A holy well or sacred spring is a spring or other small body of water revered either in a Christian or pagan context, sometimes both. The term holy well is employed to refer to any water source of limited size, which has some significance in the folklore of the area where it is located, whether in the form of a particular name, an associated legend, the attribution of healing qualities to the water through the numinous presence of its guardian spirit or Christian saint, or a ceremony or ritual centred on the well site. In Christian legend, the water is said to have been made to flow by the action of a saint, a familiar theme in the hagiography of Celtic saints; the term haeligewielle is in origin an Anglo-Saxon toponym attached to specific springs in the landscape. The term'holy-hole' is sometimes employed; the terms'hole' and'holy' are etymons. Holy wells in different forms occur in such a wide variety of cultures, religious environments, historical periods that it is held that it is a universal human instinct to revere sources of water.
However, the fragmentary nature of the evidence, the historical differences among cultures and nations, make it hard to generalize. While there are a few national studies of holy well lore and history concentrating on Ireland and the British Isles, there is a need for more work examining other regions; the earliest work devoted to holy wells is Philip Dixon Hardy's Holy Wells of Ireland, a Protestant attack on Catholic observances at Irish wells bearing the names of Christian saints, or otherwise considered sacred. By the 19th century, the term had acquired its current usage: Robert Charles Hope's The Legendary Lore of the Holy Wells of England, the first general survey of its kind, included a number of named wells which were not dedicated to saints. In ancient Greece and Rome a nymphaeum or nymphaion, was a monument consecrated to the nymphs those of springs. In England, there are examples of reverence for wells and springs at a variety of historical periods; the medieval traveller William of Worcester saw a'holy-hole, or well' within the cave at Wookey, a site of human habitation in the Palaeolithic era and the source of a river, the site of ritual activity.
The proximity of named springs to Neolithic or Iron Age monuments, such as the Swallowhead Springs, close to Silbury Hill or the Holy Well near Tadmarton Hill, suggests that reverence for such sites continued without a break. There is abundant evidence for the importance of wells and springs in the Roman and sub-Roman period, not just at temple complexes such as Bath and Blunsdon Ridge which have medicinal springs at their centre, but a variety of smaller sites, at wells and ritual shafts used for superstitious and sub-religious rituals. Christianity affected the development of holy wells in Europe and the Middle East. Aside from the spring that issued from the staff of Moses and the Well of Beersheba, there were a number of sites mentioned in Jewish and Christian folklore, including Moses' well near Mount Nebo, visited by the fourth-century nun Egeria and many other pilgrims. St Athanasius' Life of St Antony, written about 356–62, mentions the well created by the desert hermit Antony, it is unclear how many Christian holy wells there may have been, as records are fragmentary and a well appears only once, making it impossible to tell when reverence for it began and when it ceased, but by the Reformation England, for instance possessed some hundreds.
As they were linked with the cults of the saints, many wells in countries that converted to Protestant forms of Christianity fell into disuse and were lost, the Holy Well at Walsingham being a good example, having been an integral element of the pilgrimage to the shrine of the Virgin Mary in the village, vanished completely. This particular holy well at the Anglican Shrine of Our Lady of Walsingham was restored nearby the original site and its water is known for its healing properties, thus making it a popular site of Christian religious pilgrimage. Visiting of wells for therapeutic and entertainment purposes did not die out, however, as spas became fashionable in the 17th century and later. Antiquarians and folklorists began to take notice of holy wells and record their surviving traditions. Over a hundred holy wells exist in Cornwall, each associated with a particular saint, though not always the same one as the dedication of the church. Several holy wells survive in Turkey, called ayazma in Turkish, from Greek ἁγίασμα "holiness".
Examples of hagiasmata are found in the Church of St. Mary of the Spring and the Church of St. Mary of Blachernae, both located in istanbul; the Protestant Reformers of the 16th century assumed that medieval Catholic practices embodied lingering remains of pagan religious practices, thought of holy wells in that way. This affected the outlook of those; the pioneers of folklore study took the view that the customs and legends they were recording were debased versions of pagan rites and myths. Thus it became standard to begin any account of holy wells with the statement that the Christian church had adopted them from the pagans and replaced the heath
St. James's Gate Brewery is a brewery founded in 1759 in Dublin, Ireland, by Arthur Guinness; the company is now a part of Diageo, a British company formed from the merger of Guinness and Grand Metropolitan in 1997. The main product of the brewery is Guinness Draught. Leased in 1759 to Arthur Guinness at IR£45 per year for 9,000 years, the St. James's Gate area has been the home of Guinness since, it became the largest brewery in Ireland in 1838, the largest in the world by 1886, with an annual output of 1.2 million barrels. Although no longer the largest brewery in the world, it remains as the largest brewer of stout; the company has since bought out the leased property, during the 19th and early 20th centuries the brewery owned most of the buildings in the surrounding area, including many streets of housing for brewery employees, offices associated with the brewery. The brewery made all of its own power using its own power plant. There is an attached exhibition on the 250-year-old history of Guinness, called the Guinness Storehouse.
Arthur Guinness started brewing ales in Leixlip, County Kildare, from 1759 at the St. James's Gate Brewery in Dublin. On 31 December he signed a 9,000-year lease at £45 per annum for the unused brewery. However, the lease is no longer in effect because the brewery property has been bought out when it expanded beyond the original 4-acre site. Ten years after establishment, on 19 May 1769 Guinness exported his beer for the first time, when six and a half barrels were shipped to England; the business expanded by further exporting to the English market. On the death of Benjamin Guinness in 1868 the business was worth over £1 million, the brewery site had grown from about 1 acre to over 64 acres. In 1886 his son Edward sold 65 per cent of the business by a public offering on the London Stock Exchange for £6 million; the company pioneered several quality control efforts. The brewery hired the statistician William Sealy Gosset in 1899, who achieved lasting fame under the pseudonym "Student" for techniques developed for Guinness Student's t-distribution and the more known Student's t-test.
Because of the Irish Free State's "Control of Manufactures Act" in 1932, the company moved its headquarters to London that year. Guinness brewed its last porter in 1974. In 1983 a non-family chief executive Ernest Saunders was appointed and arranged the reverse takeover of the leading Scotch whisky producer Distillers in 1986. Saunders was asked to resign following revelations that the Guinness stock price had been illegally manipulated. In 1986, Guinness PLC was in the midst of a bidding war for the much larger Distillers Company. In the closing stages, Guinness' stock rose 25 per cent —, unusual, since the stock of the acquiring company falls in a takeover situation. Guinness paid several people and institutions, most notably American arbitrageur Ivan Boesky, about $38 million USD to buy $300 USD million worth of Guinness stock; the effect was to increase the value of its offer for Distillers, whose management favored merging with Guinness. In the course of the investigation, it emerged. Two of Guinness' directors signed under-the-table agreements in which Bank Leu subsidiaries in Zug and Lucerne bought 41 million Guinness shares.
Guinness secretly promised to redeem the shares at cost, including commissions. To fulfill its end of the bargain, Guinness deposited $76 million with Bank Leu's Luxembourg subsidiary; as Distillers was worth more than Guinness plc, the Guinness family shareholding in the merged company went below 10 per cent, today no member of the family sits on the board. Guinness acquired the Distillers Company in 1986; the company merged with Grand Metropolitan in 1997 to form Diageo plc, capitalised in 2006 at about 40 billion euros. Although not fully taken over, the Guinness family still owns 51 per cent of the brewery; the Guinness brewery in Park Royal, London closed in 2005. The production of all Guinness sold in the UK and Ireland was switched to St. James's Gate Brewery Dublin; the main product is Guinness Draught, a 4.2% ABV dry stout, one of the most successful beer brands worldwide. For many years a portion of the drink was aged to give a sharp lactic flavour, although Guinness has refused to confirm whether this still occurs.
The thick creamy head is the result of the beer being mixed with nitrogen. It is popular with Irish people both in Ireland and abroad and, in spite of a decline in consumption over recent years, is the best-selling alcoholic drink of all time in Ireland where Guinness & Co. makes €2 billion annually. The brewery produces Guinness Original, a 4.3% ABV version of the Draught, without the nitrogen. Guinness stout is available in a number of variants and strengths, which include: Guinness Draught, sold in kegs, widget cans, bottles: 4.1 to 4.3% alcohol by volume. Guinness Original/Extra Stout: 4.2 or 4.3% ABV in Ireland and the rest of Europe, 4.1% in Germany, 4.8% in Namibia and South Africa, 5% in the United States and Canada, 6% in Australia and Japan. Guinness Foreign Extra Stout: 7.5% abv version sold in Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and Asia. The basis is an unfermented but hopped Guinness wort extract shipped from Dublin, added to local ingredients and brewed locally; the strength can vary, for example, it is sold at 5% ABV in China, 6
Arthur Guinness was an Irish brewer and the founder of the Guinness brewery business and family. He was an entrepreneur and philanthropist. At 27, in 1752, Guinness's godfather Arthur Price, the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Cashel, bequeathed him £100 in his will. Guinness invested the money and in 1755 had a brewery at just 17 km from Dublin. In 1759, Guinness set up his own business, he took a 9,000-year lease on the 4-acre brewery at St. James's Gate from the descendants of Sir Mark Rainsford for an annual rent of £45. Guinness's flowery red signature is still copied on every label of bottled Guinness. Arthur Guinness's parents Richard and Elizabeth were both the children of Catholic tenant farmers in Dublin and Kildare. Richard's family claimed a descent from the Gaelic Magennis clan of County Down. Recent DNA evidence however suggests descent from the McCartans, another County Down clan, whose spiritual home of Kinelarty included the townland of "Guiness" near Ballynahinch, County Down.
Guinness's place and date of birth are the subject of speculation. His gravestone in Oughterard, County Kildare states that he died on 23 January 1803, "aged 78 years", indicating that he was born in 1724 or early in 1725. There is no proof of the date of 28 September 1725 chosen by the Guinness company in 1991 to end speculation about his birthdate; the place of birth was his mother's home at Read homestead at Ardclough County Kildare. In 2009 it was claimed he was born in nearby Celbridge where his parents lived in 1725 and where his father worked as an agent for the cleric Dr. Arthur Price, may have brewed beer for the household. In his will, Dr. Price left £100 each to "his servant" Arthur and his father in 1752. Starting his first brewery in Leixlip in 1755, Arthur bought a long lease of an adjacent site from George Bryan "of Philadelphia in the Province of Pennsylvania" in 1756, developed as investment property. In 1761 he married Olivia Whitmore in St. Mary's Church and they had 21 children, 10 of whom lived to adulthood.
Olivia's father was William Whitmore, a grocer in Essex Street, Temple Bar and her mother was Mary Grattan from Drummin House, County Kildare. Olivia brought a dowry of £1,000. From 1764 they lived at Beaumont House, which he had built on a 51-acre farm, now a part of Beaumont Convalescent Home, behind the main part of Beaumont Hospital, between Santry and Raheny in north County Dublin, his landlord was Charles Gardiner. The townland name of Kilmore was renamed by Arthur as Beaumont and the Beaumont parish copied the name. From March 1798 he lived at Mountjoy Square in Dublin, in the process of being built in the style of elegant Georgian architecture, where his landlord was Gardiner's son Luke. Three of his sons were brewers, his other descendants included missionaries and authors, he died in Dublin and was buried in his mother's family plot at Oughterard, County Kildare in January 1803. Guinness supported Henry Grattan in the 1780s and 1790s, not least because Grattan wanted to reduce the tax on beer.
He was one of the four brewers' guild representatives on Dublin Corporation from the 1760s until his death. Like Grattan, Guinness was publicly in favour of Catholic Emancipation from 1793, but he was not a supporter of the United Irishmen during the 1798 rebellion and was accused of spying for the British, and was against Irish home-rule. In general, the Guinness family became Irish Unionists and Arthur Guinness accepted the system, with Arthur "directly opposed to any movement toward Irish independence" and wanting "Ireland to remain under British control". Guinness leased a brewery in Leixlip in brewing ale. Five years he left his younger brother Richard in charge of that enterprise and moved on to another in St. James' Gate, Dublin, at the end of 1759; the 9,000-year lease he signed for the brewery is presently displayed in the floor at St. James' Gate, effective from 31 December 1759. By 1767 he was elected Master of the Dublin Corporation of Brewers, his first actual sales of porter were listed on tax data from 1778, it seems that other Dublin brewers had experimented in brewing porter beer from the 1760s.
From the 1780s his second son Arthur worked at his side and became the senior partner in the brewery from 1803. He commented on this in a letter of 1790: "..one of my sons is grown up to be able to assist me in this Business, or I wd not have attempted it, tho' prompted by a demand of providing for Ten Children now living out of one & twenty born to us, & more yet to come..."His major achievement was in expanding his brewery in 1797–99. Thereafter he brewed only porter and employed members of the Purser family, Moravians from Tewkesbury who had brewed porter in London until 1776; the Pursers became partners in the brewery for most of the 19th century. By his death in 1803 the annual brewery output was over 20,000 barrels. Subsequently, Arthur and/or. Arthur and Olivia had 21 children, of whom these 10 survived to maturity: Elizabeth m. Frederick Darley and Lord Mayor of Dublin in 1809 Revd. Dr. Hosea, Rector of St. Werburgh's Church, Dublin Arthur and banker Edward, solicitor in Dublin Olivia Benjamin, brewer Louisa Mary William, brewer John, Captain in the Madras Army To further honour Arthur Guinness's legacy, in 2009 Guinness & Co. established the Arthur Guinness Fund.
An internal fund set up by the Company, its aim is to ena
A city gate is a gate which is, or was, set within a city wall. City gates were traditionally built to provide a point of controlled access to and departure from a walled city for people, vehicles and animals. Depending on their historical context they filled functions relating to defense, health, trade and representation, were correspondingly staffed by military or municipal authorities; the city gate was commonly used to display diverse kinds of public information such as announcements and toll schedules, standards of local measures, legal texts. It could be fortified, ornamented with heraldic shields, sculpture or inscriptions, or used as a location for warning or intimidation, for example by displaying the heads of beheaded criminals or public enemies. City gates, in one form or another, can be found across the world in cities dating back to ancient times to around the 19th century. Many cities would close their gates after a certain curfew each night, for example a bigger one like Prague or a smaller one like Flensburg, in the north of Germany.
With increased stability and freedom, many walled cities removed such fortifications as city gates, although many still survive. Many surviving gates have been restored, rebuilt or new ones created to add to the appearance of a city, such as Bab Bou Jalous in Fes. With increased levels of traffic, city gates have come under threat in the past for impeding the flow of traffic, such as Temple Bar in London, removed in the 19th century. Egypt: Gates of Cairo Morocco: Bab Agnaou of Marrakech China Zhengyangmen and Deshengmen in Beijing Gate of China in Nanjing city gate of Jianshui Cyprus: Famagusta Gate in Nicosia India Gateway of India in Mumbai Walled city of Jaipur in Jaipur Walled city and gates of Aurangabad in Aurangabad Walled city of Kota in Kota Teen Darwaza in Bhadra Fort, Ahmedabad Mesopotamia: Ishtar Gate, Babylon Iran Qur'an gate Nowbar gate. Israel: Gates in Jerusalem's Old City Walls Japan: Rashomon Gate, Kyoto Macau: Portas do Cerco - border gate for Macau with neighbouring Zhuhai Pakistan: Walled City of Lahore South Korea: Seoul's city gates, including: Namdaemun and Dongdaemun Taiwan: North gate of Taipei Yemen: Bab al Yemen of Sana'a Austria: Wienertor: in Hainburg an der Donau Belgium: Brusselpoort: in Mechelen Waterpoort in Antwerp Halle Gate in Brussels Bosnia and Herzegovina: Višegradska kapija Višegrad gate, gate in Sarajevo Croatia: Walls of Dubrovnik Czech Republic: Powder Gate, Prague Písek Gate, Prague Zelená brána, Pardubice Brána Matky Boží, Jihlava Svatá brána, Kadaň Vysoká brána, Rakovník Pražská brána, Rakovník Denmark: Vesterport, Faaborg England: Bargate Southampton London's Roman and Medieval gates of the London Wall: Ludgate, Aldersgate, Cripplegate, Aldgate Westgate, Canterbury Eastgate, Northgate,Watergate and Bridgegate.
Chester The gates of the York city walls Estonia: Tallinn Gate in Pärnu France: Porte de Joigny and Porte de Sens in Villeneuve-sur-Yonne Porte de la Craffe in Nancy Porte des Allemands in Metz Porte Saint-Denis and Porte Saint-Martin in Paris Porte Mars in Reims Porte Cailhau in Bordeaux Porte de la Grosse-Horloge in La Rochelle Porte Mordelaise in Rennes Germany: Fünfgratturm in Augsburg Rotes Tor in Augsburg Vogeltor in Augsburg Wertachbrucker Tor in Augsburg Brandenburg Gate, in Berlin Eigelsteintor, Ulrepforte, Severinstor in Cologne Nordertor and Rotes Tor in Flensburg Martinstor and Schwabentor in Freiburg im Breisgau Holstentor, in Lübeck Isartor, Sendlinger Tor and Propylaea in Munich East Gate, in Regensburg Steintor, in Rostock Old Gate, in Speyer Porta Nigra, in Trier Greece: Lion Gate in Mycenae, 13th century B. C.. Ireland: Saint Laurence Gate, Drogheda Sheep Gate, Trim St. James's Gate, Dublin gates of Dublin Italy: Porta Galliera, Bologna Porta Saragozza, Bologna Porta Paola, Ferrara Pusterla di Sant'Ambrogio, in Milan Porta Nuova, in Milan Porta Nuova, in Milan Porta Ticinese, in Milan Porta Ticinese, in Milan Porta Capuana, Naples Porta San Gennaro, Naples Port'Alba, Naples Porta Nolana, Naples Porta Felice, in Palermo Porta Nuova, in Palermo Porta San Giovanni, in Rome Porta del Popolo, in Rome Porta Maggiore, in Rome Porta Pinciana, in Rome Porta Tiburtina, in Rome Porta San Sebastiano, in Rome Porta San Paolo, in Rome Porta Camollia, Siena Porta Palatina, in Turin Lithuania: Gate of Dawn, in Vilnius Malta: City Gate and Victoria Gate, Valletta Mdina Gate and Greeks Gate, Mdina Notre Dame Gate, Birgu St. Helen's Gate, Cospicua Netherlands: Amsterdamse Poort, a city gate of Haarlem Waterpoort, Sneek Vischpoort, Elburg Vischpoort, Harderwijk Koppelpoort, Amersfoort Zijlpoort, Leiden Poland: Brama Floriańska, Kraków Żuraw, Gdańsk Brama Zielona, Gdańsk Brama Wyżynna, Gdańsk Brama Mariacka, Gdańsk Brama Krakowska, Lublin Brama Mostowa, Toruń Brama Klasztorna, Toruń Brama Opatowska, Sandomierz Brama Młyńska, Stargard Brama Pyrzycka, Stargard Brama Garncarska, Malbork Brama Lidzbarska, Bartoszyce Nowa Brama, Słupsk Brama Świecka, Chojna Brama Wolińska, Goleniów Brama Odrzańska, Brzeg Brama Portowa, Szczecin Brama Górna, Olsztyn Brama Szczebrzeska, Zamość Portugal: Arco da Porta Nova, Braga Portas da Cidade, Ponta Delgada Portão dos Varadouros a.k.a.
City Gate, Funchal Romania: Catherine's Gate, Brașov Russia Voskresensky Gate
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
Sir Mark Rainsford was an Irish Lord Mayor of Dublin and the original founder of what was to become the Guinness Brewery. Sir Mark Rainsford was Lord Mayor of Dublin from 1700 to 1701. While the Lord Mayor, he presided over the unveiling of the King William III equestrian statue in College Green, Dublin on 1 July 1701, he served as High Sheriff of Dublin City 1690-91. Rainsford is most noted as the original founder of the Guinness Brewery in Dublin, his business manufactured'Beer and Fine Ales' and he was succeeded by his son - named Mark Rainsford. In 1715 the business went to Captain Paul Espinasse. In 1750 the business fell back into the Rainsford family. Rainsford's grandson called Mark Rainsford, signed over the now famous 9000 year lease to Arthur Guinness on 31 December 1759; the original lease with signatures are viewable on a tour of the Guinness Brewery at the Guinness Storehouse. Rainsford was married twice - his first wife was Jane Mee the daughter of Giles Mee, he had three sons: Edward, Giles Mee, several daughters.
He acquired land in Portarlington in Queens County as well as extensive plantations in County Kildare and County Kilkenny. In 1691, upon the death of Giles Mee, his father-in-law, Rainsford inherited water rights in the district around St. James's Gate. Using these water rights, Rainsford began his brewing business. Rainsford was married for the second time, to Isabella Bolton, on 16 May 1695 in St. Michan's Church Dublin, he died in 1709, Rainsford Street was named in his honour
St James' Church, Dublin (Church of Ireland)
St. James' Church, a former Church of Ireland church in James's Street, Ireland, was established in 1707; the corresponding parish, separated from that of nearby St. Catherine's, was established in 1710. There had been a shrine dedicated to St. James at nearby St. James's Gate, a stopping-off point for pilgrims, since medieval times; the existing church building was designed by Joseph Welland. It is the burial place of the Rev. John Ellis, for 34 years vicar of this parish, of William Ellis, governor of Patna, killed during a war there in 1763. In 2014, the church was converted into a distillery and visitor centre. In 1177 the parish of St. James is mentioned as part of the abbey of St. Thomas, the church of St. Catherine was a chapel-of-ease to the abbey; the boundaries of the parish of St. James were defined by St. Laurence O'Toole and extended right up to the city gate at Corn Market. By the end of the 13th century the western suburbs had so increased in population that a separate parish was deemed necessary, provided for by splitting the parish of St. James and setting up an independent parish for St. Catherine's.
Both parishes were still subservient to the Abbey of St. Thomas, but in 1539 the abbey was dissolved with all the monasteries by Henry VIII. In the surrender made by Henry Duffe, last Abbot, were included "the Churches of St. Catherine and St. James near Dublin." Both churches, now independent, had new curates appointed by the crown: Sir John Brace to St. Catherine's and Sir John Butler to St. James. Over the following hundred years both churches passed over to the reformed church, while Roman Catholic priests led a precarious existence tending to the larger part of the population, which remained faithful to the old religion; the parish of St. Catherine appears to have been the only viable one in the area at that time - Roman Catholics got the use of a chapel in Dirty Lane towards the end of the 17th century; the Roman Catholic parish of St. James was set up in 1724, while the Church of Ireland parish of the same name came into existence in 1710. Both Church of Ireland parishes corresponded with the civil parishes of the same names.
The cemetery at the church is not accessible to the public. In the 18th century it had been marked out by the inhabitants of the area as a desirable cemetery for the interment of their friends. During the fair of St. James, held in James's Street, opposite the church-yard, they decked the graves with garlands and ornaments made of white paper. In the centre of the cemetery is the monument of Sir Theobald Butler, of the Butlers of Ballyline, a prominent barrister who served as Solicitor General for Ireland and assisted in framing the articles of the Treaty of Limerick in 1691, who advocated the Roman Catholic cause before Parliament, his monument has a Latin epitaph stating that it was erected by his eldest son "to the best of fathers." Since Butler was a Catholic, it is noteworthy that the Church of Ireland made no objection to his being buried in St. James'; the monument was restored by Colonel Augustus Butler D. L. of County Clare, his descendant in the fourth generation, in 1876. Sir Mark Rainsford, Mayor of Dublin and owner of the brewery, sold to Arthur Guinness, was buried in St James in 1709.
Buried here is Sergeant-Major John Lucas, VC, who died 4 March 1892 and Sir William Haldane-Porter founder of the UK Immigration Service, who died in 1944. Across the road from the church, in the middle of the road, is the "Fountain", an obelisk with 4 sundials with a drinking fountain at its base, built in 1790 by the Duke of Rutland, the Lord Lieutenant, it was an old custom that funeral processions passing the fountain would circle it three times before carrying on to the cemetery. James Whitelaw was a clergyman at this church, before going on to St. Catherine's Church. St. Catherine's Dublin Notes SourcesGilbert, John. A History of the City of Dublin. Oxford: Oxford University. George Newenham Wright. "An Historical Guide to the City of Dublin, 1825". Online book. Archived from the original on 2007-10-31. Retrieved 2009-02-02. Casey, Christine. Dublin: The City Within the Grand and Royal Canals and the Circular Road with the Phoenix Park. Yale: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10923-7. F. Elrington Ball: A History of the County Dublin.
1903. Part II. St. James' Graveyard, Dublin - History and Associations