Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels. Surface mining began in the mid-sixteenth century and is practiced throughout the world, although the majority of surface coal mining occurs in North America, it gained popularity throughout the 20th century, surface mines now produce most of the coal mined in the United States. In most forms of surface mining, heavy equipment, such as earthmovers, first remove the overburden. Next, huge machines, such as dragline excavators or Bucket wheel excavators, extract the mineral. There are five main forms of surface mining, detailed below. "Strip mining" is the practice of mining a seam of mineral, by first removing a long strip of overlying soil and rock. It is most used to mine coal and lignite.
Strip mining is only practical when the ore body to be excavated is near the surface. This type of mining uses some of the largest machines on earth, including bucket-wheel excavators which can move as much as 12,000 cubic metres of earth per hour. There are two forms of strip mining; the more common method is "area stripping", used on flat terrain, to extract deposits over a large area. As each long strip is excavated, the overburden is placed in the excavation produced by the previous strip. "Contour mining " involves removing the overburden above the mineral seam near the outcrop in hilly terrain, where the mineral outcrop follows the contour of the land. Contour stripping is followed by auger mining into the hillside, to remove more of the mineral; this method leaves behind terraces in mountainsides. "Open-pit mining" refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth through their removal from an open pit or borrow. Although open-pit mining is sometimes mistakenly referred to as "strip mining", the two methods are different.
"Mountaintop removal mining" is a form of coal mining that mines coal seams beneath mountaintops by first removing the mountaintop overlying the coal seam. Explosives are used to break up the rock layers above the seam, which are removed. Excess mining waste or "overburden" is dumped by large trucks into fills in nearby hollow or valley fills. MTR involves the mass restructuring of earth in order to reach the coal seam as deep as 400 feet below the surface. Mountaintop removal replaces the original steep landscape with a much flatter topography. Economic development attempts on reclaimed mine sites include prisons such the Big Sandy Federal Penitentiary in Martin County, small town airports, golf courses such as Twisted Gun in Mingo County, West Virginia and Stonecrest Golf Course in Floyd County, Kentucky, as well as industrial scrubber sludge disposal sites, solid waste landfills, trailer parks, explosive manufacturers, storage rental lockers; the technique has been used in recent years in the Appalachian coal fields of West Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee in the United States.
The profound changes in topography and disturbance of pre-existing ecosystems have made mountaintop removal controversial. Advocates of mountaintop removal point out that once the areas are reclaimed as mandated by law, the technique provides premium flat land suitable for many uses in a region where flat land is rare, they maintain that the new growth on reclaimed mountaintop mined areas is better able to support populations of game animals. Critics contend that mountaintop removal is a disastrous practice that benefits a small number of corporations at the expense of local communities and the environment. A U. S. Environmental Protection Agency environmental impact statement finds that streams near valley fills sometimes may contain higher levels of minerals in the water and decreased aquatic biodiversity; the statement estimates that 724 miles of Appalachian streams were buried by valley fills from 1985 to 2001. Blasting at a mountaintop removal mine expels dust and fly-rock into the air, which can disturb or settle onto private property nearby.
This dust may contain sulfur compounds, which some claim corrode structures and tombstones and is a health hazard. Although MTR sites are required to be reclaimed after mining is complete, reclamation has traditionally focused on stabilizing rock and controlling erosion, but not always on reforesting the area. Quick-growing, non-native grasses, planted to provide vegetation on a site, compete with tree seedlings, trees have difficulty establishing root systems in compacted backfill. Biodiversity suffers in a region of the United States with numerous endemic species. Erosion increases, which can intensify flooding. In the Eastern United States, the Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative works to promote the use of trees in mining reclamation. "Dredging" is a method for mining below the water table. It is associated with gold mining. Small dredges use suction to bring the mined material up from the bottom of a water body. Large-scale dredging used a floating dredge, a barge-like vessel which scooped material up on a conveyor belt in front, removed the desirable component on board, returned the unwanted material via another conveyor belt in back.
In gravel-filled river valleys with shallow water tables, a floating dredge could work its way through the loose sediment in a pond of its own making. Highwall mining is another form of mining sometimes conducted to recover additional coal adjacent to a surface mined area; the method evolved from auger mini
Hibbing is a city in Saint Louis County, United States. The population was 16,361 at the 2010 census; the city was built on the rich iron ore of the Mesabi Iron Range. At the edge of town is the largest open-pit iron mine in the world, the Hull–Rust–Mahoning Open Pit Iron Mine. U. S. Highway 169, State Highway 37, State Highway 73, Howard Street, 1st Avenue are five of the main routes in Hibbing; the Range Regional Airport offers daily commercial flights between Hibbing and Minneapolis-St. Paul, as well as hosting many private pilots and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources fire fighting aircraft; the town was founded in 1893 by Frank Hibbing, born in Hannover, Germany on December 1, 1856, christened Franz Dietrich von Ahlen. His mother died when he was still in infancy and it was her name, which he assumed when he set out to seek his fortune in the New World, he first settled in Beaver Dam, where he worked on a farm and in a shingle mill. Injured in a mill accident, he considered becoming a lawyer, but after deciding he was not familiar enough with the English language to make a legal career possible, he turned to timber cruising.
In 1887, Mr. Hibbing settled in Duluth where he established a real estate business and began explorations on the Vermilion Range. In 1892, he headed a party of thirty men at Mountain Iron and cut a road through the wilderness to Section 22, 58–20. An expert iron ore prospector, he soon discovered the surface indication which led him to believe in the existence of extensive ore deposits. In July 1893, the townsite of Hibbing was named in honor of him. Feeling responsible, he took the deepest pride in its development and, by his generous aid, made its progress possible, he used his personal means to provide a water plant, electric light plant, the first roads, hotel and bank building. For the last ten years of his life, Mr. Hibbing made his home in Duluth, where many of his business interests were centered, he retained close contact with the community which bore his name, until he died of appendicitis on July 30, 1897, at age forty. In 1914, two men, Carl Wickman and Andrew "Bus Andy" Anderson, started a bus line between Hibbing and Alice, which would become Greyhound Lines, the world's largest bus transportation company.
Hibbing Heights was annexed by Alice in 1910, when Alice incorporated as a city. Between 1919 and 1921, the Village of Hibbing was moved south of Alice and annexed Alice in 1920. Hibbing remained a village until 1979. An Article of Incorporation was filed in July 1979 with the state and Hibbing became a city from that action in January 1980. Hibbing is home to the world's largest iron ore mine, discovered by Leonidas Merritt. Hibbing grew in its early years as the huge iron ore mines such as the Mahoning, Rust and Burt provided the raw material for America's industrial revolution. In fact, the mines encroached on the village from the east and west and it was determined that some of the ore body went under the town whose population had hit 20,000 by 1915. Negotiations between the Oliver Mining Company and the village brought about a plan whereby the entire village would relocate to a site two miles south near Alice; the company, for its part, agreed to develop the downtown buildings with low interest loans that could be paid off over the years by the retailers.
New civic structures such as Hibbing High School, the Androy Hotel, the Village Hall, the Rood Hospital were constructed with mining company money. In all, about 200 structures were moved down the First Avenue Highway, as it was called, to the new city; these included a store and a couple of large hotels. Only one structure didn't make it: the Sellers Hotel tumbled off some rollers and crashed to the ground leaving, as one witness said, "an enormous pile of kindling"; the move started in 1919 and the first phase was completed in 1921. Known today as "North Hibbing", this area remained as a business and residential center through the 1940s when the mining companies bought the remaining structures; the last house was moved in 1968. On July 25, 1979, Hibbing annexed the Town of Stuntz. With this annexation, the following unincorporated communities were annexed: According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 186.43 square miles. McCarthy Beach State Park is nearby; the Northern Divide intersects the St. Lawrence Divide near Hibbing, with waters draining to the Arctic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes.
Hibbing is home to a 2-year technical college. As of the census of 2010, there were 16,361 people, 7,414 households, 4,325 families residing in the city; the population density was 90.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,200 housing units at an average density of 45.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.9% White, 0.6% African American, 0.9% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population. There were 7,414 households of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.5% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.7% were non-families. 36.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.80. T
Fond du Lac Indian Reservation
The Fond du Lac Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation in northern Minnesota near Cloquet in Carlton and Saint Louis counties. Off-reservation holdings are located across the state in Douglas County, in the northwest corner of Wisconsin; the total land area of these tribal lands is 153.8375 square miles. It is the land-base for the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa. Before the establishment of this reservation, the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa were located at the head of Lake Superior, closer to the mouth of the Saint Louis River, where Duluth has developed; the tribe ceded land to the US as part of an 1837 treaty along with other Ojibwa bands. As part of the Treaty of La Pointe in 1842, the Fond du Lac Band and other Ojibwa tribes ceded large tracts of land located in the Lake Superior watershed in Wisconsin and the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan; as part of an 1854 treaty, the tribe and the Lake Superior Band of Chippewa ceded more land to the US. Under this 1854 treaty, the US established the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation farther up the Saint Louis River, at its present location.
The original Nagaajiwanaang Reservation was 1.25 times the current size. In treaty discussions the US representatives were recorded as promising the inclusion of the Perch and Big lakes, but these were excluded from the original reservation, its boundaries extended westward to the western boundaries of the 1854 Ceded Territory. Upon appeal by the tribe, the US extended the reservation boundaries southward to include the two said lakes, but as a concession, the tribe had to agree to a reduction in the western boundaries, which were placed at the current location, it established a reservation for the Lake Superior Band of Chippewa. The FDL adopted a written constitution with an elected government, its tribal council has x members. The FDL operates social services, tribal housing, a tribal police force, a natural resource building, a gas station, three community centers, a private health clinic and pharmacy called Min No Aya Win Health Center; the tribe operates two satellite health clinics, one in Duluth, named The Center for American Indian Resources, another in Minneapolis, the Mashkiki Waakaaigan Pharmacy.
It has numerous members. The tribe owns two casinos: Black Bear Casino in Carlton and Fond du Luth Casino in Duluth. Big Lake Brookston Cloquet Mahnomen Arrowhead Township Brevator Township Brookston Cloquet Culver Township North Carlton unorganized territory Perch Lake Township Stoney Brook Township Twin Lakes Township Minnesota Indian Affairs Council Fond du Lac Reservation and Off-Reservation Trust Land, Minnesota/Wisconsin, United States Census Bureau Fond du Lac Reservation 2000 US Census Tract Map for the Fond du Lac Reservation Digital copy of the 1854 Treaty establishing the Fond du Lac Reservation Digital copy of the letter requesting to modify the Fond du Lac Reservation Digital copy of the Executive Order modifying the Fond du Lac Reservation Black Bear Casino Resort
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
The Gulf of Saint Lawrence is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. The gulf is a semienclosed sea, covering an area of about 226,000 square kilometres and containing about 34,500 cubic kilometres of water, which results in an average depth of 152 metres; the Gulf of Saint Lawrence is bounded on the north by the Labrador Peninsula and Quebec, to the east by Saint-Pierre and Newfoundland, to the south by the Nova Scotia peninsula and Cape Breton Island, to the west by the Gaspe Peninsula, New Brunswick, Quebec. As for significant islands the Gulf of Saint Lawrence contains Anticosti Island, PEI, Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Cape Breton Island, Saint Pierre Island, Miquelon-Langlade. Half of the ten provinces of Canada adjoin the Gulf: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Labrador, Quebec. Besides the Saint Lawrence River itself, significant streams emptying into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence include the Miramichi River, Natashquan River, Romaine River, Restigouche River, Margaree River, Humber River.
Branches of the Gulf include the Chaleur Bay, Fortune Bay, Miramichi Bay, St. George's Bay, Bay St. George, Bay of Islands, Northumberland Strait; the gulf flows into the Atlantic Ocean through the following outlets: The Strait of Belle Isle between Labrador and Newfoundland: between 15 kilometres and 60 kilometres wide and 60 metres deep at its deepest. The Cabot Strait between Newfoundland and Saint-Pierre and Cape Breton Island: 104 km wide and 480 m deep at its deepest; the Strait of Canso between Cape Breton Island and the Nova Scotia peninsula: 1.0 km wide and 60 m deep at its deepest. Due to the construction of the Canso Causeway across the strait in 1955, it no longer permits exchange of water between the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Atlantic Ocean; the limits of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence vary between sources. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence as follows: Fisheries and Oceans Canada places the western limit at Pointe-des-Monts.
St. Paul Island, Nova Scotia, off the northeastern tip of Cape Breton Island, is referred to as the "Graveyard of the Gulf" because of its many shipwrecks. Access to this island is controlled by the Canadian Coast Guard. Bonaventure Island on the eastern tip of the Gaspe Peninsula, Île Brion and Rochers-aux-Oiseaux northeast of the Magdalen Islands are important migratory bird sanctuaries administered by the Canadian Wildlife Service; the Federal Government of Canada has national parks along the Gulf of Saint Lawrence at Forillon National Park on the eastern tip of the Gaspe Peninsula, Prince Edward Island National Park on the northern shore of the island, Kouchibouguac National Park on the northeastern coast of New Brunswick, Cape Breton Highlands National Park on the northern tip of Cape Breton Island, Gros Morne National Park on the west coast of Newfoundland, a National Park Reserve in the Mingan Archipelago on the Côte-Nord of Quebec. The five provinces bordering the Gulf of Saint Lawrence have several provincial parks apiece, some of which preserve coastal features.
The Laurentian Channel is a feature of the floor of the Gulf, formed during previous ice ages, when the Continental Shelf was eroded by the Saint Lawrence River during the periods when the sea level plunged. The Laurentian Channel is about 290 m deep and about 1,250 km long from the Continental Shelf to the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River. Deep waters with temperatures between 2 and 6.5 °C enter the Gulf at the continental slope and are advected up the channel by estuariane circulation. Over the 20th century, the bottom waters of the end of the channel have become hypoxic; the gulf has provided a important marine fishery for various First Nations that have lived on its shores for millennia and used its waters for transportation. The first documented voyage by a European in its waters was by the French explorer Jacques Cartier in the year 1534. Cartier named the shores of the Saint Lawrence River "The Country of Canadas", after an indigenous word meaning "village" or "settlement", thus naming the world's second largest country.
At just about the same period, Basques came to frequent the area for whale-hunting and trade with the First Nations people of the modern Canadian Atlantic and Quebec provinces. They left vestiges of their presence in many locations of the area—docks, graveyards, etc. Saint Lawrence Seaway Estuary of Saint Lawrence Atlantic Ocean Anticosti Island St. Lawrence Global Observatory The Gulf of St. Lawrence - A Unique Ecosystem, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Timing and position of late Wisconsinan ice-margins on the upper slope seaward of Laurentian Channel
U.S. Route 2
U. S. Route 2 or U. S. Highway 2 is an east–west U. S. Highway spanning 2,571 miles across the northern continental United States. US 2 consists of two segments connected by various roadways in southern Canada. Unlike some routes, which are disconnected into segments because of encroaching Interstate Highways, the two portions of US 2 were designed to be separate in the original 1926 highway plan; the western segment of US 2 has its western terminus at an interchange with Interstate 5 and State Route 529 in Everett and its eastern terminus at I-75 in St. Ignace, Michigan; the eastern segment of US 2 has its western terminus at US 11 in Rouses Point, New York and its eastern terminus at I-95 in Houlton, Maine. As its number indicates, it is the northernmost east–west U. S. Route in the country, it is the lowest primary-numbered east–west U. S. Route, whose numbers otherwise end in zero, was so numbered to avoid a US 0. Sections of US 2 in New England were once New England Route 15, part of the New England road marking system.
The western segment of US 2 extends from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan across the northern tier of the lower 48 states. Most of the western route was built paralleling the Great Northern Railway. US 2 adopted the railway's route nickname "The Highline" as the most northern crossing in the U. S; the Adventure Cycling Association's Northern Tier Bicycle Route is a bicycle touring route which follows or parallels US 2 for over 600 miles, most notably a 550-mile stretch between Columbia Falls and Williston, North Dakota. Within Washington state, US 2 is the northernmost all-season highway through the Cascade Mountains, it begins at Interstate 5 and State Route 529 in Everett, travels east via Stevens Pass. It intersects US 97 4 miles east of Leavenworth and continues as a duplicate route crossing the Columbia River at Wenatchee continues north as far as Orondo, where US 97 splits north. US 2 continues to the border in Newport. Shortly after entering Idaho from the west, US 2 crosses the Priest River.
US 2 follows Pend Oreille River to its source at Lake Pend Oreille. US 2 intersects Idaho State Highway 57 in the town of Priest River at mile 5.8. US 2 intersects US 95 at mile 28.4 in the town of Sandpoint. The two routes are duplexed for 36.2 miles until just after Bonners Ferry. At Three Mile Corner, US Route 2 continues southeast for 15.8 miles. US 2 is a vital northern corridor for Montana and has more mileage within Montana than in any other state, it intersects US 93 at Kalispell and passes through the southern end of Glacier National Park, crossing the continental divide at Marias Pass, before it enters the Great Plains west of Browning. It travels through Shelby; the highway continues east and leaves the state near the confluence of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers. US 2 is an east–west highway that runs through North Dakota’s northern tier of larger cities: Williston, Devils Lake, Grand Forks. US 2 intersects US 85 at Williston, US 52 and US 83 at Minot, US 281 at Churchs Ferry, the I-29 / US 81 concurrency at Grand Forks.
US 2 is four-laned from North Dakota’s eastern edge to just past Williston, a stretch of about 343 miles, leaving the remaining 12 miles to the Montana border as a two-lane highway. In Rugby, just east of the route's intersection with ND 3, the highway passes the location designated in 1931 as the geographical center of North America; the monument marking the geographic center had to be relocated in 1971 when US 2 was converted from two lanes to four lanes. The portion of US 2 from Cass Lake to Bemidji is designated the Paul Bunyan Expressway, it intersects US 169 and the Mississippi River in Grand Rapids, Minnesota. At the crossing between Duluth, Minn. and Superior, Wisc. the highway crosses the Richard I. Bong Memorial Bridge, about 8,300 feet in length—roughly 11,800 feet in length when the above land approaches are included. Of the 266 miles of US 2 in Minnesota, 146 miles have four lanes located in the northwest part of the state; the Minnesota section of US 2 is defined as Routes 8 and 203 in Minnesota Statutes §§161.114 and 161.115.
After crossing the Bong Bridge and entering into the city of Superior, Wisconsin's western segment of the highway joins Belknap Street. After crossing the midsection of Superior, US 2 merges with US 53 for a few miles following East 2nd Street out of the city. Ten miles outside of Superior, US 53 and US 2 part ways. US 53 veers south toward Eau Claire, while US 2 continues to the city of Ashland and to the Wisconsin–Michigan state line at the city of Ironwood. An eastern segment of US 2 re-enters Wisconsin 4 miles northwest of Florence and proceeds concurrently with US 141 for 14.5 miles until exiting Wisconsin again near Iron Mountain, Michigan. US 2 enters Michigan at the city of Ironwood and runs east to the town of Crystal Falls, where it turns south and re-enters Wisconsin northwest of Florence, it re-enters Michigan north of Iron Mountain and continues through the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to the cities of Escanaba, St. Ignace. Along the way, it cuts through the Ottawa and Hiawatha National Forests and follows the northern shore of Lake Michigan.
It ends at I-75, just north of the Mackinac Bridge in St. Ignace; the eastern segment of US 2 traverses the northeastern part of New York and the northern New England states. The road starts at US 11, just 1 mile south of the Canadian border at Rouses Point in Champlain, New York. From there it crosses the Richelieu River at the outlet of
Hudson Bay is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of 1,230,000 km2. It drains a large area, about 3,861,400 km2, that includes parts of southeastern Nunavut, most of Manitoba, Ontario and indirectly through smaller passages of water to parts of North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana. Hudson Bay's southern arm is called James Bay; the Eastern Cree name for Hudson and James Bay is Wînipekw or Wînipâkw, meaning muddy or brackish water. Lake Winnipeg is named by the local Cree, as is the location for the city of Winnipeg; the bay is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, after whom the river that he explored in 1609 is named. Hudson Bay encompasses 1,230,000 km2, making it the second-largest water body using the term "bay" in the world; the bay is shallow and is considered an epicontinental sea, with an average depth of about 100 m. It is 1,050 km wide. On the east it is connected with the Atlantic Ocean by Hudson Strait. Hudson Bay is considered part of the Arctic Ocean.
Other authorities include it in the Atlantic, in part because of its greater water budget connection with that ocean. Some sources describe Hudson Bay as the Arctic Ocean. Canada has claimed it as such on historic grounds; this claim is disputed by the United States but no action to resolve it has been taken. English explorers and colonists named Hudson Bay after Sir Henry Hudson who explored the bay beginning August 2, 1610 on his ship Discovery. On his fourth voyage to North America, Hudson worked his way around Greenland's west coast and into the bay, mapping much of its eastern coast. Discovery became trapped in the ice over the winter, the crew survived onshore at the southern tip of James Bay; when the ice cleared in the spring, Hudson wanted to explore the rest of the area, but the crew mutinied on June 22, 1611. They left Hudson and others adrift in a small boat. No one knows the fate of Hudson or the crew members stranded with him, but historians see no evidence that they survived for long afterwards.
In 1668, Nonsuch reached the bay and traded for beaver pelts, leading to the creation of the Hudson's Bay Company which still bears the historic name. The HBC negotiated a trading monopoly from the English crown for the Hudson Bay watershed, called Rupert's Land. France contested this grant by sending several military expeditions to the region, but abandoned its claim in the Treaty of Utrecht. During this period, the Hudson's Bay Company built several factories along the coast at the mouth of the major rivers; the strategic locations were bases for inland exploration. More they were trading posts with the indigenous peoples who came to them with furs from their trapping season; the HBC shipped the furs to Europe and continued to use some of these posts well into the 20th century. The Port of Churchill was an important shipping link for trade with Europe and Russia until its closure in 2016 by owner OmniTRAX. HBC's trade monopoly was abolished in 1870, it ceded Rupert's Land to Canada, an area of 3,900,000 km2, as part of the Northwest Territories.
Starting in 1913, the Bay was extensively charted by the Canadian Government's CSS Acadia to develop it for navigation. This mapping progress led to the establishment of Churchill, Manitoba as a deep-sea port for wheat exports in 1929, after unsuccessful attempts at Port Nelson; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the northern limit of Hudson Bay as follows: A line from Nuvuk Point to Leyson Point, the Southeastern extreme of Southampton Island, through the Southern and Western shores of Southampton Island to its Northern extremity, thence a line to Beach Point on the Mainland. North of Hudson Bay has a polar climate being one of the few places in the world where this type of climate is found south of 60 °N, going further south towards Quebec, where Inukjuak is still dominated by the tundra. From Arviat, Nunavut to the west to the south and southeast prevails the subarctic climate; this is because in the central summer months, heat waves can advance and leave the weather cool, where the average temperature of the month is above 10 °C.
At the southern end in the extension known as James Bay arises the humid continental climate with a more pronounced and hot summer. The average annual temperature in the entire bay is around 0 ° C or below. Except for the James Bay area the average water temperature is only 7° C to the south in January. Although the difference is small in summer in the extreme northeast, wintery temperatures are four to five colder degrees coming near -27 °C; the Hudson Bay region has low year-round average temperatures. The average annual temperature for Churchill at 59°N is −5 °C and Inukjuak facing cool wester
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government