National Historic Sites of Canada
National Historic Sites of Canada are places that have been designated by the federal Minister of the Environment on the advice of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, as being of national historic significance. Parks Canada, a federal agency, manages the National Historic Sites program; as of October 2018, there are 987 National Historic Sites, 171 of which are administered by Parks Canada. The sites are located across all ten provinces and three territories, with two sites located in France. There are related federal designations for National Historic Persons. Sites and Persons are each marked by a federal plaque of the same style, but the markers do not indicate which designation a subject has been given; the Rideau Canal is a National Historic Site. Emerging Canadian nationalist sentiment in the late 19th century and early 20th century led to an increased interest in preserving Canada's historic sites. There were galvanizing precedents in other countries. With the support of notables such as Victor Hugo and Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, the Commission des monuments historique was created in France in 1837.
In the United Kingdom, the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty was created in 1894 to protect that country's historic and natural heritage. While there was no National Park Service in the United States until 1916, battlefields of the Civil War were designated and managed by the War Department: Chickamauga and Chattanooga, Shiloh, Gettysburg and Chalmette. Domestically, Lord Dufferin, the Governor General from 1872 to 1878, initiated some of the earliest, high-profile efforts to preserve Canada's historic sites, he was instrumental in stopping the demolition of the fortifications of Quebec City, he was the first public official to call for the creation of a park on the lands next to Niagara Falls. The 1908 tricentennial of the founding of Quebec City, the establishment that same year of the National Battlefields Commission to preserve the Plains of Abraham, acted as a catalyst for federal efforts to designate and preserve historic sites across Canada. At the same time, the federal government was looking for ways to extend the National Park system to Eastern Canada.
The more populated east did not have the same large expanses of undeveloped Crown land that had become parks in the west, so the Dominion Parks Branch looked to historic features to act as focal points for new national parks. In 1914, the Parks Branch undertook a survey of historic sites in Canada, with the objective of creating new recreational areas rather than preserving historic places. Fort Howe in Saint John, New Brunswick was designated a national historic park in 1914, named the "Fort Howe National Park"; the fort was not a site of significant national historic importance, but its designation provided a rationale for the acquisition of land for a park. Fort Anne in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia was designated in 1917. In 1919, William James Roche, the Minister of the Interior, was concerned over the fate of old fur trade posts in Western Canada, he was being lobbied by historical associations across Canada for federal funds to assist with the preservation and commemoration of local landmarks.
At the same time, the Department of Militia and Defence was anxious to transfer old forts, the associated expenses, to the Parks Branch. Roche asked James B. Harkin, the first Commissioner of Dominion Parks, to develop a departmental heritage policy. Harkin believed that the Parks Branch did not have the necessary expertise to manage historic resources. On Harkin's recommendation, the government created the Advisory Board for Historic Site Preservation in 1919 in order to advise the Minister on a new program of National Historic Sites. Brigadier General Ernest Alexander Cruikshank, a noted authority on the War of 1812 and the history of Ontario, was chosen as the Board's first chairman, a post he held for twenty years; the first place designated and plaqued under the new program was the "Cliff Site" in Port Dover, where two priests claimed sovereignty over the Lake Erie region for Louis XIV of France in 1670. Due to a lack of resources, the HSMBC limited itself to recommending sites for designation, the focus of the program was on commemoration rather than on preservation.
Benjamin Sulte, a member of the HSMBC, wrote to Harkin in 1919 about the significant ruins at the Forges du Saint-Maurice, demonstrating his preference for the installation of a plaque over restoration: "All that can be done in our days is to clear away the heap of stones, in order to reach the foundation walls and plant a sign in the centre of the square thus uncovered."In the early years of the program, National Historic Sites were chosen to commemorate battles, important men, the fur trade and political events. Of the 285 National Historic Sites designated by 1943, 105 represented military history, 52 represented the fur trade and exploration, 43 represented famous individuals (almo
Hockey Hall of Fame
The Hockey Hall of Fame is an ice hockey museum located in Toronto, Canada. Dedicated to the history of ice hockey, it is a hall of fame, it holds exhibits about players, National Hockey League records, memorabilia and NHL trophies, including the Stanley Cup. Founded in Kingston, the Hockey Hall of Fame was established in 1943 under the leadership of James T. Sutherland; the first class of honoured members was inducted in 1945, before the Hall of Fame had a permanent location. It moved to Toronto in 1958 after the NHL withdrew its support for the International Hockey Hall of Fame in Kingston, Ontario, its first permanent building opened at Exhibition Place in 1961. The hall was relocated in 1993, is now in downtown Toronto, inside Brookfield Place, a historic Bank of Montreal building. An 18-person committee of players and others meets annually in June to select new honourees, who are inducted as players, builders or on-ice officials. In 2010, a subcategory was established for female players; the builders' category includes coaches, general managers, team owners and others who have helped build the game.
Honoured members are inducted into the Hall of Fame in an annual ceremony held at the Hall of Fame building in November, followed by a special "Hockey Hall of Fame Game" between the Toronto Maple Leafs and a visiting team. As of 2018, 280 players, 109 builders and 16 on-ice officials have been inducted into the Hall of Fame; the Hall of Fame has been criticized for focusing on players from the National Hockey League and ignoring players from other North American and international leagues. The Hockey Hall of Fame was established through the efforts of James T. Sutherland, a former President of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association. Sutherland sought to establish it in Kingston, Ontario as he believed that the city was the birthplace of hockey. In 1943, the NHL and CAHA reached an agreement. Called the "International Hockey Hall of Fame", its mandate was to honour great hockey players and to raise funds for a permanent location; the first nine "honoured members" were inducted on April 30, 1945, although the Hall of Fame still did not have a permanent home.
The first board of governors consisted of Red Dutton, Art Ross, Frank Sargent, Lester Patrick, Abbie E. H. Coo, Wes McKnight, Basil E. O'Meara, J. P. Fitzgerald and W. A. Hewitt. Kingston lost its most influential advocate as permanent site of the Hockey Hall of Fame when Sutherland died in 1955. By 1958, the Hockey Hall of Fame had still not raised sufficient funds to construct a permanent building in Kingston. Clarence Campbell President of the NHL, grew tired of waiting for the construction to begin and withdrew the NHL's support to situate the hall in Kingston. In the same year, the NHL and the Canadian National Exhibition reached an agreement to establish a new Hall of Fame building in Toronto, in the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame located at Exhibition Place; the temporary Hockey Hall of Fame opened as an exhibit within the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame in August 1958, 350,000 people visited it during the 1958 CNE fair. Due to the success of the exhibit, NHL and CNE decided that a permanent home in the Exhibition Place was needed.
The NHL agreed to fund the building of the new facility on the grounds of Exhibition Place, construction began in 1960. The first permanent Hockey Hall of Fame, which shared a building with the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame, was opened on August 26, 1961, by Canadian Prime Minister John Diefenbaker. Over 750,000 people visited the Hall in its inaugural year. Admission to the Hockey Hall of Fame was free until 1980, when the Hockey Hall of Fame facilities underwent expansion. By 1986, the Hall of Fame was running out of room in its existing facilities and the Board of Directors decided that a new home was needed; the Hall vacated the Exhibition Place building in 1992, its half was taken over by the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame. (The building was demolished. Development of the new location in the BCE Place complex, featuring the former Bank of Montreal at the corner of Yonge and Front Streets in Toronto, began soon after; the design was by S. George Curry; the new Hockey Hall of Fame opened on June 18, 1993.
The new location has 4,700 m2 of exhibition space, seven times larger. The Hockey Hall of Fame now hosts more than 300,000 visitors each year; the first curator of the new Hall of Fame was Bobby Hewitson. Following Hewitson's retirement in 1967, Lefty Reid was appointed to the position. Reid was curator of the Hockey Hall of Fame for the next 25 years, retiring in 1992. Following Reid's retirement, former NHL referee-in-chief Scotty Morrison, the president of the Hockey Hall of Fame since 1986, was appointed curator. Morrison supervised the relocation of the Hall of its exhibits; the current curator is Phil Pritchard. The Hockey Hall of Fame is led by Lanny McDonald, Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer, Jeff Denommé, it is operated as a non-profit business called the "Hockey Hall of Fame and Museum", independent of the National Hockey League. The Hall of Fame was sponsored by the NHL and Hockey Canada and revenue is generated through admissions; the Hockey Hall of Fame has 15 exhibit areas covering 60,000 square feet.
Visitors can view tr
BMO Field is an outdoor stadium located at Exhibition Place in Toronto, Canada, home to Toronto FC of Major League Soccer and the Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League. Constructed on the site of the former Exhibition Stadium and first opened in 2007, it is owned by the City of Toronto, managed by Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment; the stadium's naming rights are held by the Bank of Montreal, branded as "BMO". BMO Field was constructed as a soccer-specific stadium to serve as the home field of the expansion Toronto FC, hosted matches during the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup and 2014 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup. In 2010, when it was still a neutral-site game, BMO Field hosted the MLS Cup, it has since hosted the 2016 and 2017 finals featuring Toronto FC, under the current practice of giving home field advantage to the side with the better regular season record. The venue has hosted rugby union, including matches of Canada's national team, rugby sevens during the 2015 Pan-American Games.
From 2014 to 2016, the stadium underwent a series of major renovations, which added an upper deck to the east grandstand, a roof over the seating areas and lengthened the field to make it suitable for hosting Canadian football. The latter allowed for the Toronto Argonauts to move to BMO Field beginning with the 2016 CFL season, which saw the 104th Grey Cup played at the stadium. BMO Field is the fifth stadium to be built at its exact location at Exhibition Place; the most recent was Exhibition Stadium, which lost its primary tenants, the Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League and Toronto Blue Jays of Major League Baseball, with the opening in 1989 of the SkyDome. Exhibition Stadium was demolished in 1999. A number of proposals to build a stadium in Toronto were considered in the 2000s; the Argonauts submitted a proposal to the city to renovate Lamport Stadium and expand it to 19,000. In March 2003 the proposal was modified to constructing a new 22,000 seat stadium at Exhibition Place.
That July the Canadian Soccer Association announced separate plans for a 30,000 seat $82 million stadium at the site, to host the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup which it had bid on. The governments of Canada and Ontario agreed to provide a combined C$35 million in funding for a new stadium if the CSA was successful in acquiring the rights to the tournament. At the time, Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment, owners of the National Hockey League's Toronto Maple Leafs and the National Basketball Association's Toronto Raptors, was looking for a stadium to host a new Major League Soccer team they were considering launching; the league considered soccer-specific stadiums to be necessary for an expansion franchise to be granted, due to the improved atmosphere and control of revenue streams. The Argonauts, CSA and MLSE agreed to partner to build a new 25,000-seat, $80 million Varsity Stadium at the University of Toronto. Aside from the committed government funding, $15 million was to come from the UofT, which would own the stadium, a $30 million loan would be taken out by the University with the annual $2.1 million financing charges paid by the Argos.
However, MLSE backed out of the stadium due to a lack of financial return, the deal fell through in 2004 when the University's new President withdrew his support after its cost rose over $100 million. That year, the Argos and CSA announced plans to build a 25,000-seat, $70 million stadium at York University, which would contribute the land and $15 million, with the Argos adding $20 million to the government funding. MLSE was not involved in this project. However, the Argos pulled out of the stadium after signing a new 15-year lease at Rogers Centre with reduced rent. In 2005, the stadium site was moved back to Exhibition Place, on the location of the demolished Exhibition Stadium and then-existing Sports Hall of Fame building, in a partnership between MLSE and the CSA. With a total costs of $62.9 million to build the stadium, financial contributions came from multiple sources. The Canadian Federal Government contributed $27 million, the Government of Ontario added an additional $8 million, the City of Toronto paid $9.8 million and contributed the land for the project, while retaining ownership of the stadium.
MLSE was responsible for any cost overruns. In return, they got the management rights for the stadium. MLSE committed to purchase a MLS soccer team to play in the stadium; the remaining funds came from MLSE, which paid $10 million for the naming rights of the stadium for the duration of the 20-year management agreement, which they resold to the Bank of Montreal for $27 million over the first 10 years. The proposal approved by the City of Toronto was for a stadium, "capable of a conversion to a football format." The Argonauts attempted to join the project at the last minute, but MLSE, citing budget and time limitations, constructed the stadium such that it could not fit a CFL field without demolition and reconstruction of the end zone stands. The field of play dimensions are 74 yards wide × 115 yards long; the stadium features seats which are red with the exception of a design on each of the main stands. On the east side, the design is a large maple leaf while on the lower west stand the design spells out "TORONTO", has a portion of the Toronto FC logo.
The south stand has "BMO" spelled out. On May 11, 2006, Major League Soccer announced that Toronto FC would join the league as its 13th team in 2007, with BMO Field serving as its home. BMO Field used Field
Art Gallery of Ontario
The Art Gallery of Ontario is an art museum in Toronto, Canada. Its collection includes close to 95,000 works spanning the first century to the present day; the gallery has 45,000 square metres of physical space, making it one of the largest galleries in North America. Significant collections include the largest collection of Canadian art, an expansive body of works from the Renaissance and the Baroque eras, European art and Oceanic art, a modern and contemporary collection; the photography collection is a large part of the collection, as well as an extensive drawing and prints collection. The museum contains many significant sculptures, such as in the Henry Moore sculpture centre, represents other forms of art like historic objects, frames and medieval illuminations and video art, graphic art, installations and ship models. During the AGO's history, it has hosted and organized some of the world's most renowned and significant exhibitions, continues to do so, to this day; the Art Gallery was founded in 1900 as the Art Museum of Toronto.
The Gallery was renamed to the Art Gallery of Toronto in 1919, the Art Gallery of Ontario in 1966. Since 1974, the gallery has seen four major expansions and renovations considered a high number and unseen by most galleries of the world, continues to add spaces; the renovated and renamed J. S. McLean Centre for Indigenous & Canadian Art opened in July 2018. Prior recent renovations by Hariri Pontarini Architects include the Weston Family Learning Centre, which opened in October 2011 and the South Entrance and lounge outside the library, which opened in July 2017; the David Milne Research Centre, which opened in April 2012, was designed by KPMB Architects. Earlier major renovations were designed by noted architects John C. Parkin, Barton Myers and KPMB Architects, Frank Gehry. In addition to display galleries, the structure houses an extensive library, student spaces, gallery workshop space, artist-in-residence, a restaurant, café, espresso bar, research centre and lecture hall, Gehry-designed gift shop, an event space called Baillie Court, which occupies the entirety of the third floor of the contemporary tower.
The gallery is located in the Downtown Grange Park district, on Dundas Street West between McCaul and Beverley Streets, between Chinatown and Little Japan. The Art Gallery of Ontario is the second most visited museum in Toronto after the Royal Ontario Museum in 2014; the museum was founded in 1900 by a group of private citizens, members of the Ontario Society of Artists, who incorporated the institution as the Art Museum of Toronto. The Legislative Assembly of Ontario subsequently enacted An Act respecting the Art Museum of Toronto in 1903; the museum was renamed the Art Gallery of Toronto in 1919, subsequently the Art Gallery of Ontario in 1966. The current location of the AGO dates to 1909, when Harriet Boulton Smith bequeathed her historic 1817 Georgian manor, the Grange, to the gallery upon her death. In 1911, the museum leased lands to the south of the manor to the City of Toronto in perpetuity so as to create Grange Park. In 1920, the museum allowed the Ontario College of Art to construct a building on the grounds.
The museum's first formal exhibitions opened in the Grange in 1913. In 1916, the museum drafted plans to construct a small portion of a new gallery building. Designed by Darling and Pearson in the Beaux-Arts style, excavation of the new facility began in 1916, the first galleries opened in 1918. Expansion throughout the 20th century added various galleries, culminating in 1993, which left the AGO with, the 100,00-square feet of new space and 190,000-square feet of renovations—usable space was increased by 30 per cent, including 30 new and 20 renovated galleries; the AGO was and continues to be a major supporter of local arts, which have included shows for the Group of Seven, Betty Goodwin, David Milne, Shary Boyle. The AGO's First Founders include: George A. Cox, Lady Eaton, Sir Joseph W. Flavelle, J. W. L. Forster, E. F. B. Johnston, Sir William Mackenzie, Hart A. Massey, Prof. James Mavor, F. Nicholls, Sir Edmund Osler, Sir Henry M. Pellatt, George Agnew Reid, Sir Byron Edmund Walker, Mrs. H. D.
Warren, E. R. Wood, Frank P. Wood. Under the direction of its CEO Matthew Teitelbaum, the AGO embarked on a $254 million redevelopment plan by architect Frank Gehry in 2004, called Transformation AGO; the new addition would require demolition of the 1992 Post-Modernist wing by Barton Myers and Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects. Although Gehry was born in Toronto, as a child had lived in the same neighbourhood as the AGO, the expansion of the gallery represented his first work in Canada. Gehry was commissioned to revitalize the AGO, not to design a new building. Kenneth Thomson was a major benefactor of Transformation AGO, donating much of his art collection to the gallery, in addition to providing $50 million towards the renovation, as well as a $20 million endowment. Thomson died in 2006; the project drew some criticism. As an expansion, rather than a new creation, concerns were raised that the new AGO would not look like a Gehry signature building, that the opportunity to build an new gallery on Toronto's waterfront, was being squandered.
During the course of the redevelopment planning, board member and patron J
The Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The other two are the Doric order, the earliest, followed by the Ionic order; when classical architecture was revived during the Renaissance, two more orders were added to the canon, the Tuscan order and the Composite order. The Corinthian, with its offshoot the Composite, is the most ornate of the orders; this architectural style is characterized by slender fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls. There are many variations; the name Corinthian is derived from the ancient Greek city of Corinth, although the style had its own model in Roman practice, following precedents set by the Temple of Mars Ultor in the Forum of Augustus. It was employed in southern Gaul at the Maison Carrée, Nîmes and at the comparable podium temple at Vienne. Other prime examples noted by Mark Wilson Jones are the lower order of the Basilica Ulpia and the arch at Ancona the "column of Phocas", the "Temple of Bacchus" at Baalbek.
The Corinthian order is named for the Greek city-state of Corinth, to which it was connected in the period. However, according to the architectural historian Vitruvius, the column was created by the sculptor Callimachus an Athenian, who drew acanthus leaves growing around a votive basket, its earliest use can be traced back to the Late Classical Period. The earliest Corinthian capital was found in Bassae, dated at 427 BC. Proportion is a defining characteristic of the Corinthian order: the "coherent integration of dimensions and ratios in accordance with the principles of symmetria" are noted by Mark Wilson Jones, who finds that the ratio of total column height to column-shaft height is in a 6:5 ratio, so that, the full height of column with capital is a multiple of 6 Roman feet while the column height itself is a multiple of 5. In its proportions, the Corinthian column is similar to the Ionic column, though it is more slender, stands apart by its distinctive carved capital; the abacus upon the capital has concave sides to conform to the outscrolling corners of the capital, it may have a rosette at the center of each side.
Corinthian columns were erected on the top level of the Roman Colosseum, holding up the least weight, having the slenderest ratio of thickness to height. Their height to width ratio is about 10:1. One variant is the Tivoli Order, found at the Temple of Tivoli; the Tivoli Order's Corintinan Capital has two rows of Acanthus and its abacus is decorated with oversize fleuron in the form of hibiscus flowers with pronounced spiral pistils. The column flutes have flat tops; the frieze exhibits fruit swag suspended between bucrania. Above each swag is a rosette; the cornice does not have modillions. Indo-Corinthian capitals are capitals crowning columns or pilasters, which can be found in the northwestern Indian subcontinent, combine Hellenistic and Indian elements; these capitals are dated to the 1st centuries of our era, constitute important elements of Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara. The classical design was adapted taking a more elongated form, sometimes being combined with scrolls within the context of Buddhist stupas and temples.
Indo-Corinthian capitals incorporated figures of the Buddha or Bodhisattvas as central figures surrounded, in the shade, of the luxurious foliage of Corinthian designs. During the first flush of the Italian Renaissance, the Florentine architectural theorist Francesco di Giorgio expressed the human analogies that writers who followed Vitruvius associated with the human form, in squared drawings he made of the Corinthian capital overlaid with human heads, to show the proportions common to both; the Corinthian architrave is divided in two or three sections, which may be equal, or may bear interesting proportional relationships, to one with another. Above the plain, unadorned architrave lies the frieze, which may be richly carved with a continuous design or left plain, as at the U. S. Capitol extension. At the Capitol the proportions of architrave to frieze are 1:1. Above that, the profiles of the cornice moldings are like those of the Ionic order. If the cornice is deep, it may be supported by brackets or modillions, which are ornamental brackets used in a series under a cornice.
The Corinthian column is always fluted, the flutes of a Corinthian column may be enriched. They may be filleted, with rods nestled within the hollow flutes, or stop-fluted, with the rods rising a third of the way, to where the entasis begins. In French, these are called chandelles and sometimes terminate in carved wisps of flame, or with bellflowers. Alternatively, beading or chains of husks may take the place of the fillets in the fluting, Corinthian being the most flexible of the orders, with more opportunities for variation. Elaborating upon an offhand remark when Vitruvius accounted for the origin of its acanthus capital, it became a commonplace to identify the Corinthian column with the slender figure of a young girl. Sir William Chambers expressed the conventional comparison with the Doric order: The proportions of the orders were by the ancients formed on those of the human body, it could n
Canada's Wonderland is a 134-hectare theme park located in Vaughan, Ontario, a suburb 40 kilometres north of Downtown Toronto. Opened in 1981 by the Taft Broadcasting Company and The Great-West Life Assurance Company as the first major theme park in Canada, it remains the country's largest; the park owned by Cedar Fair, has been the most visited seasonal amusement park in North America for several consecutive years. As a seasonal park, Canada's Wonderland is open daily from May to September, with weekend openings in late April and early November. With seventeen roller coasters, Canada's Wonderland is ranked second in the world by number of roller coasters, after Six Flags Magic Mountain and tied with Cedar Point; the 134-hectare park includes a 8-hectare water park named Splash Works. The park holds Halloween Haunt, a Halloween-themed event, each fall, as well as special events throughout the season, including various food festivals, as well as "Celebration Canada", a month-long Canada Day festival, among others.
Beginning in 2019, the park will launch WinterFest, a holiday-themed event that will extend the park's operating season to late December. The park was known as Paramount Canada's Wonderland when it was owned by Paramount Parks from 1993 to 2006. Following Cedar Fair's purchase of the park in 2006, "Paramount" was dropped from the name. In 2017, it was the most visited seasonal amusement park in North America as well as the second most visited Cedar Fair amusement park, behind Knott's Berry Farm in California with an estimated 3.76 million visitors. When Canada's Wonderland was planned the region lacked a seasonal amusement park. Toronto had hosted two amusement parks which had roller-coasters, Sunnyside Amusement Park in the west end and Scarboro Beach Amusement Park in the east, but both were closed in the 1950s to build the Gardiner Expressway and housing developments, respectively. In 1972, the Taft Broadcasting Company, headed by Kelly Robinson, first proposed building a 134-hectare theme park in the small village of Maple, part of Vaughan, Ontario.
Several other possible locations in Ontario were considered, including Niagara Falls and Milton, but Maple was selected because of its proximity to the City of Toronto and the 400-series of highways. Others had considered the Greater Toronto Area as a spot to build a theme park, among them the Conklin family. Walt Disney considered the idea before choosing Florida for Walt Disney World, rejecting Toronto because of the seasonal climate, which would make the operating season too short to be profitable. Construction of the park was opposed on multiple fronts. Many cultural institutions in Toronto such as Ontario Place, the Royal Ontario Museum, the operators of the Canadian National Exhibition felt that the Toronto market was not large enough to support more competition. Other groups that fought the building of Wonderland included a Vaughan residential association called SAVE, which thought the increased traffic would reduce property values. People in the region were concerned that the new park would be similar in aesthetics to a carnival or midway.
Some of the concessions the company made included a landscaped berm around the park to reduce noise and modifying the appearance of the large parking lot. Taft was concerned about opposition and flew a group of opponents and regional councillors to Mason, Ohio to show them the positive impact of one of its theme parks on the local community. Canada's Wonderland was responsible for changing the master development plan for the province of Ontario; the provincial government wanted to increase residential and commercial development to the east of Toronto in the Regional Municipality of Durham, which includes Pickering and Oshawa, while keeping the lands to the north of Toronto agricultural, as a Greenbelt. The Wonderland promoters were able to convince the province to amend the planning policy for the region, the park secured infrastructure improvements, including a highway overpass and sewage systems, that were expanded and built out to the site; this infrastructure paved the way for increased development throughout the region.
Concerns were raised about the cultural implications of allowing an American theme park to open in Canada. Many felt. To counter the criticism, Taft planned to open Frontier Canada, a part of the park devoted to Canada's history. Early park maps show the area encompassing what is now Splash Works, White Water Canyon, the F/X Theatre and the southern part of Kidzville. Taft proposed including a steam passenger train. While Frontier Canada was not realized until 2019, several original themes remain in the area. Unlike its sister parks, Kings Island and Kings Dominion, it was decided early that the centrepiece of the park would not be a replica of Paris's famous Eiffel Tower. Instead, the park's designers chose to build a massive mountain, known as Wonder Mountain, situated at the top of International Street. Wonder Mountain featured a huge waterfall and interior pathways that led visitors to a look-out point. Other planned elements that were never built include a hotel and conference centre, to have been constructed north of the park.
On 13 June 1979, Ontario Premier Bill Davis depressed the plunger on an electronic detonating device at St. Lawrence Hall in downtown Toronto, triggering an explosion on the site. Construction began and continued on to early 1981. Canadian companies were partners on the preliminary engineering of the project. Construction of t