Michael is an archangel in Judaism and Islam. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Lutheran traditions, he is called Saint Michael the Archangel, in the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox traditions, he is called Taxiarch Archangel Michael or simply Archangel Michael. Michael is mentioned three times in the Book of Daniel, in the New Testament Michael leads Gods armies against Satans forces in the Book of Revelation, where during the war in heaven he defeats Satan. In the Epistle of Jude Michael is specifically referred to as the archangel Michael, by the 6th century, devotions to Archangel Michael were widespread both in the Eastern and Western Churches. Over time, teachings on Michael began to vary among Christian denominations, Michael is mentioned three times in the Hebrew Scriptures, all in the book of Daniel. The prophet Daniel experiences a vision after having undergone a period of fasting, Daniel 10, 13-21 describes Daniels vision of an angel who identifies Michael as the protector of Israel.
At Daniel 12,1, Daniel is informed that Michael will arise during the time of the end, the Book of Revelation describes a war in heaven in which Michael, being stronger, defeats Satan. After the conflict, Satan is thrown to earth along with the fallen angels, in the Epistle of Jude 1,9, Michael is referred to as an archangel when he again confronts Satan. A reference to an archangel appears in the First Epistle to the Thessalonians 4,16 and this archangel who heralds the second coming of Christ is not named, but is often associated with Michael. Michael, is one of the two mentioned in the Quran, alongside Jibreel. In the Quran, Michael is mentioned only, in Sura 2,98, Whoever is an enemy to God, and His angels and His messengers. Then, God is an enemy to the disbelievers, some Muslims believe that the reference in Sura 11,69 is Michael, one of the three angels who visited Abraham. Michaels enmity with Samael dates from the time when the latter was thrown down from heaven, Samael took hold of the wings of Michael, whom he wished to bring down with him in his fall, but Michael was saved by God.
But appeal to Michael seems to have more common in ancient times. Thus Jeremiah is said to have addressed a prayer to him, the rabbis declare that Michael entered upon his role of defender at the time of the biblical patriarchs. Thus, according to Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob, it was Michael who rescued Abraham from the furnace into which he had been thrown by Nimrod. It was Michael, the one that had escaped, who told Abraham that Lot had been taken captive, and he announced to Sarah that she would bear a son and he rescued Lot at the destruction of Sodom. It is said that Michael prevented Isaac from being sacrificed by his father by substituting a ram in his place, Michael prevented Laban from harming Jacob
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture and its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the cathedrals, abbeys. It is the architecture of many castles, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings, for this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches. A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, the term Gothic architecture originated as a pejorative description. Hence, François Rabelais, of the 16th century, imagines an inscription over the door of his utopian Abbey of Thélème, Here enter no hypocrites, slipping in a slighting reference to Gotz and Ostrogotz.
Authorities such as Christopher Wren lent their aid in deprecating the old medieval style, the Company disapproved of several of these new manners, which are defective and which belong for the most part to the Gothic. Gothic architecture is the architecture of the medieval period, characterised by use of the pointed arch. As an architectural style, Gothic developed primarily in ecclesiastical architecture, the greatest number of surviving Gothic buildings are churches. The Gothic style is most particularly associated with the cathedrals of Northern France. At the end of the 12th century, Europe was divided into a multitude of city states, norway came under the influence of England, while the other Scandinavian countries and Poland were influenced by trading contacts with the Hanseatic League. Angevin kings brought the Gothic tradition from France to Southern Italy, throughout Europe at this time there was a rapid growth in trade and an associated growth in towns. Germany and the Lowlands had large flourishing towns that grew in comparative peace, in trade and competition with other, or united for mutual weal.
Civic building was of importance to these towns as a sign of wealth. England and France remained largely feudal and produced grand domestic architecture for their kings and bishops, the Catholic Church prevailed across Europe at this time, influencing not only faith but wealth and power. Bishops were appointed by the lords and they often ruled as virtual princes over large estates. The early Medieval periods had seen a growth in monasticism, with several different orders being prevalent. Foremost were the Benedictines whose great abbey churches vastly outnumbered any others in France, a part of their influence was that towns developed around them and they became centers of culture and commerce
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation and doctrine. Individual bodies, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs and historical ties—are sometimes known as branches of Christianity or denominational families. Individual Christian groups vary widely in the degree to which they recognize one another, several groups claim to be the direct and sole authentic successor of the church founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. Others, believe in denominationalism, where some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same regardless of their distinguishing labels, beliefs. Because of this concept, some Christian bodies reject the term denomination to describe themselves, the Catholic Church does not view itself as a denomination, but as the original pre-denominational church. This view is rejected by other Christian denominations, Protestant denominations account for approximately 37 percent of Christians worldwide.
Together and Protestantism comprise Western Christianity, Western Christian denominations prevail in Western, Northern and Southern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania. The Eastern Orthodox Church, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents, is the second-largest Christian organization in the world, unlike the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church is itself a communion of fully independent autocephalous churches that mutually recognize each other to the exclusion of others. The Eastern Orthodox Church, together with Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East, Eastern Christian denominations are represented mostly in Eastern Europe, North Asia, the Middle East and Northeast Africa. Christians have various doctrines about the Church and about how the church corresponds to Christian denominations. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox hold that their own organizations faithfully represent the One Holy catholic and Apostolic Church to the exclusion of the other, sixteenth-century Protestants separated from the Catholic Church because of theologies and practices that they considered to be in violation of their own interpretation.
But some non-denominational Christians do not follow any particular branch, though regarded as Protestants. Each group uses different terminology to discuss their beliefs and this section will discuss the definitions of several terms used throughout the article, before discussing the beliefs themselves in detail in following sections. A denomination within Christianity can be defined as an autonomous branch of the Christian Church, major synonyms include religious group, Church. Some traditional and evangelical Protestants draw a distinction between membership in the church and fellowship within the local church. Becoming a believer in Christ makes one a member of the universal church, a related concept is denominationalism, the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices. Protestant leaders differ greatly from the views of the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, each church makes mutually exclusive claims for itself to be the direct continuation of the Church founded by Jesus Christ, from whom other denominations broke away.
These churches, and a few others, reject denominationalism, Christianity can be taxonomically divided into five main groups, the Church of the East, Oriental Orthodoxy, Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, and Protestantism
A crossing, in ecclesiastical architecture, is the junction of the four arms of a cruciform church. In a typically oriented church, the crossing gives access to the nave on the west, the arms on the north and south. The crossing is surmounted by a tower or dome. A large crossing tower is common on English Gothic cathedrals. With the Renaissance, building a dome above the crossing became popular, because the crossing is open on four sides, the weight of the tower or dome rests heavily on the corners, a stable construction thus required great skill on the part of the builders. In centuries past, it was not uncommon for overambitious crossing towers to collapse, sacrist Alan of Walsinghams octagon, built between 1322 and 1328 after the collapse of Elys nave crossing on 22 February 1322, is the. Greatest individual achievement of architectural genius at Ely Cathedral according to architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner, a tower over the crossing may be called a lantern tower if it has openings through which light from outside can shine down to the crossing.
In Early Medieval churches, the square was often used as a module. The nave and transept would have lengths that were a multiple of the length of the crossing square. This was to ensure that the church was properly proportioned
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luthers efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone and this is in contrast to the belief of the Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. In addition, Lutheranism accepts the teachings of the first seven ecumenical councils of the undivided Christian Church, unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lords Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, the purpose of Gods Law, the grace, the concept of perseverance of the saints.
Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest denominations of Protestantism, with approximately 80 million adherents, it constitutes the third most common Protestant denomination after historically Pentecostal denominations and Anglicanism. The Lutheran World Federation, the largest communion of Lutheran churches, Other Lutheran organizations include the International Lutheran Council and the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference, as well as independent churches. The name Lutheran originated as a term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Catholics followed the practice of naming a heresy after its leader. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, which was derived from euangelion, the followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition began to use that term. To distinguish the two groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed.
As time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped, Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Philippists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church, Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway, through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen, under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark-Norway remained officially Catholic. Although Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers. During Fredericks reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark, at an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted, We will stand by the holy Gospel, and do not want such bishops anymore.
Fredericks son Christian was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his fathers death, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark-Norway
A crypt is a stone chamber beneath the floor of a church or other building. It typically contains coffins, sarcophagi, or religious relics, crypts were typically found below the main apse of a church, such as at the Abbey of Saint-Germain en Auxerre, but were located beneath chancel and transepts as well. Occasionally churches were raised high to accommodate a crypt at the level, such as St Michaels Church in Hildesheim. Crypt developed as a form of the Latin vault as it was carried over into Late Latin. It served as a vault for storing important and/or sacred items, however, is the female form of crypto hidden. The earliest known origin of both is in the Ancient Greek κρύπτω, the first person singular indicative of the verb to conceal, first known in the early Christian period, in particular North Africa at Chlef and Djemila in Algeria, and Byzantium at Saint John Studio in Constantinople. Where Christian churches have been built over mithraea, the mithraeum has often been adapted to serve as a crypt, crypts were introduced into Frankish church building in the mid-8th century, as a feature of its Romanization.
Their popularity spread widely in western Europe under Charlemagne. Examples from this period are most common in the early medieval West, for example in Burgundy at Dijon, after the 10th century the early medieval requirements of a crypt faded, as church officials permitted relics to be held in the main level of the church. By the Gothic period crypts were built, however burial vaults continued to be constructed beneath churches. In more modern terms, a crypt is most often a stone chambered burial vault used to store the deceased, crypts are usually found in cemeteries and under public religious buildings, such as churches or cathedrals, but are occasionally found beneath mausolea or chapels on personal estates. Wealthy or prestigious families will often have a family crypt or vault in which all members of the family are interred, many royal families, for example, have vast crypts containing the bodies of dozens of former royalty. In some localities an above ground crypt is more commonly called a mausoleum, there was a trend in the 19th century of building crypts on medium to large size family estates, usually subtly placed on the edge of the grounds or more commonly incorporated into the cellar.
After a change of owner these are often blocked up and the house deeds will not allow this area to be re-developed, catacomb Mausoleum Tumulus Ossuary Tomb Cemetery Media related to Crypt at Wikimedia Commons Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Crypt
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
The Bernward Column known as the Christ Column is a Romanesque bronze column, made c. 1000 for the church St. Michaels in Hildesheim and regarded as a masterpiece of Ottonian art. It was commissioned by Bernward, thirteenth bishop of Hildesheim and it depicts images from the life of Jesus, arranged in a helix similar to Trajans Column, it was originally topped with a cross or crucifix. During the 19th century, it was moved to a courtyard, during the restoration of the cathedral from 2010 to 2014, it was moved back to its original location in St. Michaels, but was returned to the Cathedral in August,2014. The Bernward Column was made for the church of St. Michaels, Hildesheim and it initially stood in the east choir, behind the altar, with a triumphal cross. This location under the arch was proposed by Gallistl using the literary sources. In addition, a marble column stood in front of the altar, whose stone came from the eastern Mediterranean and. The altar was equated with the table in the forehall of the Temple of Solomon.
This arrangement of a topped with a cross, an altar and a wheel chandelier was modelled on the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. In 1544, during the chaos of the Reformation in Hildesheim and it was melted down and recast as a cannon, suggesting that it was of considerable size. After the demolition of the east choir of St, an engraving by Johann Ludwig Brandes indicates that it was decorated with figures. The rest of the column was not melted down in the years because of its ancient significance as a contact relic. In 1893 it was moved into the cathedral, on 30 September 2009 it was moved back to St. Michaels for the duration of the cathedral renovations, which lasted until August 2014. The column was crowned with a triumphal cross. The column is significant for the vitality of the figural relief, the relief complements the Bernward Doors, which picture the Nativity and resurrection of Jesus. For this reason, the execution of John the Baptist by the weak, in the reliefs the importance of the gospels on Palm Sunday is emphasised, which might be connected with the Cluniac reforms.
The references to the Lenten and penitential rites, which are found in the imagery of the Bernward Doors. Since 1874 there has been a plaster cast of the column in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, II, Hildesheim 1993, ISBN 3-87065-736-7. Michael Brandt, Bernwards Säule - Schätze aus dem Dom zu Hildesheim, verlag Schnell & Steiner GmbH, Regensburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-7954-2046-8
Many cultures devoted considerable resources to their sacred architecture and places of worship. Religious and sacred spaces are amongst the most impressive and permanent monolithic buildings created by humanity, sacred architecture as a locale for meta-intimacy may be non-monolithic and intensely private and non-public. Sacred and holy structures often evolved over centuries and were the largest buildings in the world, while the various styles employed in sacred architecture sometimes reflected trends in other structures, these styles remained unique from the contemporary architecture used in other structures. With the rise of Abrahamic monotheisms, religious buildings increasingly became centres of worship, the Western scholarly discipline of the history of architecture itself closely follows the history of religious architecture from ancient times until the Baroque period, at least. Sacred geometry and the use of sophisticated semiotics such as signs, Sacred and/or religious architecture is sometimes called sacred space.
Architect Norman L. Koonce has suggested that the goal of sacred architecture is to make transparent the boundary between matter and mind and the spirit, Richard Kieckhefer suggests that entering into a religious building is a metaphor for entering into spiritual relationship. Sacred architecture spans a number of ancient architectural styles including Neolithic architecture, ancient Egyptian architecture, ancient religious buildings, particularly temples, were often viewed as the dwelling place, the temenos, of the gods and were used as the site of various kinds of sacrifice. Ancient tombs and burial structures are examples of architectural structures reflecting religious beliefs of their various societies. The Temple of Karnak at Thebes, Egypt was constructed across a period of 1300 years, ancient Egyptian religious architecture has fascinated archaeologists and captured the public imagination for millennia. Around 600 BCE the wooden columns of the Temple of Hera at Olympia were replaced by stone columns, with the spread of this process to other sanctuary structures a few stone buildings have survived through the ages.
Greek architecture preceded Hellenistic and Roman periods, since temples are the only buildings which survive in numbers, most of our concept of classical architecture is based on religious structures. The Parthenon which served as a building as well as a place for veneration of deity, is widely regarded as the greatest example of classical architecture. Indian architecture is related to the history and religions of the time periods as well as to the geography, the diversity of Indian culture is represented in its architecture. Indian architecture comprises a blend of ancient and varied native traditions, with building types and technologies from West, Central Asia, buddhist architecture developed in South Asia beginning in the third century BCE. Two types of structures are associated with early Buddhism and stupas, an existing example is at Nalanda. The initial function of the stupa was the veneration and safe-guarding of the relics of the Buddha, the earliest existing example of a stupa is in Sanchi.
In accordance with changes in practice, stupas were gradually incorporated into chaitya-grihas. These reached their highpoint in the first century BCE, exemplified by the cave complexes of Ajanta, the pagoda is an evolution of the Indian stupa that is marked by a tiered tower with multiple eaves common in China, Korea and other parts of Asia
Such ceremonies are often attended by dignitaries such as politicians and businessmen. The actual shovel or spade used during the actual groundbreaking is often a special ceremonial shovel meant to be saved for subsequent display, commemorative information may be subsequently engraved on the shovel. In some places, clergy may provide blessings, particularly if the building is being constructed by a church or religious-affiliated organization. The term groundbreaking, when used as an adjective, may mean being or making something that has never been done, seen, or made before, builders rites Topping out Cornerstone Publicity stunt Ribbon cutting ceremony Media related to Ground-breaking ceremonies at Wikimedia Commons
Hildesheim is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany with almost 100,000 inhabitants. It is located in the district of Hildesheim, about 30 km southeast of Hanover on the banks of the Innerste River, the settlement around the cathedral very quickly developed into a town and was awarded market rights by King Otto III in 983. Originally the market was held in a street called Old Market which still exists today, the first market place was laid out around the church St. Andreas. When the city grew further, a market place became necessary. The present market place of Hildesheim was laid out at the beginning of the 13th century when the city had about 5,000 inhabitants, when Hildesheim obtained city status in 1249, it was one of the biggest cities in Northern Germany. For four centuries the clergy ruled Hildesheim, before a city hall was built, construction of the present City Hall started in 1268. In 1367 Hildesheim became a member of the Hanseatic League, a war between the citizens and their bishop cost dearly in 1519-1523 when they engaged in a feud.
Hildesheim became Lutheran in 1542, and only the cathedral and a few buildings remained in imperial hands. Several villages around the city remained Catholic as well, in 1813, after the Napoleonic Wars, the town became part of the Kingdom of Hanover, which was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia as a province after the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. In 1868 a highly valuable trove of about 70 Roman silver vessels for eating and drinking, the city was heavily damaged by air raids in 1945, especially on 22 March. 28. 5% of the houses were destroyed and 44. 7% damaged. 26. 8% of the houses remained undamaged, the centre, which had retained its medieval character until then, was almost levelled. As in many cities, priority was given to building of badly needed housing. Fortunately, most of the churches, two of them now UNESCO World Heritage Sites, were rebuilt in the original style soon after the war. During the war, valuable world heritage materials had been hidden in the basement of the city wall, in 1978, the University of Hildesheim was founded.
In the 1980s a reconstruction of the centre began. Some of the concrete buildings around the market place were torn down. In the fall of 2007, a decision was made to reconstruct the Umgestülpter Zuckerhut, in 2015 the town celebrates 1200 years from 815 to 2015 with the Day of Lower Saxony
The Innerste is a river in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is a tributary of the Leine river and 95 km in length. The name Innerste, in earlier times called the Inste, Indistria and Indrista, probably goes back to the Indo-Germanic root oid = turbulent and it may be the name referred to in the name of the battlefield of Idistaviso. It is therefore not a superlative and is declined without an ending in German e. g. Hildesheim liegt an der Innerste, not. The rivers source is in the Harz mountains,4 km from the town of Clausthal-Zellerfeld to the southwest at an elevation of 615 m and is called Innerstesprung. As a small brook, the Innerste flows west and passes a system of lakes, the next lakes are Oberer Nassenwieser Teich, Bärenbrucher Teich, Ziegenberger Teich, and Sumpfteich. The German word Teich means pond, having passed through the middle of the village of Buntenbock, the Innerste passes Prinzenteich and turns to the west to Wildemann, one of the smallest towns in Germany. Grumbach, one of the first tributaries, flows into the Innerste in the middle of Wildemann, the Innerste turns to the North to Lautenthal, another town on its course and flows parallel to the abandoned track of the Innerste Valley Railway.
Here the Laute flows into the Innerste in the middle of Lautenthal, the name of the town means Laute Valley. Near Lautenthal the Innerste is dammed, when the dam was built 1963-1966, a nice lake for holidays and watersports was created. A few kilometers further on, the Innerste leaves the Harz Mountains near the town of Langelsheim, the first tributary is river Grane. From here, the Innerste flows through the Harzvorland, a hilly countryside, further tributaries are river Nette, river Lamme, river Bruchgraben, river Neile and river Beuster. Some more towns on its course are the quarters of Salzgitter. The Innerste passes Marienburg Castle, the centre of Hildesheim and Steuerwald Castle in the North of the City, North of Hildesheim, the Innerste enters the Norddeutsche Tiefebene, a large plain. About 18 km further on, it flows into the Leine near the town of Sarstedt, south of Hanover, sönke Martens, Erich Heinemann, Lebensader Innerste, von der Quelle bis zur Mündung. Gerstenberg, Hildesheim 1999, ISBN 3-8067-8543-0 Heinrich Hofmeister, Naturraum Innerstetal, Hildesheim 2003 Bibliographisches Institut & F. A.
Brockhaus AG,2001, Brockhaus multimedia 2002 Ludger Feldmann, Hildesheim im Eiszeitalter - eine Bilderreise. In, Manfred Boetzkes, Ingeborg Schweitzer, Jürgen Vespermann, EisZeit, jan Thorbecke Verlag, Stuttgart 1999 und Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum Hildesheim 1999, Seite 95-106