Gold called golden, is a color. The web color gold is sometimes referred to as golden to distinguish it from the color metallic gold; the use of gold as a color term in traditional usage is more applied to the color "metallic gold". The first recorded use of golden as a color name in English was in 1300 to refer to the element gold and in 1423 to refer to blond hair. Metallic gold, such as in paint, is called goldtone or gold tone. In heraldry, the French word or is used. In model building, the color gold is different from brass. A shiny or metallic silvertone object can be painted with transparent yellow to obtain goldtone, something done with Christmas decorations. At right is displayed a representation of the color metallic gold, a simulation of the color of the actual metallic element gold itself—gold shade; the source of this color is the ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names, a color dictionary used by stamp collectors to identify the colors of stamps—See color sample of the color Gold displayed on indicated web page:The first recorded use of gold as a color name in English was in the year 1400.
The American Heritage Dictionary defines the color metallic gold as "A light olive-brown to dark yellow, or a moderate, strong to vivid yellow." Of course, the visual sensation associated with the metal gold is its metallic shine. This cannot be reproduced by a simple solid color, because the shiny effect is due to the material's reflective brightness varying with the surface's angle to the light source; this is. In sacral art in Christian churches, real gold was used for rendering gold in paintings, e.g. for the halo of saints. Gold can be woven into sheets of silk to give an East Asian traditional look. More recent art styles, e.g. art nouveau made use of a metallic, shining gold. Old gold is a dark yellow, which varies from heavy olive brown to deep or strong yellow; the accepted color old gold is on the darker rather than the lighter side of this range. The first recorded use of old gold as a color name in English was in the early 19th century; the Delta Sigma Pi fraternity, founded in November 7, 1907, official colors are designated royal purple and old gold.
The Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity's colors are old gold. Old gold is one of two colors of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. Maroon and old gold are the colors of Texas State University's intercollegiate sports teams. Old Gold and black are the team colors of Purdue University Boilermakers intercollegiate sports teams; the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets wore white and old gold. The Wake Forest Demon Deacons, UCF Knights, Vanderbilt Commodores wear old gold and black; the New Orleans Saints list their official team colors as old gold and white. Golden yellow is the color halfway between yellow on the RGB color wheel, it is a color, 87.5% yellow and 12.5% red. The first recorded use of golden yellow as a color name in English was in the year 1597. Golden poppy is a tone of gold, the color of the California poppy—the official state flower of California—the Golden State; the first recorded use of golden poppy as a color name in English was in 1927. Gold is the oldest color associated with Arizona State University and dates back to 1896 when the school was named the Tempe Normal School.
Gold signifies the "golden promise" of ASU. The promise includes every student receiving a valuable educational experience. Gold signifies the sunshine Arizona is famous for; the student section, known as The Inferno, wears gold on game days. The official colors of the University of Southern California are Pantone 201C and Pantone 123C; these colors, designated as USC Cardinal and USC Gold, were adopted in 1895 by Rev. George W. White, USC’s third president, are equal in importance in identifying the USC Trojans; this is a shade of gold identified by the University of California, Berkeley in their graphic style guide for use in on-screen representations of the gold color in the university's seal. For print media, the guide recommends to, "se Pantone 7750 metallic or Pantone 123 yellow and 282 blue". Cal Poly Pomona gold is one of the two the official colors of California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; the official university colors are gold. Cal Poly Pomona's Office of Public Affairs created the colors for web development and has technical guidelines and privacy protection.
If web developers are using gold on a university website, they are encouraged to use Cal Poly Pomona gold. It is notable for its prominent use representing Cal Poly Pomona's athletic teams, the Cal Poly Pomona Broncos; the color was approved by the University of California, Los Angeles Chancellor in October 2013. This is a shade of gold identified by the university for use in their printed publications. MU Gold is used by the University of Missouri as the official school color along with black. Mizzou Identity Standards designated the color for web development as well as logos and images that developers are asked to follow in the University's Guidelines for using official Mizzou logos; the color pale gold is displayed
Asansol is a metropolitan city and a municipal corporation in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is the second largest and most populated city of West Bengal after Kolkata, it is the district headquarters of Paschim Bardhaman district. It is the 39th largest urban agglomeration in India. According to a 2010 report released by the International Institute for Environment and Development, a UK-based policy research non-governmental body, Asansol was ranked 11th among Indian cities and 42nd in the world in its list of 100 fastest-growing cities. Asansol is classed as a Y-category city for calculation of HRA for public servants, making it a Tier-II city. "Asan", a species of tree which grows thirty meters tall, is found on the banks of the Damodar River. The name "Asansol" is a combination of these two words. Asansol is a city on the banks of Damodar and its land is rich in minerals; the city was anglicized as Assensole during the British era but the name was reverted after Independence. The region saw an initial settlement of the Dravidian people and Australoid race.
Notable Jain activities were exercised around two thousand five hundred years ago in this region, apparent from the Jain temples which are present in Pareshnath hill in the neighbouring state of Jharkhand. Further, the presence of Jain temple at the banks of Barakar River in Begunia and neighbouring Bankura district confirms this theory, it is believed that Mahavira Vardhamana, the last Tirthankar of Jain religion used to live and work here. There is a Jain temple present in Asansol, devoted to the twelfth Tirthankara. Subsequently, the region was believed to have been a part of the kingdom of Vishnupur where the Malla dynasty ruled for a thousand years till the emergence of the British; this theory is backed by the presence of Vishnupur style temple present at Chhotodighari village and Domohani village in Asansol. Asansol is a cosmopolitan city located on the lower Chota Nagpur Plateau, which occupies most of Jharkhand, between the Damodar and Ajay rivers. Another river, the Barakar, joins the Damodar near Dishergarh.
Two small rivulets and Garui flows past Asansol. While Dhanbad district in Jharkhand lies on the western side, Durgapur subdivision lies on the eastern side. To the south, across the Damodar river are the Bankura districts. To the north are Dumka and Birbhum districts. Dhanbad district has close links with Asansol. Asansol North police station has jurisdiction over Raniganj CD Block and parts of Asansol Municipal Corporation; the area covered is 49 km2 and the population covered is 410,000. Asansol South police station has jurisdiction over parts of Asansol municipal corporation; the area covered is 69 km2 and the population covered is 475,439. Asansol Women PS covers both Durgapur subdivisions. Raniganj, Jamuria and Kulti police stations serve parts of Asansol municipal corporation area. According to the Kolkata Gazette notification of 3 June 2015, the municipal areas of Kulti and Jamuria were included within the jurisdiction of Asansol Municipal Corporation. Asansol is administered by the Asansol Municipal Corporation.
In 1850, a union committee was formed to look after the civic needs of Asansol. The Assensole Municipality was approved in 1885 but started functioning in 1896, it was upgraded to the status of a corporation in 1994. Since 2011 it has had its own Police Commissionerate. In 2015, Kulti and Raniganj Municipalities were dissolved and now these areas are administered by the Asansol Municipal Corporation, thus the proper city limits of Asansol includes the old Asansol Area, including Burnpur, as well as other prominent locations like Raniganj, Mithani, Kulti, Neamatpur and Jamuria. Asansol Municipal Corporation has 106 wards. Asansol-Durgapur Development Authority was established in April 1980 by the merger of the Asansol Planning Organisation and the Durgapur Development Authority. Jurisdiction of ADDA covers the areas administered by Asansol Municipal Corporation, the Jamuria Panchayet Samiti, the Community Development Blocks of Andal and Durgapur-Faridpur, Durgapur Municipal Corporation and a small part of Kanksa Community Development Block.
Asansol has cold chilly winters. In summers temperatures soar above 40°C with dry hot air blowing known as'loo' while in winter temperatures go below 10°C. Monsoon lasts from June to September; the Köppen Climate Classification sub-type for this climate is "Aw". As per the 2011 census total Population of Asansol is 1,243,414 out of which 646,052 are males and 597,362 are females. With 83.30 % literacy and the population growth rate being higher than the state ` s Kolkata. The Grand Trunk Road runs across the NH 14 connects Asansol with Odisha. NH 19 has been broadened as part of the Golden Quadrilateral project and now allows three-lane traffic in both directions. A highway bypass avoids the areas of Ushagram, Asansol Bazar, Chelidanga, BNR, Neamatpur and Barakar; some of the other important roads of the city are namely Vivekananda Avenue, Burnpur Road, S. B Gorai Road; the South Bengal State Transport Corporation operates daily bus services to Kolkata and numerous other destinations, such as Malda, Midnapur, Siuri, Burdwan, Howrah, Digha, Bolpur and Berhampore.
The North Bengal State Transport Corporation runs services to and from the city and towns in North Bengal like Malda and Balurghat. There are al
Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net. Although it may be played with larger teams, the most common forms of the game are "singles" and "doubles". Badminton is played as a casual outdoor activity in a yard or on a beach. Points are scored by striking the shuttlecock with the racquet and landing it within the opposing side's half of the court; each side may only strike the shuttlecock. Play ends once the shuttlecock has struck the floor or if a fault has been called by the umpire, service judge, or the opposing side; the shuttlecock is a feathered or plastic projectile which flies differently from the balls used in many other sports. In particular, the feathers create much higher drag, causing the shuttlecock to decelerate more rapidly. Shuttlecocks have a high top speed compared to the balls in other racquet sports; the flight of the shuttlecock gives the sport its distinctive nature. The game developed in British India from the earlier game of shuttlecock.
European play came to be dominated by Denmark but the game has become popular in Asia, with recent competitions dominated by China. Since 1992, badminton has been a Summer Olympic sport with four events: men's singles, women's singles, men's doubles, women's doubles, with mixed doubles added four years later. At high levels of play, the sport demands excellent fitness: players require aerobic stamina, strength and precision, it is a technical sport, requiring good motor coordination and the development of sophisticated racquet movements. Games employing shuttlecocks have been played for centuries across Eurasia, but the modern game of badminton developed in the mid-19th century among the British as a variant of the earlier game of battledore and shuttlecock, its exact origin remains obscure. The name derives from the Duke of Beaufort's Badminton House in Gloucestershire, but why or when remains unclear; as early as 1860, a London toy dealer named Isaac Spratt published a booklet entitled Badminton Battledore – A New Game, but no copy is known to have survived.
An 1863 article in The Cornhill Magazine describes badminton as "battledore and shuttlecock played with sides, across a string suspended some five feet from the ground". The game may have developed among expatriate officers in British India, where it was popular by the 1870s. Ball badminton, a form of the game played with a wool ball instead of a shuttlecock, was being played in Thanjavur as early as the 1850s and was at first played interchangeably with badminton by the British, the woollen ball being preferred in windy or wet weather. Early on, the game was known as Poona or Poonah after the garrison town of Pune, where it was popular and where the first rules for the game were drawn up in 1873. By 1875, officers returning home had started a badminton club in Folkestone; the sport was played with sides ranging from 1 to 4 players, but it was established that games between two or four competitors worked the best. The shuttlecocks were coated with India rubber and, in outdoor play, sometimes weighted with lead.
Although the depth of the net was of no consequence, it was preferred that it should reach the ground. The sport was played under the Pune rules until 1887, when J. H. E. Hart of the Bath Badminton Club drew up revised regulations. In 1890, Hart and Bagnel Wild again revised the rules; the Badminton Association of England published these rules in 1893 and launched the sport at a house called "Dunbar" in Portsmouth on 13 September. The BAE started the first badminton competition, the All England Open Badminton Championships for gentlemen's doubles, ladies' doubles, mixed doubles, in 1899. Singles competitions were added in 1900 and an England–Ireland championship match appeared in 1904. England, Wales, Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand were the founding members of the International Badminton Federation in 1934, now known as the Badminton World Federation. India joined as an affiliate in 1936; the BWF now governs international badminton. Although initiated in England, competitive men's badminton has traditionally been dominated in Europe by Denmark.
Worldwide, Asian nations have become dominant in international competition. China, India, Indonesia and South Korea are the nations which have produced world-class players in the past few decades, with China being the greatest force in men's and women's competition recently; the game has become a popular backyard sport in the United States. The following information is a simplified summary of badminton rules based on the BWF Statutes publication, Laws of Badminton; the court is divided into halves by a net. Courts are marked for both singles and doubles play, although badminton rules permit a court to be marked for singles only; the doubles court is wider than the singles court. The exception, which causes confusion to newer players, is that the doubles court has a shorter serve-length dimension; the full width of the court is 6.1 metres, in singles this width is reduced to 5.18 metres. The full length of the court is 13.4 metres. The service courts are marked by a centre line dividing the width of the court, by a short service line at a distance of 1.98 metres from the net, by the outer side and back boundaries.
In doubles, the service court is marked by a long service line, 0.76 metres from the back boundary. T
Edmund Ignatius Rice
Blessed Edmund Ignatius Rice, CFC, was a Roman Catholic missionary and educationalist. He was the founder of two religious institutes of religious brothers: the Congregation of Christian Brothers and the Presentation Brothers. Rice was born in Ireland at a time when Catholics faced oppression under Penal Laws enforced by the British authorities, though reforms began in 1778 when he was a teenager, he forged a successful career in business and, after an accident which killed his wife and left his daughter disabled and with learning difficulties, thereafter devoted his life to education of the poor. Christian Brothers and Presentation Brothers schools around the world continue to follow the traditions established by Edmund Rice. Edmund Rice was born to Robert Rice and Margaret Rice on the farming property of "Westcourt", in Callan, County Kilkenny. Edmund Rice was the fourth of seven sons, although he had two half sisters and Jane Murphy, the offspring of his mother's first marriage. Rice's education, like that of every other Irish Catholic of the day, was compromised by the 1709 amendment to the Popery Act, which decreed that any public or private instruction in the Catholic faith would render teachers liable to prosecution, a measure, not reformed until 1782.
In this environment, hedge schools proliferated. The boys of the Rice family obtained an education at home through Patrick Grace, a member of the small community of Augustinian friars in Callan; as a young man, Rice spent two years at a school which, despite the provisions of the penal laws, the authorities suffered to exist in the City of Kilkenny. His uncle Michael owned a merchant business in the nearby port town of Waterford. In 1779 Edmund was apprenticed to him, moving into a house in the market parish of Ballybricken, entering the business of trading livestock and other supplies, the supervising of loading of victuals onto ships bound for the British colonies. Michael Rice died in 1785, this business passed to Edmund, he was an active member of a society established in the city for the relief of the poor. His favourite charity was the Sick and Indigent Roomkeepers’ Association whose members visited the sick poor in their homes. In about 1785 he married a young woman. Little is known about their married life, Mary died in January 1789 following an accident by a fever that set in afterwards.
The circumstances surrounding this accident are unclear, but she may have fallen off a horse that she was riding, or thrown out of a carriage by panicking horses. Pregnant at the time, a daughter was born on Mary's deathbed; the daughter was born handicapped. Edmund Rice was left a widower, with an infant daughter in delicate health. Following his wife's death, he began discerning a vocation to join a monastery in France. One day, while discussing his vocation with the sister of Thomas Hussey, the Bishop of Waterford, a band of ragged boys passed by, she pointed to them, cried:"What! Would you bury yourself in a cell on the continent rather than devote your wealth and your life to the spiritual and material interest of these poor youths?"After settling his business affairs in 1802, Rice devoted his life to prayer and charitable work with the poor and marginalised of Waterford. In 1802, when he established a makeshift school in a converted stable in New Street, Waterford, he found the children were so difficult to manage that the teachers resigned.
This prompted him to sell his thriving business to another prominent Roman Catholic merchant, a Mr. Quan, devote himself to training teachers who would dedicate their lives to prayers and to teaching the children free of charge. Despite the difficulties involved, Edmund's classes were so popular that another temporary school had to be set up on another of his properties, this time in nearby Stephen Street; the turning point of Rice's ministry was the arrival of two young men, Thomas Grosvenor and Patrick Finn, from his hometown of Callan. They came to him with the desire of joining a congregation, but had not decided which they would join; as it turned out, they remained to teach at Edmund Rice's school, formed their own. The subsequent success of the New Street school led to a more permanent building, christened'Mount Sion', where construction began on 1 June 1802; the Mount Sion monastery was blessed by Bishop Thomas Hussey on 7 June 1803. Since the schoolhouse was not yet completed, Rice and Grosvenor took up residence but walked each day from Mt Sion to their schools on New Street and Stephen Street.
On 1 May 1804, the adjoining school was opened and blessed by Hussey's successor, Bishop John Power, their pupils transferred to the new building. A request made to the local Church of Ireland bishop for a school licence was granted, thanks to the appeals of some of Rice's more influential friends. By 1806 Christian schools were established in Waterford, Carrick-on-Suir, Dungarvan. In 1808, seven of the staff including Edmund Rice, took religious vows under the authority of Bishop Power of Waterford. Following the example of Nano Nagle's Presentation Sisters, they were called Presentation Brothers; this was the first congregation of men to be founded in Ireland and one of the few founded by a layman. A transformation had taken place amongst the "quay kids" of Waterford attributed to the work of Edmund and his Brothers, who educated and fed the boys. Other bishops in Ireland supplied Edmund Rice with men, these he prepared for the religious life and for a life of teaching. In this way the Presentation Brothers spread throughout Ireland.
However, the communi
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Stephen Smith (aerospace engineer)
Stephen Hector Taylor-Smith known as Stephen Smith, was a pioneering Indian aerospace engineer who developed techniques in delivering mail by rocket. Unlike Friedrich Schmiedl, whom the Austrian Authorities banned from further experimenting, Smith was encouraged in his experiments by Indian Officials. In the ten-year span of his experiments, Smith made some 270 launches, including at least 80 rocket mail flights, he was born on 14 February at Strawberry Hill, in Shillong, Assam. As a boy, along with other schoolmates Smith attempted to transport live garden lizards in rockets over the swimming pool of St. Patrick's School, Asansol, he attended St. Patrick's from 1903 to 1911. Smith was the first rocket experimenter to transport foodstuff and livestock via rockets. Smith made careers as a policeman and a dentist, he became the Secretary of the Indian Airmail Society, combined his work with his interest in rocketry. His first launch was on 30 September 1934, experimenting with 270 more by 4 December 1944.
80 of these contained mail, his achievements include the first successful rocket mail sent over a river and the first rocket to carry a parcel. On 30 September 1934, he launched his first mail rocket, using a rocket made locally by the Orient Firework Company of Calcutta; the flight was a ship-to-shore launch, The rocket carrying 143 covers, left the D. V. Pansy and exploded mid-air scattering the mail over the sea. 140 covers were taken to the Saugor Lighthouse, where the keeper postmarked the mail. This was followed by: shore-to-ship and miniature newspaper flights. Smith's flights in Sikkim, a British Protectorate in the eastern Himalayas, received official sanction from the local ruler, Here he carried out 20 successful rocket experiments and achieved the first rocket parcel mail; the Oriental Fireworks Company supplied Smith with 16 rockets between 23 March 1935 and 29 June 1935. Between them, these "Silver Jubilee" flights carried over a thousand covers. Smith made history once again, when he used his rockets to carry a food package across a river to the Quetta region, which had suffered an earthquake.
The package contained: rice, spices, biris and 150 rocketgrams. Stephen Smith effected the world's first livestock transport when on 29 June 1935, a rocket carried a cock and hen together with 189 rocketgrams across the river Damodar. Both animals were donated to a private zoo in Calcutta. A effort carried. Smith demonstrated his experiments during the war years, few items of mail were carried on these flights, The last series of rockets were gas propelled and the last flight took place on 4 December 1944. Smith died on 15 February 1951, he is immortalised as the "Father of Aerophilately" in India. The Department of Posts in India issued a commemorative stamp on 19 December 1992 honouring this Anglo-Indian pioneer of airborne mail. List of books published as author. 1926: Indian Airways Part I 1927: Indian Airways Part II 1930: Indian Airways Part III 1927: The World Flyer's Danger Zone 1955: Rocket mail catalogue and historical survey of first experiments in Rocketry 1980: From the diary of Stephen Smith compiled by Deoki Nandan Jatia for the Philatelic Congress of India.
"Stephen Smith" at King George V Silver Jubilee. Accessed 5 September 2005. "Indian Rocket Mail Detail" at King George V Silver Jubilee. Accessed 5 September 2005. "India's Forgotten Rocketeer" www.astrotalkuk.org Includes video interview with Melvyn Brown who met Smith's son, Hector
West Bengal is an Indian state, located in eastern region of the country on the Bay of Bengal. With over 91 million inhabitants, it is India's fourth-most populous state, it has an area of 88,752 km2. A part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, it borders Bangladesh in the east, Nepal and Bhutan in the north, it borders the Indian states of Odisha, Bihar and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata, the seventh-largest city in India, center of the third-largest metropolitan area in the country; as for geography, West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region, the coastal Sundarbans. The main ethnic group are the Bengalis, with Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority; the area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas, while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period; the region was part including the Mauryans and Guptas.
It was a bastion of regional kingdoms. The citadel of Gauda served as the capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire and Hindu Sena Empire. From the 13th century onward, the region was ruled by several sultans, powerful Hindu states, Baro-Bhuyan landlords, until the beginning of British rule in the 18th century; the British East India Company cemented their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757, Calcutta served for many years as the capital of British India. The early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in an expansion of Western education, culminating in developments in science, institutional education, social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali Renaissance. A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, a state of India, East Bengal, a province of Pakistan which became independent Bangladesh.
Between 1977 and 2011 the state was administered by the world's longest elected Communist government. The economy of West Bengal is the sixth-largest state economy in India with ₹13.14 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹108,000. The state's cultural heritage, besides varied folk traditions, includes authors in literature, such as Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Kolkata is known as the "cultural capital of India". West Bengal is known for its enthusiasm for the sport of association football, as well as cricket; the origin of the name Bengal is unknown. One theory suggests that the word derives from "Bang", a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000 BCE; the Bengali word Bongo might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga. Although some early Sanskrit literature mentions the name Vanga, the region's early history is obscure. At the end of British rule over the Indian subcontinent, the Bengal region was partitioned in 1947 along religious lines into east and west.
The eastern part came to be known be as East Pakistan, the eastern wing of newly born Pakistan and the western part came to be known as West Bengal, which continued as an Indian state. In 2011 the Government of West Bengal proposed a change in the official name of the state to PaschimBanga; this is the native name of the state meaning western Bengal in the native Bengali language. In August 2016 the West Bengal Legislative Assembly passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal to "Bengal" in English, "Bangla" in Bengali. Despite the Trinamool Congress government's efforts to forge a consensus on the name change resolution, the Indian National Congress, the Left Front, the Bharatiya Janata Party opposed the resolution. However, the central government has turned down the proposal stating that the state should have one single name for all languages instead of three and the name should not be the same as that of any other territory. Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state, showing human occupation 8,000 years earlier than scholars had earlier thought.
The region was a part of the Vanga Kingdom, according to the Indian epic Mahabharata. Several Vedic realms were present in the Bengal region, including Vanga, Rarh and the Suhma Kingdom. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is a mention by the Ancient Greeks around 100 BCE of a land named Gangaridai, located at the mouths of the Ganges. Bengal had overseas trade relations with Suvarnabhumi. According to the Sri Lankan chronicle Mahavamsa, Prince Vijaya, a Vanga Kingdom prince, conquered Lanka and gave the name Sinhala Kingdom to the country; the kingdom of Magadha was formed in the 7th century BCE, consisting of the regions now comprising Bihar and Bengal. It was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of the lives of Mahavira, founder of Jainism, Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism, it kingdoms. Under Ashoka, the Maurya Empire of Magadha in the 3rd century BCE extended over nearly all of South Asia, including Afghanistan and parts of Balochistan. From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire.
Two kingdoms – Vanga or Samatata, Gauda –