Frederiksberg Gardens is one of the largest and most attractive greenspaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. Together with the adjacent Søndermarken it forms an area of 64 hectares at the western edge of Inner Copenhagen. It is a landscape garden designed in the English style. Frederiksberg Gardens was established by King Frederik IV in connection with the construction of Frederiksberg Palace as his new summer retreat on high grounds atop Valby Hill. Work on the began in the last half of the 1690s with inspiration from Italy and France which Frederick. He commissioned the eminent Swedish architect Nicodemus Tessin to draw a proposal and the plan was subsequently made by Hans Heinrich Scheel. The plan involved a parterre with a system of cascades on the sloping terrain in front of the new palace. It was fed by a complicated but inefficient system of pumps which never came to work properly. In the end, Johan Cornelius Krieger, who was at the time working on an extension and adaption of Fredensborg Palace.
Unusually of the time, he gave up the parterre completely, in the 1790s, as fashion changed, the park was adapted into an English landscape garden. P. Petersen created a new plan in 1795. He created a typical English-style landscape garden with winding lawns, lakes and spinneys as well as grottos, pavilions, the final result may well have been based on Johan Ludwig Mansas book on English-style gardening written in 1798. Frederik VI was particularly fond of the garden, from 1804, he sailed the canals in a gondola. Not until 1865 did access to the park become unrestricted, in line with what was the case elsewhere in the city, smørrebrødsplænen, on the corner of Toskildevej and Pile Allé, where K. B. s tennis halls are today, became a popular picnic destination. Frederiksberg Gardens is an English-style Romantic landscape garden with winding paths, lakes, small islands, a large variety of plants and birds can be seen, including mute swans, greylag geese, grey herons, and Canada geese. Typically of the landscape garden, the park houses two follies, waterfalls and other garden features.
The gate was designed by Lauritz de Thurah who had become general master builder after Eigtveds death, the vases at the top of the two sandstone pillars were executed by the sculptor Johann Friedrich Hännel. The gate opens to a path which passes between two long, yellow buildings with white details and they are the two surviving wings of the Princes House
Flintholm is a modern neighbourhood in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Located just south of Flintholm station, on the border with Vanløse, the neighborhood covers an area of about 10 hectares and consists of a mixture of housing, offices and several minor green spaces. The only surviving building from the gasworks, The Yellow Villa and it was named after Jacob Nielsen Flindt, a farmer, who acquired the property in the 1790s. The area remained open countryside until the 1890s when it was acquired by the City and designated for municipal utility, frederiksbergs second gasworks opened at 76 Finsensvej in 1895 and was in 1908 joined by Finsen Power Station down the road. Flintholm House was adapted for use as an infectious decease hospital and it consisted of 12 beds in the house and 40 beds in two tent wings. It was in use in 1917, when Frederiksberg was hit by an outbreak of scarlet fever, up through the century, Frederiksberg Gasworks saw several expansions, especially in the years after World War II, before it was closed down in 1964.
The new streets and spaces that were created were named for Danish revue artists, such as Preben Kaas, Dirch Passer, Elga Olga, Kjeld Petersen, Marguerite Viby. The area is known as Revykvarteret, literally The Revue Quarter. The only surviving building from the gasworks is a known as the Yellow House. It is now used as a cultural centre. Flintholm Church is not located within the area but further south at Peter Bangs Vej, nCCs Flintholm Company House was designed by Vilhelm Lauritzen Architects and is located next to Flintholm Station. It contains 21,000 square metres of space and 3m000 square metres for retail. KPMG inaugurated their new Danish head office in the area in 2011 and their building was designed by 3XN and has room for 1,700 employees. Flintholm station is an important hub for transport, serving both the Frederikssund and Ringlines of the S-train network and the M1 and M2 lines of the Copenhagen Metro, white Houses, Frederiksberg Den Gule Villa
Royal Danish Horticultural Society's Garden
It is situated on Frederiksberg Runddel, just left of the main entrance to Frederiksberg Gardens. The Royal Danish Horticultural Societys first garden was located further down Frederiksberg Allë, in 1882 it moved to its current location, on land which used to be part of Frederiksberg Palaces nursery and vegetable garden. The former palace gardens had just opened to the public after a century as the domain of the Danish royal family. Over the years, different areas have gradually restored and redesigned by some of the leading Danish landscape architects of their day. From 2001 to 2010 Jane Schul was director and principal architect of the garden and he has designed a section dedicated to different grasses, a water garden and a perennials garden. Brøndsalen is from 1885 and was built around a well where members of the local bourgeoisie came to water with supposed healing properties before taking a stroll in the gardens. The water was thought to be good for health as well as for the digestion and this activity took place from 5 to 9 pm and afterwards the building was at the disposal of the Society.
The building was designed by Peter Christian Bønecke and he had previously designed J. C. Paradehuset is one of the oldest greenhouses in the Copenhagen and traces its history back to the time when the area was part of the palace gardens. When the Horticultural Society took over the site in 1882, one of the palaces old wineries was converted into a paradehus, a place for the exhibition of its many fine greenhouse plants. The building was modelled on the conservatories at Rosenborg Castles vegetable gardens, with a glass facade and roof facing south. Later the roof under the side has been replaced and the entrance re-constructed. In 2008 the chefs Jakob Mielcke Hansen and Jan Hurtigkarl opened the experimental gourmet restaurant Mielcke & Hurtigkarl in a listed 19th century building inside the gardens, the designers Henrik Vibskov, Margrethe Odgaard and others has created the avantgardistic interior design. Contrary to the trend in Danish gourmet cuisine, the restaurant is known for its innovative use of exotic ingredients from around the world.
It offers an eight course avant garde menu and a four course menu and has received acclaim from Danish food critics. The restaurant has hosted events with music and free food in the gardens. The garden is open to all day seven days a week. The Well Hall still plays host to a line of activities, including a popular, annual Christmas market
Church of Denmark
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark or National Church, sometimes called Church of Denmark, is the established, state-supported church in Denmark. The reigning monarch is the secular authority in the church. As of 1 January 2017,75. 9% of the population of Denmark are members, Christianity was introduced to Denmark in the 9th century by Ansgar, Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. In the 10th century, King Harald Bluetooth became a Christian and began organizing the church, since the Reformation in Denmark, the Church has been Evangelical Lutheran, while retaining much of its pre-Reformation liturgical traditions. The 1849 Constitution of Denmark designated the church the Danish peoples church, the Church of Denmark continues to maintain the historical episcopate. Theological authority is vested in bishops, ten bishops in mainland Denmark and one in Greenland, there is no archbishop, the Bishop of Copenhagen acts as a primus inter pares. The Church of Denmark is organized in dioceses, each led by a bishop.
There are no archbishops, the most senior bishop is the Bishop of Copenhagen, the further subdivision includes 111 deaneries and 2,200 parishes. Each parish has a council, elected by church members in four-year terms. The parochial council leads the business of the local church and decides employment of personnel. The vicar is subordinate to the council, except in matters such as conducting church services. Both parochial councils and vicars are, subordinate to bishops, a special feature is the possibility of creating voluntary congregations within the Church. These account for a few percent of church members and they are voluntary associations, electing their own parochial council and vicar, whom they agree to pay from their own pockets. In return, they are exempt from church tax, the voluntary congregation and its vicar are subordinate to bishops, and members remain full members of the Church. Historically, when a parish was dominated by a fundamentalist majority and rector, today the voluntary congregations are often a solution for people who find the idea of a free church appealing, but wish to keep some bonds to the church.
Another, less commonly used feature is parish optionality, according to official statistics from January 2017,75. 9% of Danes are members of the Church of Denmark. Membership rates vary from 58. 1% in the Diocese of Copenhagen to 85. 2% in the Diocese of Viborg, any person who is baptised into the Church of Denmark automatically becomes a member. Members may renounce their membership and if they wish
Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire. Byzantine architecture was influenced by Roman and Greek architecture and Sassanian. Early Byzantine architecture drew upon earlier elements of Roman architecture, stylistic drift, technological advancement, and political and territorial changes meant that a distinct style gradually resulted in the Greek cross plan in church architecture. Most of the structures are sacred in nature, with secular buildings mostly known only through contemporaneous descriptions. Prime examples of early Byzantine architecture date from Justinian Is reign and survive in Ravenna and Istanbul, secular structures include the ruins of the Great Palace of Constantinople, the innovative walls of Constantinople and Basilica Cistern. A frieze in the Ostrogothic palace in Ravenna depicts an early Byzantine palace, remarkable engineering feats include the 430 m long Sangarius Bridge and the pointed arch of Karamagara Bridge.
The period of the Macedonian dynasty, traditionally considered the epitome of Byzantine art, has not left a legacy in architecture. The cross-in-square type became predominant in the Slavic countries which were Christianized by Salonikas missionaries during the Macedonian period, only national forms of architecture can be found in abundance due to this. Those styles can be found in many Transcaucasian countries, such as Russia, Serbia and other Slavic lands, the Paleologan period is well represented in a dozen former churches in Istanbul, notably St Saviour at Chora and St Mary Pammakaristos. Unlike their Slavic counterparts, the Paleologan architects never accented the vertical thrust of structures, as a result, there is little grandeur in the late medieval architecture of Byzantium. Other churches from the years predating the fall of Constantinople survive on Mount Athos. Those of the type we must suppose were nearly always vaulted. The most famous church of this type was that of the Holy Apostles, vaults appear to have been early applied to the basilican type of plan, for instance, at Hagia Irene, the long body of the church is covered by two domes.
At Saint Sergius and San Vitale, churches of the central type, finally, at Hagia Sophia a combination was made which is perhaps the most remarkable piece of planning ever contrived. This unbroken area, about 260 ft long, the part of which is over 100 ft wide, is entirely covered by a system of domical surfaces. Above the conchs of the small apses rise the two great semi-domes which cover the hemicycles, and between these bursts out the vast dome over the central square. On the two sides, to the north and south of the dome, it is supported by vaulted aisles in two storeys which bring the form to a general square. At the Holy Apostles five domes were applied to a cruciform plan, after the 6th century there were no churches built which in any way competed in scale with these great works of Justinian, and the plans more or less tended to approximate to one type
Diakonissestiftelsen was founded in 1866 at the initiative of Crown Princess Louise, consort of the king Christian IX. A building in Smallegade near their current site, contained a small hospital and their current site was inaugurated in 1876. Their hospital in Smallegade closed in 1880, the Deaconesses premises comprise 33,000 square meters of buildings on a four hectares of land. The original main building is a long three-winged which runs along Peter Bange Vej. It was designed by Hans Jørgen Holm in a Neo-Gothic style inspired by medieval monasteries, the complex has been expanded by Gotfred Tvede and Harald Gad. To the rear of the complex, facing the garden, is a couple of wash houses. Other buildings in the grounds include Søster Sophies Minde, located on Sønder Fasanvej and it was built in the 1950s to provide residences for retired Deaconess sisters. Diakonissestiftelsen owns the house Marthabo on the side of Peter Bangsvej which houses a kindergarten. The building is from 1885 and was designed by C, a masterplan competition for the area was settled in April 2012 with two interdisciplinary teams led by Tegnestuen Vandkunsten and Cubo Arkitekter as joint winners.
A competition for the expansion and adaption of Aøster Sofies Minde was won by Arkitema in December 2013, Official website for Diakonissestiftelsen Official website for the redevelopment project
The gospels of Matthew and Luke are known as the Synoptic Gospels, because they include many of the same stories, often in the same sequence. Also known to have written the book of Acts and to have been a friend of Paul of Tarsus, John – a disciple of Jesus. They are called evangelists, an meaning people who proclaim good news. Images normally, but not invariably, appear with wings like angels. e. Man, the king of creation as the image of the creator, the lion as the king of beasts of prey, the ox as the king of domesticated animals and the eagle as the king of the birds. Matthew the Evangelist, the author of the first gospel account, is symbolized by a winged man, matthews gospel starts with Josephs genealogy from Abraham, it represents Jesus Incarnation, and so Christs human nature. This signifies that Christians should use their reason for salvation, Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel account, is symbolized by a winged lion – a figure of courage and monarchy. The lion represents Jesus resurrection, and Christ as king and this signifies that Christians should be courageous on the path of salvation.
Luke the Evangelist, the author of the gospel account, is symbolized by a winged ox or bull – a figure of sacrifice, service. Lukes account begins with the duties of Zacharias in the temple, it represents Jesus sacrifice in His Passion and Crucifixion, the ox signifies that Christians should be prepared to sacrifice themselves in following Christ. John the Evangelist, the author of the gospel account, is symbolized by an eagle – a figure of the sky. This symbolizes that Christians should look on eternity without flinching as they journey towards their goal of union with God, each of the symbols is depicted with wings, following the biblical sources first in Ezekiel 1–2, and in Revelation. They were presented as one of the most common found on church portals and apses. When surrounding Christ, the figure of the man appears at top left – above Christs right hand. Underneath the man is the ox and underneath the lion is the eagle and this both reflects the medieval idea of the order of nobility of nature of the beasts and the text of Ezekiel 1.10.
From the thirteenth century their use began to decline, as a new conception of Christ in Majesty, showing the wounds of the Passion, sometimes in Evangelist portraits they appear to dictate to the writing evangelist. Matthew is often cited as the first Gospel account, not only owing to its place in the canon, most biblical scholars however, see the gospel account of Mark as having been written first and Johns gospel account as having been written last. It has become customary to speak of the Gospel of Matthew
Cruciform means having the shape of a cross or Christian cross. Christian churches are described as having a cruciform architecture. In the Western churches, a cruciform architecture usually, though not exclusively and this layout comprises the following, An east end, containing an altar and often with an elaborate, decorated window, through which light will shine in the early part of the day. A west end, which contains a baptismal font, being a large decorated bowl, in which water can be firstly, blessed. North and south transepts, being arms of the cross and often containing rooms for gathering, small chapels, or in many cases other necessities such as an organ. The crossing, which in designs often was under a tower or dome, in churches that are not oriented with the altar at the geographical east end, it is usual to refer to the altar end as liturgical east and so forth. Another example of ancient cruciform architecture can be found in Herods temple, DNA can undergo transitions to form a cruciform shape, otherwise known as a Holliday junction.
This structure is important for the biological processes of DNA recombination. A cruciform joint is a joint in which 4 spaces are created by the welding of 3 plates of metal at right angles. A cruciform manuscript was a form of Anglo-Saxon / Insular manuscript written with the words in a block shaped like a cross. In music, a melody of four pitches where a line drawn between the outer pair bisects a straight line drawn between the inner pair, thus forming a cross. In its simplest form, the melody is a changing tone. Often representative of the Christian cross, such melodies are cruciform in their retrogrades or inversions, johann Sebastian Bach, whose last name may be represented in tones through a musical cryptogram known as the BACH motif that is a cruciform melody, employed the device extensively. The subject of the fugue in c-sharp minor from The Well-Tempered Clavier Book I is cruciform, the plain sword used by knights, distinctive due to the flat bar used as a guard. The overall shape of the sword when held point down is that of a cross and it is believed this shape was encouraged by the church to remind Knights of their religion.
It was however very popular due to the protection it offered to the hand, some airplanes use a cruciform tail design, wherein the horizontal stabilizer is positioned midway up the vertical stabilizer, forming a cruciform shape when viewed from the front or rear. Some examples are the F-9 Cougar, the F-10 Skyknight and the Sud Aviation Caravelle, cruciform web designs use a cross-shaped web page that expands to fill the width and height of the web browser window. There are a number of different approaches to implementing them, in addition to common cross-shaped products, such as key chains and magnets, certain designers have gone so far as to create cruciform devices and accessories