Irving K. Barber Learning Centre
The Irving K. Barber Learning Centre is a facility at the Vancouver campus of the University of British Columbia; the Learning Centre is built around the refurbished core of the 1925 UBC Main Library. The Centre is named for Irving. K. Barber, philanthropist and a graduate of UBC; the IKBLC provides library systems, education centre, library and a conduit of knowledge for lifelong learners and space for UBC Library's print collection and collections of rare and special materials. Started in 2006, the goal of the digitization program is to promote access to British Columbia's historical resources, with free online access to provincial historical materials; the Indigitization program supports Indigenous communities and organizations in British Columbia to digitize their cultural heritage materials by providing grant funding and digitization training. The program is unique as it prioritizes communities' needs and ensures that communities retain copyright and control over their cultural heritage materials.
Indigitization is a joint project of IKBLC, the Museum of Anthropology, the iSchool at UBC, Northern BC Archives, continuously receives feedback from Indigenous project partners and grantees through initiatives such as the Indigenous Futures Forum held in 2016. Webcasts of lectures are accessible through the Webcasts Portal; the Chapman Learning Commons, in a refurbished central section of the Learning Centre, provides space for group work as well as seating for individual study. It provides support and services for research and information literacy instruction, writing assistance, learning skills programs and technology through one-to-one help, peer mentoring and virtual resources and services. Collection space for 2,100,000 volumes including open stack shelving and 1,800,000 item capacity with the Automated Storage and Retrieval System Rare Books and Special Collections Climate-controlled vault for rare books and archives The Wallace B. and Madeline H. Chung Collection iSchool@UBC: School of Library and Information Studies Center for Teaching and Technology Gateway Programs – Arts One, Science One, Coordinated Arts and Coordinated Science Dodson and Lillooet Rooms 157-seat Victoria Learning Theatre Classrooms, seminar rooms, project rooms, boardrooms Ridington Reading Room and Musqueam Reading Room Ike’s Café with a seating capacity of more than 80 persons UBC Learning Commons Chapman Learning Commons Indigitization
Massey College, Toronto
Massey College is a graduate residential college at the University of Toronto, established and endowed in 1962 by the Massey Foundation. It was modeled around the traditional Cambridge and Oxford collegiate system and features a central court and porters lodge. Similar to St. John's College and All Souls College, Oxford and junior fellows of Massey College are nominated from the university community and the wider community, are elected by the governing board of the college; the President of the University of Toronto, the Dean of graduate studies and three members of the Massey Foundation are ex officio members of the governing board, chaired by the elected member of the governing board. Members of the governing board are elected for five years; the college is well-connected with prominent figures of the national establishment, is the sponsor and host of the annual Massey Lectures. It hosted the Man Booker International Prize of 2007. Massey College was conceived by Vincent Massey, the 18th Governor General of Canada who attended University College, Toronto, as an undergraduate.
Of the establishment of a new graduate college, Massey wrote, "It is of great importance that it should, in its form, reflect the life which will go on inside it and should possess certain qualities—dignity, grace and warmth." The Massey Foundation, for which Vincent Massey served as a trustee, provided the financial endowment. Opened in 1963, the college was designed by Canadian architect Ron Thom, who subsequently designed the master plan for Trent University. Alan Beddoe designed the Massey College coats of arms; the founding Master of Massey College was the celebrated Canadian journalist and author Robertson Davies, CC. Professor J. N. Patterson Hume, CM, was the second Master, Professor Ann Saddlemyer, OC, the third Master; the fourth Master was journalist John Fraser, CM. On July 1, 2014, Hugh Segal a member of the Senate of Canada, became the 5th Master of Massey College for a 7-year term, but he resigned in 2018 and will be replaced from the 2019-2020 academic year. During the 2006–07 academic year, the College hosted the King and Queen of Sweden, held a special tribute in honour of its Founding Master, Robertson Davies, was the host of the Man Booker International Prize in April 2007.
Ron Thom's design for Massey College was inspired by the Medieval Oxbridge style college. As in Oxford and Cambridge, the buildings of Massey College all centre around one court, accessible through only two gates; the main gate is at the foot of the tower, along with the porter's lodge. The quad contains a large pond with fish and fountains as well as the St. Catherine's Bell in the clock tower attached to the porch; the bells are rung three times a day during the school term to mark meal times. Around the quad are a total of five residence houses on the east and west sides; the ground floors of these houses contain some administration offices. The largest building, containing the majority of the public space available to members of the fellowship, is on the south side along with the master's house. Public space at Massey College includes the large dining hall, a small private dining room, a college common room and bar, an upper library, the lower library, the "puffy couch room", the Colin Friesen seminar room, a computer room, non-resident study carrels.
Similar to Oxford and Cambridge colleges, Massey is home to an ecumenical worship space, St. Catherine's Chapel, the interior of, designed by stage designer Tanya Moiseiwitsch; the Chapel features a 17th-century Russian iconostasis and cross, as well as "portativ" pipe organ specially designed for the chapel by the Quebec organ builder, James Louder. The chapel was extensively redesigned in 2006 by the College architects, Brigitte Shim and Howard Sutcliffe, rededicated in June 2007. In June 2017, the Chapel was designated as the third Chapel Royal in Canada and it is the first interdenominational and interfaith Chapel Royal in the country; the college buildings are studied by architecture students. In 2013, which marked its 50th anniversary, Massey College received two prestigious architecture awards; the 2013 Prix du XXe siècle, awarded by The Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, recognizes "the enduring excellence of nationally significant architecture, such as landmark buildings in the historical context of Canadian Architecture.
The award can go to a building in Canada, designed by an architect from any country, or a building anywhere designed by a Canadian architect." The commentary from the award’s jury reads as follows: "Massey College is a skillful and humane interpretation of Arts and Crafts sensibilities in a modernist idiom. It is remarkable for its seamless integration of exterior and interior design, including the rich detailing of its custom furnishings and fittings, it has aged well, is one of the University of Toronto’s most treasured modern buildings." The 2013 Landmark Award was awarded to Massey College by the Ontario Association of Architects. "Recognizing buildings that demonstrate architecture’s beauty and lasting contribution to the community and to society", a Landmark building "establishes a design excellence standard for future generations, enhances its environment and the public realm and respects its surroundings. Fall 2013 issue of Perspectives magazine, published by OAA, was dedicated to Ron Thom and featured Massey College.
The Robertson Davies Library known as the lower library, houses the college's librarian as we
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam 50 miles north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, its population was 123,867 including 24,506 students. Cambridge became an important trading centre during the Roman and Viking ages, there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area as early as the Bronze Age; the first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although modern city status was not conferred until 1951. The world-renowned University of Cambridge was founded in 1209; the buildings of the university include King's College Chapel, Cavendish Laboratory, the Cambridge University Library, one of the largest legal deposit libraries in the world. The city's skyline is dominated by several college buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital and St John's College Chapel tower. Anglia Ruskin University, which evolved from the Cambridge School of Art and the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology has its main campus in the city.
Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology Silicon Fen with industries such as software and bioscience and many start-up companies born out of the university. More than 40% of the workforce have a higher education qualification, more than twice the national average; the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world, is soon to house premises of AstraZeneca, a hotel and the relocated Papworth Hospital. The first game of association football took place at Parker's Piece; the Strawberry Fair music and arts festival and Midsummer Fair are held on Midsummer Common, the annual Cambridge Beer Festival takes place on Jesus Green. The city is adjacent to the A14 roads. Cambridge station is less than an hour from London King's Cross railway station. Settlements have existed around the Cambridge area since prehistoric times; the earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a 3,500-year-old farmstead discovered at the site of Fitzwilliam College.
Archaeological evidence of occupation through the Iron Age is a settlement on Castle Hill from the 1st century BC relating to wider cultural changes occurring in southeastern Britain linked to the arrival of the Belgae. The principal Roman site is a small fort Duroliponte on Castle Hill, just northwest of the city centre around the location of the earlier British village; the fort was bounded on two sides by the lines formed by the present Mount Pleasant, continuing across Huntingdon Road into Clare Street. The eastern side followed Magrath Avenue, with the southern side running near to Chesterton Lane and Kettle's Yard before turning northwest at Honey Hill, it was converted to civilian use around 50 years later. Evidence of more widespread Roman settlement has been discovered including numerous farmsteads and a village in the Cambridge district of Newnham. Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain around 410, the location may have been abandoned by the Britons, although the site is identified as Cair Grauth listed among the 28 cities of Britain by the History of the Britons.
Evidence exists that the invading Anglo-Saxons had begun occupying the area by the end of the century. Their settlement – on and around Castle Hill – became known as Grantebrycge. Anglo-Saxon grave goods have been found in the area. During this period, Cambridge benefited from good trade links across the hard-to-travel fenlands. By the 7th century, the town was less significant and described by Bede as a "little ruined city" containing the burial site of Etheldreda. Cambridge was on the border between the East and Middle Anglian kingdoms and the settlement expanded on both sides of the river; the arrival of the Vikings was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875. Viking rule, the Danelaw, had been imposed by 878 Their vigorous trading habits caused the town to grow rapidly. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the left bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank. After the Viking period, the Saxons enjoyed a return to power, building churches such as St Bene't's Church, merchant houses and a mint, which produced coins with the town's name abbreviated to "Grant".
In 1068, two years after his conquest of England, William of Normandy built a castle on Castle Hill. Like the rest of the newly conquered kingdom, Cambridge fell under the control of the King and his deputies; the first town charter was granted by Henry I between 1120 and 1131. It recognised the borough court; the distinctive Round Church dates from this period. In 1209, Cambridge University was founded by students escaping from hostile townspeople in Oxford; the oldest existing college, was founded in 1284. In 1349 Cambridge was affected by the Black Death. Few records survive; the town north of the river was affected being wiped out. Following further depopulation after a second national epidemic in 1361, a letter from the Bishop of Ely suggested that two parishes in Cambridge be merged as there were not enough people to fill one church. With more than a third of English clergy dying in the Black Death, four new colleges were established at the university over the following years to train new clergymen, namely Gonville Hall, Trinity Hall, Corpus Christi and Clare.
In 1382 a revised town charter effects a "diminution of the liberties that the community had enjoyed", due to Cambridge's pa
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
Faculties and Schools of the University of British Columbia
The University of British Columbia is a Canadian public research university with campuses in Vancouver and Kelowna, British Columbia. The following is a list of faculties and schools at UBC. Faculty of Applied Science Engineering Biomedical Engineering Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Clean Energy Engineering Department of Civil Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering Engineering Physics Environmental Engineering Geological Engineering Integrated Engineering Department of Materials Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering Keevil Institute of Mining Engineering School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture School of Community and Regional Planning School of Nursing Faculty of Arts Department of Anthropology Department of Art History, Visual Art and Theory Department of Asian Studies Department of Classical, Near Eastern and Religious Studies Department of Central Eastern Northern European Studies UBC Vancouver School of Economics Department of English Department of French, Hispanic & Italian Studies Department of Geography Department of History Humanities 101 School of Journalism School of Library and Information Studies Department of Linguistics Museum of Anthropology School of Music Department of Philosophy Department of Political Science Department of Psychology School of Social Work Department of Sociology Department of Theatre and Film Women's and Gender Studies Program Sauder School of Business Division of Accounting Division of Finance Division of Law Division of Management Information Systems Division of Marketing Master of Business Administration Master of Management in Operations Research Division of Operations and Logistics Division of Organizational Behaviour and Human Resources PhD Program Real Estate Division Division of Strategy and Business Economics Continuing Studies Faculty of Dentistry Faculty of Education Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, Special Education Centre for Cross-Faculty Inquiry in Education Department of Curriculum Studies Department of Educational Studies UBC School of Kinesiology Department of Language and Literacy Education Teacher Education Faculty of Forestry Department of Forest Resources Management Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences Department of Wood Science Faculty of Graduate Studies Green College St. John's College Interdisciplinary Graduate Studies Program College of Health Disciplines College for Interdisciplinary Studies Asia Pacific Policy Studies Bioinformatics European Studies Genetics Neuroscience Environmental Health Oncology Planning Resources and Environmental Studies Software Systems Women's and Gender Studies Program Global Resource Systems Applied Biology Food, Nutrition & Health UBC Farm Dairy Education and Research Centre Graduate Studies Faculty of Law Faculty of Medicine Department of Anesthesiology and Therapeutics School of Audiology and Speech Sciences Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences Department of Dermatology and Skin Science Department of Family Practice Department of Medical Genetics Department of Medicine Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Department of Pediatrics Department of Physical Therapy Department of Population and Public Health Department of Psychiatry Department of Radiology Department of Surgery Department of Urologic Sciences Division of Continuing Professional Development Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty of Science Department of Botany Department of Chemistry Department of Computer Science Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences Department of Mathematics Department of Microbiology and Immunology Department of Physics and Astronomy Department of Statistics Department of Zoology The Irving K.
Barber School of Arts and Sciences Unit 1 Anthropology Human Geography Indigenous Studies Gender and Women's Studies Unit 2 Department of Biology Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Microbiology Zoology Unit 3 Department of Chemistry Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Unit 4 Department of Psychology Unit 5 Department of Computer Science Department of Mathematics Department of Physics Department of Statistics Unit 6 Department of History Department of Sociology Unit 7 Earth and Environmental Sciences Environmental Chemistry Freshwater Science Physical Geography Unit 8 Philosophy Political Science Economics Faculty of Creative and Critical Studies Department of Creative Studies Department of Critical Studies Faculty of Education Education Technology Centre Faculty of Applied ScienceSchool of Engineering Civil Engineering Electrical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Health and Social Development School of Nursing School of Social Work School of Health and Exercise Sciences Health Studies Human Kinetics Faculty of Management Faculty of Medicine Southern Medical Program College of Graduate Studies UBC Vancouver Faculties and Schools UBC Vancouver Faculties UBC Okanagan Faculties and Schools
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar