered, marshy area north of Amager, the rampart was constructed with four and a half bastions and a gate, known as Amager Gate. To guard the entrance to the port, a blockhouse was constructed on the shallow-watered Refshaleø in 1624. On the Zealand side of the harbour, north of the city and this work was begun in 1627. As part of his aspirations to strengthen Copenhagen as a regional centre, as early as 1606, when his modernization of the fortifications began, he had purchased 200 hectares of land outside the Eastern City Gate. His intention was to redevelop this area into a new district referred to as Ny København or Sankt Annæ By, the plan was to change the course of Østervold, which at that time made a bend and ran along what is today Gothersgade and Kongens Nytorv.
The new Østervold would be an extension of Nørrevold, connecting it to Sankt Annæ Skanse. However, the 1630s was a time of crisis and both Sankt Annæ Skanse and the new course of Østervold was delayed with no major work going on during that decade. After both Jutland and Scania had been occupied by forces in the first half of the 1640s. The new Østervold was constructed and a new project for the fortress at Sankt Annæ Skanse, in 1840 Christian VIII appointed a national defense commission which two years recommended that the existing fortifications be decommissioned. At the outbreak of the First Schleswig War in 1848, nothing had happened, in 1852, the Line of Demarcation was partially disabandoned but work to maintain and improve the ramparts were carried out as late as 1856-57
Architecture of England
The architecture of England refers to the architecture practiced in the territory of the present-day country of England, and in the historic Kingdom of England. Each of these foreign modes became assimilated within English architectural culture and gave rise to variation and innovation. Among the most characteristic styles originating in England are the Perpendicular Gothic of the late Middle Ages, High Victorian Gothic, the earliest known examples of architecture in England are the megalithic tombs of the Neolithic, such as those at Waylands Smithy and the West Kennet Long Barrow. These cromlechi are common over much of Atlantic Europe, present day Spain, Great Britain, the Neolithic henges of Avebury and Stonehenge are two of the largest and most famous megalithic monuments in the world. The structure is a calendar, but the reason for the massive size is unknown with any certainty, suggestions include agriculture, ceremonial use. With other nearby sites, including Silbury Hill, Beckhampton Avenue, numerous examples of Bronze Age and Iron Age architecture can be seen in England.
Megalithic burial monuments, either individual barrows or occasionally cists covered by cairns, are one form, the other is the defensive earthworks known as hill forts, such as Maiden Castle and Cadbury Castle. Archaeological evidence suggests that British Iron Age domestic architecture had a tendency towards circular dwellings, the Roman period brought the construction of the first large-scale buildings in Britain, but very little survives above ground besides fortifications. These include sections of Hadrians Wall, Chester city walls and coastal forts such as those at Portchester and Burgh Castle, other structures still standing include a lighthouse at Dover Castle, now part of a church. In most cases, only foundations and the bases of walls attest to the structure of former buildings, some of these were on a grand scale, such as the palace at Fishbourne and the baths at Bath. Architecture of the Anglo-Saxon period exists only in the form of churches, the earliest examples date from the 7th century, notably at Bradwell-on-Sea and Escomb, but the majority from the 10th and 11th centuries.
Due to the destruction and replacement of English cathedrals and monasteries by the Normans, no major Anglo-Saxon churches survive. The main material is ashlar masonry, sometimes accompanied by details in reused Roman brick, Anglo-Saxon churches are typically high and narrow and consist of a nave and a narrower chancel, these are often accompanied by a west tower. Some feature porticus to the west or to the north and south, characteristic features include quoins in long-and-short work and small windows with rounded or triangular tops, deeply splayed or in groups of two or three divided by squat columns. The most common form of decoration is lesene strips, typically combined with blind arcading. Notable examples of this exist at Earls Barton, Bradford-on-Avon and Barton-upon-Humber, the Normans destroyed a large proportion of Englands churches and built Romanesque replacements, a process which encompassed all of Englands cathedrals. Even Durham displays significant transitional features leading towards the emergence of Gothic, Romanesque churches are characterised by rounded arches, arcades supported by massive cylindrical piers, groin vaults and low-relief sculptural decoration.
Distinctively Norman features include decorative chevron patterns, in the wake of the invasion William I and his lords built numerous wooden motte-and-bailey castles to impose their control on the native population
St. John's Church, Copenhagen
St. Johns Church is a church located next to Sankt Hans Torv in the heart of the Nørrebro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Opened in 1861, it was the first church to be built outside the old fortification ring when it was decommissioned. The decommissioning of Copenhagens Bastioned Fortifications was a gradual and prolonged process and they had long been under pressure from the fast-growing city and the British bombadement in 1807 during the Battle of Copenhagen showed they had become outdated. In 1861 construction of St. Johns Church began on land provided by the city on the old Blegdam Common, the architect was Theodor Sørensen who had recently graduated from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. The new church was consecrated on 25 August 1861 at a ceremony attended by King Frederik VII, incidental music in the form of a cantata with text by Bernhard Severin Ingemann and music by Emil Hartmann was performed at the event. However, still populated, it only had about 16,000 inhabitants. Stephens, St.
Jamess, St. Pauls and St. Mathews, by 1885, even with St. Stephens and St. Jamess Parishes in the meantime disjoined, the population of St. Johns Parish had grown to 60,000. St. Johns is a Neo-Gothic building in red brick, standing 54 metres high, the tower has a copper-clad spire. Theodor Sørensens style was influenced by Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll. St. Johns was the first in the Copenhagen area to revive Medieval features such as crow-stepped gables and its style was, on its completion, unusual in Denmark but soon won great popularity. It was completed the year as Copenhagen University Library, another building which combined red bricks. The interior of the church is dominated by light-coloured, marbled walls, painted by J. L. Lund in 1818 in Rome, the altarpiece depicts the Resurrection of Jesus. With 54 stops the churchs organ is one of the largest in Copenhagen, located on Blegdamsvej, between Sankt Hans Torv and the Panum Institute, St. Johns remains the largest church in the Nørrebro district.
It is a church within the Church of Denmark. In December 2008, St. Johns Parish combined with Simons Parish to from Simon-St, the chapel at Rigshospitalet belongs to the parish. The church plays host to the student priest for University of Copenhagens faculties of Health Sciences and Science, the church is used as a location in the 1941 film Frøken Kirkemus
Vesterbro is one of the 15 administrative and city tax districts comprising the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of 3.76 km², and has a population of 51,466, the district is located west of the city center at the location of the old Western Gate, access way into the old city. The name Vesterbro literally translates into English as Western Bridge, Vesterbro is the area of the bridge into the city of Copenhagen, which was a much smaller city at the time when the name was created. At that time, the city was ringed by a moat which exist today as the Tivoli lake, the area is under the process of being renovated to a great extent and the renovation will end in 2017. The environment and sustainability is one of the reasons for the renovation. Vesterbro has a location that makes it a favored place to live. The area is known as the easy place to get drugs in Copenhagen. Vesterbro was originally the name of the country road that led into the city center from the west. Few country roads in those days were paved, but the amount of traffic into the capital necessitated it.
Until 1853 after the epidemic that had hit Copenhagen, there had been a no build zone outside Copenhagen’s old part of town. This Demarcation Line indicated an area beyond the city’s centuries old defense wall system where Copenhagen’s defense forces could strike the enemy unhindered, until there was little development outside the center of the city, except with special permission. Even though much of the area was used as grazing land,1,000 inhabitants of the area, as well as a number of commercial enterprises, and the house of the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society and Danish Brotherhood. The society received permission to build outside the old city limits in the 1750s, and this movement came first to the inner ring of areas outside the center, the Indre Østerbro, the Indre Nørrebro and Frederiksberg. At that time the name Vesterbro began being used for the area around the street named Vesterbro
St. Matthew's Church, Copenhagen
St. Mathews Church is the oldest and largest church in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The decommissioning of Copenhagens Bastioned Fortifications was a gradual and prolonged process and this was the case with Vesterbro outside the former Western City Gate which developed into a crowded and poor working-class neighbourhood. Constructed between 1879 and 1880, St. Matthews Church was the first church to be built in the area, at that time the parish had around 2,000 inhabitants. Its architect was Ludvig Fenger who had just completed St. James Church in Østerbro, up until the mid-1890s, St. Matthews remained the only church in Vesterbro. At the turn of the 20th century the population had grown to about 7,000, like many other Danish buildings of its time, St. Matthews Church is inspired by North Italian Romanesque brick architecture. A distinctive feature of the exterior is the many pinnacles along the eaves as well as on the corners of the tower, most of the inventory is designed by Ludvig Fenger, including the organ case.
The organ works were created by A. H. Busch & Sønner in 1880, the altarpiece is a mural painted directly on the wall behind the altar by Henrik Olrik depicting the Sermon on the Mount. St. Johns Church, Copenhagen Jesus Church, Valby
St. Alban's Church, Copenhagen
St. Albans Church, locally often referred to simply as the English Church, is an Anglican church in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was built from 1885 to 1887 for the growing English congregation in the city, the church is part of Church of Englands Diocese in Europe. It is dedicated to Saint Alban, the first martyr of Great Britain, the first sizable British community in Denmark settled in Elsinore in the early 16th century. The town was an important logistical hub for the collection of Sound Dues, first to arrive was a community of Scots which had a Scottish altar dedicated to Saint Jacob, Saint Andrew and the Scottish Saint Ninian in the local Saint Olafs Church. The altar has now moved to the National Museum of Denmark. Much of the traffic was British and over the course of time many English shipping agencies were established in Elsinore. There even was a British consul there while Copenhagen only had a vice-consul, under the Kings Law from 1665, which had instituted absolutism in Denmark, Lutheranism was the only faith allowed to hold religious services in Denmark.
During the second half of the 18th century more and more foreign denominations were granted exemptions to this prohibition. Up through the 19th century the English community in Copenhagen grew as the significance as a centre of commerce increased. An English congregation held services in rented rooms in Store Kongensgade near Kongens Nytorv from 1834. The congregation had ambitions to build their own church and a Church Building Committee was established in 1854, in 1864, it made an appeal to the Prince of Wales, and his consort, the Danish-born Princess Alexandra, took it upon her to assist. The foundation stone of St. Albans Church was laid on 19 September 1885, the church was designed by Arthur Blomfield. It was consecrated two years on 17 September 1887, like Princess Alexandra, both George I and Maria Feodorovna were born Danish, issue of the Danish King and Queen Consort. Also present were the entire Diplomatic Corps, representatives of the Army and Navy, church officials and it is built in the Gothic Revival style inspired by the Early English Style, known as Lancet Gothic.
The church is built in limestone from the Faxe south of Copenhagen, knapped flint from Stevns, the tiles on the roof are from Broseley in Shropshire. The tower contains fifteen tubular bells and it was not deemed strong enough to support regular bells, and a set of eight was presented by the Prince of Wales when the church was built. These can be played manually on an Ellacombe Frame, on which the player pulls a rope for the relevant bell. In 2013 the Prince of Wales contributed to a new fund, which enabled a further seven bells to be installed, every quarter-hour the 80 louvres open while the bells sound a quarter chime, and after striking the hour play a hymn tune