DeKalb County, Missouri
DeKalb County is a county located in the northwest portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,892, its county seat is Maysville. The county was organized February 25, 1845 and named for General Johann de Kalb, Baron de Kalb, of the Revolutionary War. DeKalb County is part of the St. Joseph, MO-KS Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Kansas City-Overland Park-Kansas City, MO-KS Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 426 square miles, of which 421 square miles is land and 4.5 square miles is water. Gentry County Daviess County Caldwell County Clinton County Buchanan County Andrew County Interstate 35 U. S. Route 36 U. S. Route 69 U. S. Route 169 Route 6 Route 31 Route 33 As of the census of 2000, there were 11,597 people, 3,528 households and 2,473 families residing in the county; the population density was 27 people per square mile. There were 3,839 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 89.09% White, 8.86% Black or African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races and 0.93% from two or more races. 1.08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,528 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 9.60% were married couples living together, 7.40% had a female householder with no husband present and 29.90% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 20.70% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 36.30% from 25 to 44, 20.90% from 45 to 64 and 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 152.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 168.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,654 and the median income for a family was $37,329.
Males had a median income of $28,434 versus $20,207 for females. The per capita income for the county was $12,687. About 7.20% of families and 10.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.80% of those under age 18 and 75.20% of those age 65 or over. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives County Membership Report, DeKalb County is sometimes regarded as being on the northern edge of the Bible Belt, with evangelical Protestantism being the most predominant religion; the most predominant denominations among residents in DeKalb County who adhere to a religion are Southern Baptists, United Methodists and Community of Christ. Maysville R-I School District – Maysville Maysville Elementary School Maysville Junior/Senior High School Osborn R-0 School District – Osborn Osborn Elementary School Osborn Senior High School Stewartsville C-2 School District – Stewartsville Stewartsville Elementary School Stewartsville Senior High School Union Star R-II School District – Union Star Union Star Elementary School Union Star Senior High School Cameron Public Library DeKalb County Public Library The Republican Party controls politics at the local level in DeKalb County.
Republicans hold all but four of the elected positions in the county. DeKalb County is a part of Missouri’s 2nd District in the Missouri House of Representatives and is represented by J. Eggleston. DeKalb County is a part of Missouri’s 12th District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Dan Hegeman. DeKalb County is included in Missouri’s 6th Congressional District and is represented by Sam Graves in the U. S. House of Representatives. In recent presidential elections, DeKalb County has been dominated by Republicans; the last time a Democratic candidate has won this county was in 1996 by Bill Clinton: however, the county was won by margin of 1.4%. At the presidential level, DeKalb County is Republican-leaning. George W. Bush carried the county in 2000 and 2004. Bill Clinton was the last Democratic presidential nominee to carry DeKalb County in 1996 and like many of the rural counties throughout Missouri, DeKalb County favored John McCain over Barack Obama in 2008. Like most rural areas throughout northwest Missouri, voters in DeKalb County adhere to and culturally conservative principles which tend to influence their Republican leanings, at least on the state and national levels.
In 2004, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to define marriage as the union between a man and a woman—it overwhelmingly passed in DeKalb County with 80.7% of the vote. The initiative passed. In 2006, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to fund and legalize embryonic stem cell research in the state—it failed in DeKalb County with 55.9% voting against the measure. The initiative narrowly passed the state with 51% of support from voters as Missouri became one of the first states in the nation to approve embryonic stem cell research. Despite DeKalb County's longstanding tradition of supporting conservative platforms, voters in the county have a penchant for advancing populist causes like increasing the minimum wage. In 2006, Missourians voted on a proposition to increase the minimum wage in the state to $6.50 an hour—it passed in DeKalb County with 67.7% of the vote. The proposition passed every single county in Missouri with 78.99% voting in favor. (During the same election, voters in five other
Troy is a city in and the county seat of Doniphan County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 1,010. Troy was platted in 1855, it was named after the ancient city of Troy. The first house in Troy was built in 1856, the first store opened in 1857. Troy was incorporated as a city in 1860; the first post office in Troy was established in March, 1857. Troy grew up from humble beginnings along the wagon route from St. Joseph, Missouri to Oregon and California. British explorer Richard Francis Burton en route to California in 1860 noted: "Passing through a few wretched shanties called Troy..." Troy is located at 39°47′17″N 95°05′27″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.99 square miles, of which 0.98 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. Troy is part of the St. MO -- KS Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,010 people, 421 households, 275 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,030.6 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 467 housing units at an average density of 476.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.3% White, 0.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.7% of the population. There were 421 households of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.6% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.7% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.95. The median age in the city was 39.1 years. 24.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.3% male and 51.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,054 people, 439 households, 295 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,473.4 people per square mile.
There were 474 housing units at an average density of 662.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.77% White, 0.28% African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.09% from other races, 0.47% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.04% of the population. There were 439 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.0% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.96. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 19.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $31,786, the median income for a family was $37,039. Males had a median income of $28,229 versus $19,706 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,138. About 13.4% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of those age 65 or over. Chloe Gartner, American novelist. Charles "Buffalo" Jones, American frontiersman, rancher and conservationist who cofounded Garden City, Kansas. Charles Evans Whittaker, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1957 to 1962 CityCity of Troy Troy - Directory of Public OfficialsSchoolsUSD 429, local school districtPhotosTall Oak Indian Monument, KansasPhotoTour.com Troy - Kansas Historical Marker, Kansas Heritage.orgMapsTroy City Map, KDOT
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Rea is a city in Andrew County, United States. The population was 50 at the 2010 census, it is part of the St. MO -- KS Metropolitan Statistical Area. A post office called Rea has been in operation since 1888; the city was named after the original owner of the town site. The J. F. Roberts Octagonal Barn was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999. Rea is located at 40°3′40″N 94°45′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.12 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 50 people, 25 households, 12 families residing in the city; the population density was 416.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 25 housing units at an average density of 208.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 100.0% White. There were 25 households of which 20.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.0% were married couples living together, 4.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 52.0% were non-families.
40.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 24% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.75. The median age in the city was 49.3 years. 18% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.0% male and 52.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 56 people, 24 households, 16 families residing in the city; the population density was 461.2 people per square mile. There were 25 housing units at an average density of 205.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 100.00% White. There were 24 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.7% were married couples living together, 29.2% were non-families. 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.76. In the city the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 1.8% from 18 to 24, 35.7% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,250, the median income for a family was $37,188. Males had a median income of $35,625 versus $11,667 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,639. There were no families and 4.3% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Cameron is a city in Clinton, DeKalb and Caldwell counties in the U. S. state of Missouri. The population was 9,933 at the 2010 census; the Clinton County portion of Cameron is part of the Kansas City, MO–KS Metropolitan Statistical Area, while the DeKalb County portion is part of the St. Joseph, MO–KS Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 1854, Samuel McCorkle platted the town of Somerville; when the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad proposed coming through the area, the line claimed the area around Somerville was too steep for the rail, so he platted a new community 1.5 miles to the west in what is now "Olde Towne" Cameron. The town platted in 1855 was named for the maiden name of Malinda Cameron. McCorkle Park is still Cameron's centerpiece park. During the 1860s, as fierce competition raged for the starting point of the First Transcontinental Railroad, there was competition to get the Hannibal & St. Joseph to cross the Missouri River. Omaha, Nebraska was to win the fight. However, there was no bridge connecting it to the rest of the network.
Kansas City, Missouri was able to convince the railroad to bypass its rivals in St. Joseph, Kansas, Atchison and Parkville, Missouri to create the "Cameron Branch" of the railroad; the construction of the Hannibal Bridge in Kansas City was to propel that city into being the dominant city in the region. Cameron was to enjoy a surge in its population because of the cutoff, with its population growing from 100 in 1859 to 3,000 by 1881. Cameron was a college town from 1883 until 1930. Founded as the Cameron Institute, it became Missouri Wesleyan College, operated by the Methodist Church until 1930. A building on the campus would become Cameron High School until being torn down in the 1960s, when a new high school was built on a site a few blocks south. Cameron gained prominence in the 1980s and 1990s after Cameron area resident Bob F. Griffin served more than 15 years as Speaker of the Missouri House of Representatives—the longest of any representative. Among the pork barrel legislation he was to bring to the town were the Missouri Veterans Home and the Western Missouri Correctional Center, the latter of, the city's largest employer, with 700 employees.
A street in the town is named "Bob Griffin Road," though the road remains unpaved for most of its length. Griffin served four years in prison for corruption. Cameron's character has evolved with the intersection of limited access highways, it has expanded to the north towards and past U. S. Route 36, it has expanded to the east towards Interstate 35. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.30 square miles, of which 6.04 square miles is land and 0.26 square miles is water. More than two thirds of the community is in Clinton County, south of NE Platte/8th Street/County Road 56; this area includes Cameron High School and Veterans Home. The area north of the street in DeKalb includes the Crossroads Correctional Center and Western Missouri Correctional Center, the shopping centers next to U. S. 36. In addition, portions of the community stretch east to the Caldwell County line; the north-south-east division creates an unusual street grid naming system in which some streets in the northern part of Cameron in DeKalb follow that county's naming structure of Southeast Rogers Road, Southeast Summit Road, Southeast Pence Road, etc. while roads in the south of Cameron in northern Clinton County have road names of Northeast 358th Street, Northeast 348th Street, etc.
These latter street names and directions represent a continuation of the street system for Kansas City. With Caldwell County on the east side of Cameron, that means that street name extensions in Caldwell County on the far east side have a prefix of Northwest such as Northwest Old Highway 36. In one instance just outside the city limits, Southeast Oregon Road in Dekalb County becomes Northwest Oregon Road in Caldwell County when heading east from Cameron. Cameron experiences a humid continental climate, with cold and snowy winters and hot and humid summers. Extreme weather, such as thunderstorms and tornadoes and have occurred in Cameron. Snow falls during the winter months, while early summer are the wettest time; as of the census of 2010, there were 9,933 people, 2,605 households, 1,562 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,644.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,951 housing units at an average density of 488.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82.9% White, 14.8% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.0% of the population. There were 2,605 households of which 33.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.6% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.0% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.04. The median age in the city was 37.4 years. 17.1% of residents were under the age of 18.
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol