Hellerup is a district of Gentofte Municipality in the suburbs of Copenhagen, Denmark. The most urban part of the district is centred on Strandvejen and is bordered by Østerbro to the south and it comprises Tuborg Havn, the redeveloped brewery site of Tuborg Breweries, with the Waterfront Shopping Center, a marina and the headquarters of several large companies. Other parts of the consists of single family detached homes. Local landmarks include the science centre Experimentarium and the art Øregaard Museum, with an area of approximately 515 hectares, Hellerup covers 20% of the municipality. As of a January 2012, Hellerup had a population of 18,781, the Hellerup postal district includes a somewhast larger area since part of Østerbro has the postal code 2900 Hellerup. In spite of its name, with the suffix -rup, Hellerup does not originate in an old village, in the 18th century the area was still open countryside with scattered country houses. One of them, was renamed Hellerupgård when it was acquired by Johan David Heller in 1748 and it would lend its name to the modern district of Hellerup.
Hellerupgård was purchased by the merchant and shipowner Erich Erichsen and he commissioned the French architect Joseph-Jacques Ramée to built a new house in 1802. Other country houses included Øregård, Blidah and Taffelbay, one of the oldest properties in the area was Vartov, a former watermill which had been acquired by Frederick II in 1566 and used as a hunting lodge. It was converted into a hospital for the poor in 1607, the navel officer Charles Frédéric le Sage de Fontenay acquired it in the 18th century and converted it into a country house. A harbor was built on the coast between 1869 and 1873, the new Tuborg Brewery was inaugurated that same year. In 1887, Carl Ludvig Ibsen began to land in the area with the intension to sell it off in lots to developers. He purchased Hellerupgård, Lille Mariendal and Slukefter in Hellerup as well as Smakkegård, Rygård, Lundegård and Stengård in Gentofte, the land in Hellerup alone added up to 37 hectares. He reclaimed an area along the coast just north of Tuborg Breweries and he did not build on the land himself but prepared it with sewers and roads and sold it off in lots to developers and private citizens.
In the mid-1890s, redevelopment of the areas on the west side of Strandvejen began, resulting in such as Ryvangs Allé. A new gasworks, Strandvejsgasværket, opened adjacent to Tuborg Breweries in 1893. Many of the new homes had WCs, in 1916, Ibsen placed his remaining land in a company, A/S De Ibsenske Grunde i Gjentofte Sogn, which existed until 1945. As of 1996, it has been an area with numerous apartments overlooking the harbour. The site is home to the headquarters of several Danish and international companies
St. Matthew's Church, Copenhagen
St. Mathews Church is the oldest and largest church in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The decommissioning of Copenhagens Bastioned Fortifications was a gradual and prolonged process and this was the case with Vesterbro outside the former Western City Gate which developed into a crowded and poor working-class neighbourhood. Constructed between 1879 and 1880, St. Matthews Church was the first church to be built in the area, at that time the parish had around 2,000 inhabitants. Its architect was Ludvig Fenger who had just completed St. James Church in Østerbro, up until the mid-1890s, St. Matthews remained the only church in Vesterbro. At the turn of the 20th century the population had grown to about 7,000, like many other Danish buildings of its time, St. Matthews Church is inspired by North Italian Romanesque brick architecture. A distinctive feature of the exterior is the many pinnacles along the eaves as well as on the corners of the tower, most of the inventory is designed by Ludvig Fenger, including the organ case.
The organ works were created by A. H. Busch & Sønner in 1880, the altarpiece is a mural painted directly on the wall behind the altar by Henrik Olrik depicting the Sermon on the Mount. St. Johns Church, Copenhagen Jesus Church, Valby
An altarpiece is an artwork such as a painting, sculpture or relief representing a religious subject made for placing behind the altar of a Christian church. Altarpieces were one of the most important products of Christian art especially from the late Middle Ages to the era of the Counter-Reformation. Large number of altarpieces are now removed from their settings, and often their elaborate sculpted frameworks. Altarpieces seem to have begun to be used during the 11th century, the reasons and forces that led to the development of altarpieces are not generally agreed upon. The habit of placing decorated reliquaries of saints on or behind the altar, as well as the tradition of decorating the front of the altar with sculptures or textiles, an elaborate example of such an early altarpiece is the Pala dOro in Venice. The appearance and development of these first altarpieces marked an important turning point both in the history of Christian art and Christian religious practice, the autonomous image now assumed a legitimate position at the centre of Christian worship.
Painted panel altars emerged in Italy during the 13th century, in the 13th century, it is not uncommon to find frescoed or mural altarpieces in Italy, mural paintings behind the altar function as visual complements for the liturgy. These altarpieces were influenced by Byzantine art, notably icons, which reached Western Europe in greater numbers following the conquest of Constantinople in 1204. During this time, altarpieces began to be decorated with an outer. Vigoroso da Sienas altarpiece from 1291 display such an altarpiece and this treatment of the altarpiece would eventually pave the way for the emergence, in the 14th century, of the polyptych. The sculpted elements in the emerging polyptychs often took inspiration from contemporary Gothic architecture, in Italy, they were still typically executed in wood and painted, while in northern Europe altarpieces were often made of stone. The early 14th century saw the emergence, in Germany, the Netherlands, the Baltic region, by hinging the outer panels to the central panel and painting them on both sides, the motif could be regulated by opening or closing the wings.
The pictures could thus be changed depending on liturgical demands, the earliest often displayed sculptures on the inner panels, i. e. displayed when open, and paintings on the back of the wings, displayed when closed. With the advent of winged altarpieces, a shift in imagery occurred, instead of being centred on a single holy figure, altarpieces began to portray more complex narratives linked to the Christian concept of salvation. As the Middle Ages progressed, altarpieces began to be commissioned more frequently, in Northern Europe, initially Lübeck and Antwerp would develop into veritable export centres for the production of altarpieces, exporting to Scandinavia and northern France. By the 15th century, altarpieces were often commissioned not only by churches but by individuals, guilds, the 15th century saw the birth of Early Netherlandish painting in the Low Countries, henceforth panel painting would dominate altarpiece production in the area. In Germany, sculpted wooden altarpieces were instead generally preferred, while in England alabaster was used to a large extent, in England, as well as in France, stone retables enjoyed general popularity.
In Italy both stone retables and wooden polyptychs were common, with painted panels and often with complex framing in the form of architectural compositions
University of Copenhagen Faculty of Science
The Faculty of Science at the University of Copenhagen houses 12 departments, including the Natural History Museum of Denmark. The facultys administration is housed at the universitys Frederiksberg Campus, the faculty offers three-year Bachelor of Science, two-year Master of Science and a three-year Ph. D. degree programmes. There are two areas of study programmes. The other is the natural history-geography group, which includes biology, physical education, sports science, geography, the University was co-founder of the Euroleague for Life Sciences which was established in 2001. In January 2005, the August Krogh Institute and the Department of Molecular Biology merged to form the Department of Molecular Biology and Physiology, three years it was merged into the Department of Biology. In January 2007, the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University was merged into the University of Copenhagen and was renamed as the Faculty of Life Sciences. Five years it was split up, with the veterinary part merging into the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, the seal of the faculty contains the following text which is written in a circle around a stylized rendering of a hafnium atom.
Hafnium was discovered at the Faculty in 1923 by Dirk Coster and Georg von Hevesy, the faculty’s research and teaching takes place across 12 departments. Some departments house specialized sections and laboratories
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning administration. When now used in a sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. This structure of governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese and it can be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese. An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese, an archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance. The archbishop may have authority over any other suffragan bishops. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the bishopric is used to describe the bishop himself. Especially in the Middle Ages, some bishops held political as well as religious authority within their dioceses, in the organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. With the adoption of Christianity as the Empires official religion in the 4th century, a formal church hierarchy was set up, parallel to the civil administration, whose areas of responsibility often coincided.
With the collapse of the Western Empire in the 5th century, a similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was largely retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division, modern usage of diocese tends to refer to the sphere of a bishops jurisdiction. As of January 2015, in the Catholic Church there are 2,851 regular dioceses,1 papal see,641 archdioceses and 2,209 dioceses in the world, in the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy. Eastern Orthodoxy calls dioceses metropoleis in the Greek tradition or eparchies in the Slavic tradition, after the Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as provinces and this usage is relatively common in the Anglican Communion.
Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics and these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory. The Lutheran Church-International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure and its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes. The Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States, in the COGIC, each state is divided up into at least three dioceses that are all led by a bishop, but some states as many as seven dioceses
A brick is building material used to make walls and other elements in masonry construction. Traditionally, the term referred to a unit composed of clay. A brick can be composed of clay-bearing soil and lime, Bricks are produced in numerous classes, types and sizes which vary with region and time period, and are produced in bulk quantities. Two basic categories of bricks are fired and non-fired bricks, block is a similar term referring to a rectangular building unit composed of similar materials, but is usually larger than a brick. Lightweight bricks are made from expanded clay aggregate, fired bricks are one of the longest-lasting and strongest building materials, sometimes referred to as artificial stone, and have been used since circa 5000 BC. Air-dried bricks, known as mudbricks, have an older than fired bricks. Bricks are laid in courses and numerous patterns known as bonds, collectively known as brickwork, the earliest bricks were dried brick, meaning that they were formed from clay-bearing earth or mud and dried until they were strong enough for use.
The oldest discovered bricks, originally made from shaped mud and dating before 7500 BC, were found at Tell Aswad, in the upper Tigris region, ceramic, or fired brick was used as early as 3000 BC in early Indus Valley cities. In pre-modern China, bricks were being used from the 2nd millennium BCE at a site near Xian, the carpenters manual Yingzao Fashi, published in 1103 at the time of the Song dynasty described the brick making process and glazing techniques in use. He had to know when to quench the kiln with water so as to produce the surface glaze, Early civilisations around the Mediterranean adopted the use of fired bricks, including the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The Roman legions operated mobile kilns, and built large brick structures throughout the Roman Empire, during the Early Middle Ages the use of bricks in construction became popular in Northern Europe, after being introduced there from Northern-Western Italy. An independent style of architecture, known as brick Gothic flourished in places that lacked indigenous sources of rocks.
Examples of this style can be found in modern-day Denmark, Poland. A clear distinction between the two styles developed at the transition to Baroque architecture. In Lübeck, for example, Brick Renaissance is clearly recognisable in buildings equipped with terracotta reliefs by the artist Statius von Düren, production of bricks increased massively with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the rise in factory building in England. For reasons of speed and economy, bricks were increasingly preferred as building material to stone and it was at this time in London, that bright red brick was chosen for construction to make the buildings more visible in the heavy fog and to help prevent traffic accidents. The transition from the method of production known as hand-moulding to a mechanised form of mass-production slowly took place during the first half of the nineteenth century. His mechanical apparatus soon achieved widespread attention after it was adopted for use by the South Eastern Railway Company for brick-making at their factory near Folkestone, the Bradley & Craven Ltd ‘Stiff-Plastic Brickmaking Machine’ was patented in 1853, apparently predating Clayton
Copenhagen University Library
The Copenhagen University Library in Copenhagen, Denmark, is the main research library of the University of Copenhagen. Founded in 1482, it is the oldest library in Denmark, the old main building of the library is located in Fiolstræde in central Copenhagen. It was designed by Johan Daniel Herholdt and completed in 1861, a second library, known as the Copenhagen University Library North, is located in Nørre Allé and is the library for natural sciences and medicine. Since 1989, the Copenhagen University Library has been part of the Royal Library of Denmark, in 1482, the University Library was established at the University of Copenhagen which had been founded three years earlier, when its vice-rector, Peder Albertsen, donated his book collection. One of the first buildings to house the library was the House of the Holy Ghost, in 1553, the first real library building, located at the site where the universitys main building stands today, was inaugurated and it served its purpose for the next hundred years.
In the first decades of the 17th century, Copenhagen experienced strong building activity under Christian IV, ultimately the idea emerged to build one grand complex which was to hold both an observatory, a church and new premises for the university library. Construction of the new building, known as the Trinitatis Complex, First to be completed was the observatory at the top of what is today known as the Round Tower. The new university library, located above the church and accessible only by the Round Towers spiral ramp, was taken into use in 1652, in 1656, the Trinitatis Church was completed as the last part of the new trinity of science and faith. Up through the 17th century, the University Library grew significantly, after this, the University surpassed the Royal Library in size. In the Copenhagen Fire of 1728, the University Library was devastated and 30,000 volumes were lost to the flames, only some materials which against the rules had been removed from the premises by students and professors were saved.
After the fire the library was restored along with the rest of the Trinitatis Complex, in 1730, Árni Magnússon bequeathed his book and manuscript collection to the library. It included, most significantly, a collection of Icelandic. The library introduced loans in 1788, they landed in the librarys section for morals and politics where they damaged a corner of Marsilius of Paduas Defensor pacis. Fragments of the grenades are now exhibited in the Exhibition Hall on the first floor of the current University Library building in Fiolstræde, up through the 19th century it became clear that the librarys premises in the Trinitatis Complex were outdated. They had become too small and the access along the Round Towers helical corridor was impractical. In 1856, the university held a competition for the design of a new library on a site in Fiolstræde. The competition was won by Johan Daniel Herholdt, construction started in 1857 and the new building was completed in 1861. The same year the observatory moved to a specially designed building
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth
Rigshospitalet is one of the largest hospitals in Denmark and the most highly specialised hospital in Copenhagen. The hospitals main building is a 16 storey functionalist highrise, one of the tallest structures in the parts of the city. Rigshospitalet neighbours the Panum Building which houses the Faculty of Health, as a teaching hospital it is part of the framework organisation Copenhagen University Hospital. The Danish name is not usually translated to English and it is the genitive of rige and the cognate word is used similarly in Norwegian, Swedish and Dutch. The prefix Stats- is more used, but implies a slightly lower level in the hierarchy. Although Rigshospitalet was founded as a hospital, as opposed to the normal hospitals operated by counties. The hospital itself explains the name was given because its predecessor, Royal Fredericks Hospital, was handed over to the state, Rigshospitalet was founded on 30 March 1757 as Kongelig Frederiks Hospital, named after King Frederick V and situated in Bredgade in central Copenhagen.
The buildings are now occupied by the Danish Museum of Art & Design, since 1903 the state has been the owner of the hospital. In 1910 the hospital was renamed and moved to its present location in ten low buildings surrounding a garden designed by architect Martin Borch. In 1995 the hospital was handed over to Hovedstadens Sygehusfællesskab which in 2007 was absorbed by the Capital Region, in 2007 a helipad was built on top of the hospital. Until then, rescue helicopters and helicopters transferring patients would land in the neighbouring park Fælledparken, rigshospitalets mission is to be Denmarks leading hospital for patients needing highly specialized treatment. Its main specialist role has been enhanced in recent years by the decision that it should serve as the host institution for many of Copenhagens speciality departments, because of this, other hospitals refer patients to Rigshospitalet for the unique expertise available there. Rigshospitalet’s neighbor, the Panum Building, houses the University of Copenhagens Faculty of Health and this proximity optimizes a close cooperation between the two in the fields of research and development.
The Nordic Cochrane Centre and the University Centre for Nursing and Care Research are in Rigshospitalet, with 1,120 beds, Rigshospitalet has responsibility for 65,000 inpatients and approximately 420,000 outpatients annually. Rigshospitalet has a trauma centre specialised at receiving severely injured patients, ordinary emergency department treatment has been relegated to the other hospitals in Copenhagen. The hospital was the location of Lars von Triers television horror mini-series The Kingdom and it is the hospital in which Crown Princess Mary gave birth to her four children by Crown Prince Frederik, Isabella and Josephine. Also Prince Joachims children were born here, Felix, queen Margrethe and Prince Henriks children, Crown Prince Frederik and Prince Joachim, were born at Rigshospitalet. Prince Carl Fredrik and Princess Nathalie of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburgs third child and second son, Prince Frederik, in 2007 Rigshospitalet celebrated its 250th anniversary
The Lakes, Copenhagen
The paths around them are popular with strollers and runners. Originally the area, which the lakes now form, was one long stream and it had an arch shape and was just outside the city levees. In the early Middle Ages, a need of water for watermills was determined, as a result of this a dam was built and the Peblinge Sø was created. As a result of a siege of Copenhagen in 1523, it was decided to expand the entrenchments in order to improve the fortifications of the city, the levee at Peblinge Sø was expanded and another was created, which resulted in the creation of Sortedams Sø. In the beginning of the 16th century, Sankt Jørgens Sø was created and this made it possible to flood the banks and lakes in case of an attack. Peblinge Sø and Sortedams Sø served as reservoirs for the city, the edges were straightened, giving them their current shape. In the middle of the 18th century they were discontinued as a source of drinking water, Sankt Jørgens Sø was to be used instead and it was cleaned and straightened in a similar manner as had the two other lakes 120 years earlier.
Until the end of World War II, it played a role in as a reservoir in Copenhagen. The first Fredensbro was built across Sortedams Sø in 1878 as a wooden bridge. The current Fredensbro is a levee, that separates the two basins. The vertical slopes of Peblinge Sø and Sortedams Sø were made in 1929, in the 60s it was suggested a four lane city ring be constructed, but the project was disbanded and the lakes were granted the a status of a protected area in 1966. Fugleøen is located within the basin of Sortedams Sø. It was raised to fame in 1967, when it was liberated by a group of activists, there are plans to create a park around Sankt Jørgens Sø, with the dual use of acting as a detention basin for cloudburst flood waters. Ramboll is Technical Lead this project team which is led by the design studio SLA, andersens Boulevard which passes the city hall square. The two basins are divided by levee that serves as a foundation for the street Kampmannsgade, a single basin between Gyldenløvesgade and Dronning Louises Bro, which is the continuation of Nørrebrogade.
Sortedams Sø consists of two basins, the southernmost point is by the Dronning Louises Bro, while the northernmost is by Østerbro. The lakes are separated by Fredensbro, the lakes inlet is through piped streams. These streams jointly provide water from the wet-area Utterslev Mose, the lake Emdrup Sø, ladegårdsåen was converted from an open stream to a piped stream in 1925 and is located below the streets Ågade and Åboulevarden
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. They provide the make-up of habitats and structures including homes and these trends tend to increase the initial and long term economic, ecological and social costs of building materials. The initial economic cost of building materials is the purchase price and this is often what governs decision making about what materials to use. Sometimes people take into consideration the energy savings or durability of the materials, for example, an asphalt shingle roof costs less than a metal roof to install, but the metal roof will last longer so the lifetime cost is less per year. Some materials may require more care than others, maintaining costs specific to some materials may influence the final decision. Risks when considering lifetime cost of a material is if the building is damaged such as by fire or wind, the cost of materials should be taken into consideration to bear the risk to buy combustive materials to enlarge the lifetime.
It is said that, if it must be done, it must be done well, pollution costs can be macro and micro. An example of the aspect of pollution is the off-gassing of the building materials in the building or indoor air pollution. Red List building materials are found to be harmful. Also the carbon footprint, the set of greenhouse gas emissions produced in the life of the material. A life-cycle analysis includes the reuse, recycling, or disposal of construction waste, two concepts in building which account for the ecological economics of building materials are green building and sustainable development. Initial energy costs include the amount of energy consumed to produce, the long term energy cost is the economic and social costs of continuing to produce and deliver energy to the building for its use and eventual removal. The initial embodied energy of a structure is the energy consumed to extract, deliver, social costs are injury and health of the people producing and transporting the materials and potential health problems of the building occupants if there are problems with the building biology.
Aspects of fair trade and labor rights are social costs of building material manufacturing. These were variously named wikiups, lean-tos, and so forth, an extension on the brush building idea is the wattle and daub process in which clay soils or dung, usually cow, are used to fill in and cover a woven brush structure. This gives the more thermal mass and strength. Wattle and daub is one of the oldest building techniques, many older timber frame buildings incorporate wattle and daub as non load bearing walls between the timber frames
Such ceremonies are often attended by dignitaries such as politicians and businessmen. The actual shovel or spade used during the actual groundbreaking is often a special ceremonial shovel meant to be saved for subsequent display, commemorative information may be subsequently engraved on the shovel. In some places, clergy may provide blessings, particularly if the building is being constructed by a church or religious-affiliated organization. The term groundbreaking, when used as an adjective, may mean being or making something that has never been done, seen, or made before, builders rites Topping out Cornerstone Publicity stunt Ribbon cutting ceremony Media related to Ground-breaking ceremonies at Wikimedia Commons