Romanesque Revival architecture
Romanesque Revival is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture. Unlike the historic Romanesque style, Romanesque Revival buildings tended to feature more simplified arches, an early variety of Romanesque Revival style known as Rundbogenstil was popular in German lands and in the German diaspora beginning in the 1830s. By far the most prominent and influential American architect working in a free Romanesque manner was Henry Hobson Richardson, in the United States, the style derived from examples set by him are termed Richardsonian Romanesque, of which not all are Romanesque Revival. In Scotland the style started to emerge with the Duke of Argyl’s castle at Inverary, started in 1744, and castles by Robert Adam at Culzean, Dalquharran and it was at this point that the Norman Revival became a recognisable architectural style. In 1817 Thomas Rickman published his An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest To the Reformation and it was now realised that ‘round-arch architecture’ was largely Romanesque in the British Isles and came to be described as Norman rather than Saxon.
The start of an archaeologically correct Norman Revival can be recognised in the architecture of Thomas Hopper and his first attempt at this style was at Gosford Castle in Armagh in Ireland, but far more successful was his Penrhyn Castle near Bangor in North Wales. This was built for the Pennant family, between 1820 and 1837, the Norman Revival did catch on for church architecture. It was Thomas Penson, a Welsh architect, who would have been familiar with Hopper’s work at Penrhyn, Penson was influenced by French and Belgian Romanesque architecture, and particularly the earlier Romanesque phase of German Brick Gothic. At St David’s Newtown, 1843–47 and St Agatha’s Llanymynech,1845, he copies the tower of St. Salvators Cathedral, other examples of Romanesque revival by Penson are Christ Church, Welshpool, 1839–1844, and the porch to Langedwyn Church. He was an innovator in his use of Terracotta to produce decorative Romanesque mouldings, during the 19th century the architecture selected for Anglican churches depended on the churchmanship of particular congregations.
Some of the examples of this Romanesque architecture is seen in Non-conformist or Dissenting churches. A good example of this is by the Lincoln architects Drury and Mortimer, after about 1870 this style of Church architecture in Britain disappears, but in the early 20th century, the style is succeeded by Byzantine Revival architecture. Two of Canadas provincial legislatures, the Ontario Legislative Building in Toronto, University College, one of seven colleges at the University of Toronto, is a chief example of the Romanesque Revival style. The building, designed by Frederic Cumberland and William G. Storm, was intended to be Gothic in style but was rejected by the governor general. Construction of the design began on 4 October 1856. The facade of University College has thick walls, incorporating layers of both stone and brick. The building possesses a number of round arches characteristic of the Roman Revival style, the arches are configured in arcades, most notably on the south side of the building.
There is a deal of ornamentation on both the interior and exterior of University College
Church of Holmen
The Church of Holmen is a Parish church in central Copenhagen in Denmark, on the street called Holmens Kanal. First built as a forge in 1563, it was converted into a naval church by Christian IV. It is famous for having hosted the wedding between Margrethe II of Denmark, current queen of Denmark, and Prince Henrik in 1967, the appearance of the Church of Holmen today closely resembles that of the renovation in 1872, except for the colour. The windows are in glass and predominantly set in iron. The spire is dressed in copper just like small spire on the confessionals roof, the church is of Lutheran denomination. The churchs pipe organ was made by Lambert Daniel Kastens and installed in 1738. The actual organ, however, is from 1956, the current pulpit was installed in 1662 and was carved by Abel Schrøder and stands in the natural colour of its oak, except for the kings monogram which is gilded. It is the oldest preserved pulpit in Copenhagen, and the most richly decorated and it stands from floor to ceiling, and depicts Christian history from Moses holding the basket up to Jesus Christ.
The oldest baptismal font in the church is in wrought iron, a white marble font was installed in 1756, created by Carl Frederik Stanley in classicist style, but is no longer in the church. The new baptismal font from 1872 was made by the sculptor Evens by Ludvig Fengers design, in black marble, a model of Niels Juels ship Christianus Quintus hangs from the ceiling in the church. In medieval Copenhagen, Holmen was an actual island, however, in the 16th century, city restructuring made it less of an island and more of a peninsula surrounded by Holmens Canal. On this peninsula, Christian III of Denmark founded a shipyard which became synonymous with the name Holmen, when the shipyard moved to Nyholm on Christianshavn, the name Holmen followed, and Bremerholm became Gammelholm, a name which is rarely used today. Holmens Canal was filled in the 1860s, but the lives on as a street. In 1562–63, Frederick II of Denmark built a forge for Holmen. The building was shaped, as special consideration was given not to spoil the view from the kings castle.
The actual forge was hidden behind a building, called the tower, which was given a handsome front in Italian style facing the castle. In 1617, Christian IV of Denmark has built houses for the navys personnel between the Church of Saint Nikolaj and Holmen and this created an influx in population which made it necessary to build a larger church, which the king had set up in the former anchor forge. At first, the reconstruction into a church caused no redesign of the buildings blueprints, the church was consecrated on September 5,1619, but craftsmen were still working on the church during 1620
An altarpiece is an artwork such as a painting, sculpture or relief representing a religious subject made for placing behind the altar of a Christian church. Altarpieces were one of the most important products of Christian art especially from the late Middle Ages to the era of the Counter-Reformation. Large number of altarpieces are now removed from their settings, and often their elaborate sculpted frameworks. Altarpieces seem to have begun to be used during the 11th century, the reasons and forces that led to the development of altarpieces are not generally agreed upon. The habit of placing decorated reliquaries of saints on or behind the altar, as well as the tradition of decorating the front of the altar with sculptures or textiles, an elaborate example of such an early altarpiece is the Pala dOro in Venice. The appearance and development of these first altarpieces marked an important turning point both in the history of Christian art and Christian religious practice, the autonomous image now assumed a legitimate position at the centre of Christian worship.
Painted panel altars emerged in Italy during the 13th century, in the 13th century, it is not uncommon to find frescoed or mural altarpieces in Italy, mural paintings behind the altar function as visual complements for the liturgy. These altarpieces were influenced by Byzantine art, notably icons, which reached Western Europe in greater numbers following the conquest of Constantinople in 1204. During this time, altarpieces began to be decorated with an outer. Vigoroso da Sienas altarpiece from 1291 display such an altarpiece and this treatment of the altarpiece would eventually pave the way for the emergence, in the 14th century, of the polyptych. The sculpted elements in the emerging polyptychs often took inspiration from contemporary Gothic architecture, in Italy, they were still typically executed in wood and painted, while in northern Europe altarpieces were often made of stone. The early 14th century saw the emergence, in Germany, the Netherlands, the Baltic region, by hinging the outer panels to the central panel and painting them on both sides, the motif could be regulated by opening or closing the wings.
The pictures could thus be changed depending on liturgical demands, the earliest often displayed sculptures on the inner panels, i. e. displayed when open, and paintings on the back of the wings, displayed when closed. With the advent of winged altarpieces, a shift in imagery occurred, instead of being centred on a single holy figure, altarpieces began to portray more complex narratives linked to the Christian concept of salvation. As the Middle Ages progressed, altarpieces began to be commissioned more frequently, in Northern Europe, initially Lübeck and Antwerp would develop into veritable export centres for the production of altarpieces, exporting to Scandinavia and northern France. By the 15th century, altarpieces were often commissioned not only by churches but by individuals, guilds, the 15th century saw the birth of Early Netherlandish painting in the Low Countries, henceforth panel painting would dominate altarpiece production in the area. In Germany, sculpted wooden altarpieces were instead generally preferred, while in England alabaster was used to a large extent, in England, as well as in France, stone retables enjoyed general popularity.
In Italy both stone retables and wooden polyptychs were common, with painted panels and often with complex framing in the form of architectural compositions
Jerusalem's Church, Copenhagen
Jerusalems Church is the main church of the Methodist community in Denmark. It is located in Rigensgade (, central Copenhagen, the first Methodist congregation in Denmark was founded on 11 January 1859 and was based in rented rooms in Store Kongensgade. The congregation grew rapidly and funds were raised for a new church which was completed in 1866 to designs by Ferdinand Vilhelm Jensen, the church was known as St. Pauls Church until 1894 when that name was taken over by the nearby St. Pauls Church. Marks Church until 1912 when it received its current name, the church was destroyed in a fire in 1914. It was subsequently rebuilt by Jens Christian Kofoed and reinaugurated the following year, the church is designed in a mixture of Romanesque Revival and Byzantine Revival styles. It is 27 metres long,16 metres wide and the tower stands 50.6 metres tall, the Jerusalem Church contains an organ built in 1916. It was restored in 1982-84, and is considered one of the best organs in Denmark from before World War II.
The church has three gospel choirs with different profiles, Kefas has existed since 1976, Saints and Sinners has existed since 1994 and Revelation Gospel Choirer is the youngest
Ludvig Peter Fenger was a Danish architect. He was a proponent of the Historicist style and from 1886 to 1904 he was City Architect in Copenhagen, among his works are several churches, the Central Fire Station and Vestre Prison in Copenhagen. He directed the renovations of Church of Holmen and Christian IVs Stock Exchange, ludvig Fenger was born on 7 July 1833 in the village of Slots Bjergby outside Slagelse as the son of the local pastor. After graduating from Slagelse Latin School he attended the Royal Danish Academy, in the time working for architects such as Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll, Christian Hansen. He received the Academys Large Gold Medal in 1866 and went on journeys abroad from 1867 to 1869. He participated in the Second Schleswig War against Germany, was wounded, in 1871 Fenger became a member of the Academy and in 1880 he was made a professor. From 1886 he was a member of the Royal Institute of British Architects. In 1885 he entered politics when he became a member of the Borgerrerpæsentationen in Copenhagen
Church of Our Lady (Copenhagen)
The Church of Our Lady is the cathedral of Copenhagen. It is situated on Frue Plads and next to the building of the University of Copenhagen. The present day version of the church was designed by the architect Christian Frederik Hansen in the style and was completed in 1829. Construction of the original Collegiate Church of St. Mary, began no than 1187 under Bishop Absalon, the church was located on the highest point near the new town of Havn, Copenhagen. Bishop Absalon was Bishop of Roskilde, Denmarks capital of that era and he built many churches and monasteries, while founding Copenhagen as Denmarks Baltic port city. Named Archbishop of Lund in 1178, Absalon accepted only under threat of excommunication, the church was built in Romanesque style with its half-rounded arches inside and out. In 1314, a fire destroyed the church so completely that it was rebuilt in the popular new building material of the day. The style of building was Gothic, with its pointed arches. The rebuilding of the church with a long nave and choir continued until 1388.
Due to a lack of money, the tower was not built until the reign of Christian II. It was as high as the church was long, and from artwork of the day, a school was established early on. In 1479, parts of the school received a charter. Professors were brought from Cologne, the international faculty widened Denmarks exposure to the great ideas and philosophies of the day. The university challenged the growth of the Protestant movement, but was eventually closed, by 1537 it reopened as a centre for Lutheran studies. The Protestant Reformation was hard on St Marys, citizens of Copenhagen had elected to follow Luther, but Catholic officials at St Marys tried to maintain the church as a centre of Catholic resistance to change in Copenhagen. By royal decree both Catholic priests and Lutheran preachers were commanded to use the church jointly, which incensed the majority of Copenhagens population, on 27 December 1530 hundreds of citizens stormed St Marys, destroying every statue and dismantling the choir stalls.
The 17 richly gilt altars were stripped of jewels and gold and smashed, as were reliquaries, even the name St Marys became Vor Frue Kirke, keeping the historic reference to Mary without the use of the un-Lutheran Saint appellation. Just a year Our Lady Church celebrated the acceptance of the Lutheran Order presided over by Johan Bugenhagen,1539 saw the installation of the first Lutheran superintendents, bishops, of Denmark
St. Paul's Church, Copenhagen
St. Pauls Church is a Lutheran church in central Copenhagen, colloquially known as Nyboders Church due to its location in the middle of the Nyboder area. It was designed by Johannes Emil Gnudtzmann and constructed from 1872 to 1877, the church is part of a wave of church constructions which took place in Copenhagen in the 1870s to provide capacity for the citys growing population. Stephens and St. James in Østerbro and St. Mathews in Vesterbro—St, the church is built in red brick and the masonry is decorated with blinds, arches and pinnacles on all corners. The churchs first altarpiece was a painting by Hendrick Krock entitled The Eucharist, in 1887 it was replaced by a gilded crucifix created by the sculptor Jens Adolf Jerichau, a donation from pastor Christian Møller. The space surrounding the church is called Sankt Pauls Plads, on the southeast side of the church are some of the socalled Grey Tows of the Nyboder development. They were designed by Olaf Schmidth and are younger than the more well-known terraces of the neighbourhood, on the other side of the church street are a row of apartment buildings from the 1870s.
To the rear of the church is the former Gernersgade Barracks, two of Nyboders Yellow Rows flank Adelgade in front of the church
Such ceremonies are often attended by dignitaries such as politicians and businessmen. The actual shovel or spade used during the actual groundbreaking is often a special ceremonial shovel meant to be saved for subsequent display, commemorative information may be subsequently engraved on the shovel. In some places, clergy may provide blessings, particularly if the building is being constructed by a church or religious-affiliated organization. The term groundbreaking, when used as an adjective, may mean being or making something that has never been done, seen, or made before, builders rites Topping out Cornerstone Publicity stunt Ribbon cutting ceremony Media related to Ground-breaking ceremonies at Wikimedia Commons
St. Ansgar's Cathedral
Saint Ansgars Cathedral in Copenhagen, Denmark is the principal church of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Copenhagen, which encompasses all of Denmark, including the Faroe Islands and Greenland. It was consecrated in 1842 and became a cathedral in 1941, the first Catholic congregations in Denmark after the Protestant reformation were centered on foreign legations. Starting with the one formed by the Spanish diplomat Count Bernardino de Rebolledo, from its original location at de Rebolledos residence on Østergade the chapel moved around between various legation addresses, but in 1764 it settled at the present location on what is now Bredgade. For some time the Austrian legation had been the main supporter of the congregation, the present day church was designed by the German-born architect Gustav Friedrich Hetsch. Construction began in 1840 and the church was consecrated on All Saints Day,1 November 1842, during 1988–1992 the church underwent extensive restoration in collaboration with the National Museum of Denmark under the direction of the architect Vilhelm Wohlert.
The cathedral possesses the skull of St. Lucius, an early pope, which previously had been in Roskilde Cathedral which was originally dedicated to the saint
Jesus Church, Copenhagen
The Jesus Church is a church situated just off Valby Langgade in the Valby district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It was commissioned by second-generation Carlsberg brewer Carl Jacobsen and designed by Vilhelm Dahlerup, noted for its extensive ornamentation and artwork, it is considered to be one of the countrys most idiosyncratic and unconventional examples of church architecture. The church was built as a mausoleum for Carl Jacobsen and his family and is located close to their house as well as the former Carlsberg brewery site. Their sarcophagi lie in the crypt, throughout the church, there are ornaments and inscriptions associated with the family. Jacobsen, had decided to bequeath Gammel Carlsberg to the Carlsberg Foundation, on his death, Carl Jacobsen received a sum of 1,000,000 Danish kroner. In 1883, he and his wife Ottilia decided to divide the money into four equal amounts, the first of these was the Ny Carlsberg Church Grant that was to fund the creation of a new church in Valby within 10 years.
Jacobsen had already acquired the land in 1879 and in 1882 he assigned Vilhelm Dahlerup to the project. He requested a church which would surpass all other churches in Copenhagen in beauty, specifying that it should be in the style of early Christian basilica architecture as seen in Italy and France. The sum proved inadequate but, thinking more about art than money, on completion of the work, the costs had exceeded the original budget fourfold. Construction of the church was begun in 1884 and it was consecrated on 15 November 1891, the campanile was not added until 1894-95 as a birthday present from his mother. There were, rather precise instructions on how the Jesus Church should be designed. In particular, Jacobsen provided Dahlerup with a number of photographs of the old churches and artwork in Ravenna, Dahlerup was inspired by Notre-Dame la Grande in Poitiers, and by the synagogue in Toledo, Spain. The church is indeed designed in the style of an early basilica with a campanile or detached bell tower.
For the Danish Lutheran community, its style and rich ornamentation were rather unconventional, at one point, Carl Jacobsen was described by his own priest as a freethinker, unready to follow the trends and the dogma of the day. Unusually, the church is oriented along an axis with the altar at the southern end. It is built as a basilica with a chancel, topped by a nonagonal dome with a pyramidal spire. The campanile tower stands close to the north-east corner of the church, the main facade is dominated by three large arches, resting on two heavy granite columns with characteristic twin capitals leading into the portico. Above the arches, the pediment has intricate ornamentation, the centre of the pediment boasts a rose window, the largest of its kind in Denmark, composed of cathedral glass in yellow and green nuances supported by cames of lead
A church building, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly worship services. The term in its sense is most often used by Christians to refer to their religious buildings. In traditional Christian architecture, the church is arranged in the shape of a Christian cross. When viewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented by the aisle, towers or domes are often added with the intention of directing the eye of the viewer towards the heavens and inspiring church visitors. The earliest identified Christian church was a church founded between 233 and 256. During the 11th through 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals, a cathedral is a church, usually Roman Catholic, Oriental Orthodox or Eastern Orthodox, housing the seat of a bishop. In standard Greek usage, the word ecclesia was retained to signify both a specific edifice of Christian worship, and the overall community of the faithful. This usage was retained in Latin and the languages derived from Latin, as well as in the Celtic languages.
In the Germanic and some Slavic languages, the word kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón was adopted instead, in Old English the sequence of derivation started as cirice and eventually church in its current pronunciation. German Kirche, Scottish kirk, Russian церковь, etc. are all similarly derived, according to the New Testament, the earliest Christians did not build church buildings. Instead, they gathered in homes or in Jewish worship places like the Second Temple or synagogues, the earliest archeologically identified Christian church is a house church, the Dura-Europos church, founded between 233 and 256. During the 11th through 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals, in addition to being a place of worship, the cathedral or parish church was used by the community in other ways. It could serve as a place for guilds or a hall for banquets. Mystery plays were performed in cathedrals, and cathedrals might be used for fairs. The church could be used as a place to thresh and store grain, a common architecture for churches is the shape of a cross.
These churches often have a dome or other large vaulted space in the interior to represent or draw attention to the heavens. Other common shapes for churches include a circle, to represent eternity, or an octagon or similar star shape, another common feature is the spire, a tall tower on the west end of the church or over the crossing. The Latin word basilica was used to describe a Roman public building
The eaves are the edges of the roof which overhang the face of a wall and, project beyond the side of a building. The eaves form an overhang to throw water clear of the walls and may be decorated as part of an architectural style. Eaves is derived from Old English efes meaning edge, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, eaves is both the singular and plural form of the word. However, the Merriam-Webster website lists the word as eave and states that it is used in plural. The word was used before the 12th century in the form efes, the primary function of the eaves is to keep rain water off the walls and to prevent the ingress of water at the junction where the roof meets the wall. The eaves may protect a pathway around the building from the rain, prevent erosion of the footings, the eaves overhang may shelter openings to ventilate the roof space. Aesthetic, traditional or purely decorative considerations may prevail over the functional requirements of the eaves. At the gables the eaves may extend beyond the end wall by projecting the purlins and are usually capped off by bargeboards to protect the wall.
Eaves must be designed for wind speeds as the overhang can significantly increase the wind loading on the roof. Chhajja Eavesdrip Eavesdropping Gargoyle Lookout Rainhead Soffit Media related to Eaves at Wikimedia Commons