Canadian English is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada. According to the 2011 census, English was the first language of 19 million Canadians, or 57% of the population. A larger number, 28 million people, reported using English as their dominant language. 82% of Canadians outside the province of Quebec reported speaking English natively, but within Quebec the figure was just 7.7% as most of its residents are native speakers of Quebec French. Canadian English contains major elements of both British English and American English, as well as many uniquely Canadian characteristics. While, broadly speaking, Canadian English tends to be closest to American English in terms of linguistic distance, the precise influence of American English, British English and other sources on Canadian English varieties has been the ongoing focus of systematic studies since the 1950s. Phonologically and American English are classified together as North American English, emphasizing the fact that the vast majority of outsiders other native English speakers, cannot distinguish the typical accents of the two countries by sound alone.
There are minor disagreements over the degree to which Canadians and Americans themselves can differentiate their own two accents, there is evidence that some Western American English is undergoing a vowel shift coinciding with the one first reported in mainland Canadian English in the early 1990s. The term "Canadian English" is first attested in a speech by the Reverend A. Constable Geikie in an address to the Canadian Institute in 1857. Geikie, a Scottish-born Canadian, reflected the Anglocentric attitude that would be prevalent in Canada for the next hundred years when he referred to the language as "a corrupt dialect", in comparison with what he considered the proper English spoken by immigrants from Britain. Canadian English is the product of five waves of immigration and settlement over a period of more than two centuries; the first large wave of permanent English-speaking settlement in Canada, linguistically the most important, was the influx of Loyalists fleeing the American Revolution, chiefly from the Mid-Atlantic States – as such, Canadian English is believed by some scholars to have derived from northern American English.
Canadian English has been developing features of its own since the early 19th century. The second wave from Britain and Ireland was encouraged to settle in Canada after the War of 1812 by the governors of Canada, who were worried about American dominance and influence among its citizens. Further waves of immigration from around the globe peaked in 1910, 1960 and at the present time had a lesser influence, but they did make Canada a multicultural country, ready to accept linguistic change from around the world during the current period of globalization; the languages of Aboriginal peoples in Canada started to influence European languages used in Canada before widespread settlement took place, the French of Lower Canada provided vocabulary, with words such as toque and portage, to the English of Upper Canada. Studies on earlier forms of English in Canada are rare, yet connections with other work to historical linguistics can be forged. An overview of diachronic work on Canadian English, or diachronically-relevant work, is Dollinger.
Until the 2000s all commentators on the history of CanE have argued from the "language-external" history, i.e. social and political history. An exception has been in the area of lexis, where Avis et al's Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles, offered real-time historical data through its quotations. Historical linguists have started to study earlier Canadian English on historical linguistic data. DCHP-1 is now available in open access. Most notably, Dollinger pioneered the historical corpus linguistic approach for English in Canada with CONTE and offers a developmental scenario for 18th- and 19th-century Ontario. Reuter, with a 19th-century newspaper corpus from Ontario, has confirmed the scenario laid out in Dollinger. Canadian English included a class-based sociolect known as Canadian dainty. Treated as a marker of upper-class prestige in the 19th century and the early part of the 20th, Canadian dainty was marked by the use of some features of British English pronunciation, resulting in an accent similar to the Mid-Atlantic accent known in the United States.
This accent faded in prominence following World War II, when it became stigmatized as pretentious, is now never heard in contemporary Canadian life outside of archival recordings used in film, television or radio documentaries. Canadian spelling of the English language combines American conventions. Words such as realize and paralyze are spelled with -ize or -yze rather than -ise or -yse. French-derived words that in American English end with -or and -er, such as color or center retain British spellings. While the United States uses the Anglo-French spelling defense and offense, most Canadians use the British spellings defence and offence; some nouns, as in British English, take -ice while matching verbs take -ise – for example and licence are nouns while practise and license are the re
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Catholic schools are parochial schools or education ministries of the Roman Catholic Church. As of 2011, the Church operates the world's largest non-governmental school system. In 2016, the church supported 43,800 secondary schools, 95,200 primary schools. Catholic schools participate in the evangelizing mission of the Church, integrating religious education as a core subject within their curriculum. Irish immigration provides the main contribution to the increases in Catholic communities across the globe; the Irish immigration established the revival of Catholicism through movement to countries across North America, United Kingdom and Australia. The establishment of Catholic schools in Europe encountered various struggles following the creation of the Church of England in the Elizabethan Religious settlements of 1558-63. Anti-Catholicism in this period encouraged Catholics to create modern Catholic education systems to preserve their traditions; the Relief Acts of 1782 and the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829 increased the possibility to practice Catholicism in England and to create charitable institutions by the Church.
This led to the development of numerous native religious congregations which established schools, orphanages and workhouses. Traditionally, Catholic schools originated as single sex schools. Catholic schools were required to depend on school fees and endowments. Endowments dropped off causing fees to rise; this prevented some students from enrolling due to their inability to pay. Catholic schools are distinct from their public school counterparts in focusing on the development of individuals as practitioners of the Catholic faith; the leaders and students are required to focus on four fundamental rules initiated by the Church and school. This includes the Catholic identity of the school, education in regards to life and faith, celebration of life and faith, action and social justice. Like other Christian-affiliated institutions, Catholic schools are nondenominational, in that they accept anyone regardless of religion or denominational affiliation, race or ethnicity, or nationality, provided the admission or enrollment requirements and legal documents are submitted, rules & regulations are obeyed for a fruitful school life.
However, non-Catholics, whether Christian or not, may need to participate in or be exempted from required activities those of a religious nature. These are in keeping with the spirit of social inclusiveness; the religious education as a core subject is a vital element of the curriculum where individuals are to develop themselves: “intellectually, physically emotionally and of course, spiritually.” The education involves: “the distinct but complementary aspect of the school's religious dimension of liturgical and prayer life of the school community.” In Catholic schools, teachers teach a Religious Education Program provided by the Bishop. Both teacher and Bishop therefore, contribute to the planning and teaching Religious Education Lessons. Catholic education has been identified as a positive fertility factor. Catholic schools in Malaysia have been the backbone of formal education in the country. Catholic schools have undergone many changes since independence in the late early 60s; the education policy in Malaysia is centralized.
In 1988, all Catholic religious brothers older than 55 were asked to retire with immediate effect, creating vacancies for lay teachers to take over. Any new brother wanting to join the teaching profession in Malaysia have to be in the civil service and share the same status as lay teachers. Many of the Lasallian traditions such as inter-La Salle games or sports are now integrated into other larger government funded programmes. With Islam being the state religion, compulsory or elective Bible lessons today are limited only to those of the Catholic faith; the missionaries who opened schools in Malaysia gave a solid education framework. Today, there are 68 Sisters of the Infant Jesus,11 Parish Convents and 46 La Salle Brothers schools in the country; the Catholic Church in Pakistan is active in education, managing leading schools in addition to its spiritual work. The Catholic Church runs 534 schools, 53 hostels, 8 colleges, 7 technical institutes, according to 2008 statistics; the Catholic Board of Education is the arm of the Catholic Church in Pakistan, responsible for education.
Each diocese has its own board. The Government of Pakistan nationalised most church schools and colleges in Punjab and Sindh in 1972. Leading schools such as St Patrick's High School, Karachi, St Joseph's Convent School and St Michael's Convent School were never nationalised; the Government of Sindh oversaw a denationalization program from 1985 to 1995, the Government of Punjab began a similar program in 1996. In 2001, the Federal Government and the courts ordered the provincial governments to complete the denationalization process. In the Philippines, private schools have been operated by the Catholic Church since the time of Spanish colonization; the Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic nations in Southeast Asia, the other being East Timor, with a 2004 study by UNESCO indicating that 83% of the population as identifying themselves as Catholics. The oldest existing university in Asia, University of Santo Tomas, is located in the Philippines, it is the largest single Catholic university in the world.
The university was established by the Order of Preachers known as the Dominican Order, on
Peterborough is a city on the Otonabee River in Central Ontario, Canada, 125 kilometres northeast of Toronto and about 270 kilometers southwest of Ottawa. According to the 2016 Census, the population of the City of Peterborough was 81,032; the population of the Peterborough Census Metropolitan Area, which includes the surrounding Townships of Selwyn, Cavan Monaghan, Otonabee-South Monaghan, Douro-Dummer, was 121,721 in 2016. In 2016, Peterborough ranked No. 32 among the country’s 35 census metropolitan areas according to the CMA in Canada. Significant growth is expected starting in late 2019 when the Ontario Highway 407 extension is completed, connecting it to Highway 115/35 south of Peterborough; the current mayor of Peterborough is Diane Therrien. Peterborough is known as the gateway to the Kawarthas, "cottage country", a large recreational region of the province, it is named in honour of Peter Robinson, an early Canadian politician who oversaw the first major immigration to the area. The city is the seat of Peterborough County.
Peterborough's nickname in the distant past was "The Electric City" as it was the first town in Canada to use electric streetlights. It underscores the historical and present-day importance of technology and manufacturing as an economic base of the city, which has operations from large multi-national companies such as Siemens, Rolls-Royce Limited, General Electric, more local technology businesses such as Dynacast and Bryston. Electricity was one of the reasons Quaker Oats moved to the city, as part of PepsiCo, remains a major fixture in the downtown area. However, over the years the number of major manufacturing plants has declined, General Electric closed its last remaining facility in 2018; as a result, employment has been shifting toward the service industries and tourism is now the leading industry in the area. Peterborough is among the best places to retire in Ontario, according to some studies, which listed cultural activities and affordable living as some of the factors that attract seniors.
In 2017, the city was among the best places to invest in Canada according to Comfort Life magazine. First Nations groups entered into the area across Bering Sea, through Alaska, millennia ago. Woodland Natives inhabited the area circa 1000 BCE – 1000 CE, followed by Iroquois and Mississaugas circa 1740 CE. Two of the more prominent sites surviving from this time are the petroglyphs at Petroglyphs Provincial Park and Serpent Mounds; the petroglyphs are located northeast of Peterborough and are believed to have been carved by the Algonquin people between 900 and 1400 CE. The Serpent Mounds are located near Keene 30 km southeast of Peterborough in Otonabee-South Monaghan township, in an area first inhabited sometime before 10 CE. In 1615, Samuel de Champlain traveled through the area, coming down from Lake Chemong and portaging down a trail, approximated by present-day Chemong Road, to the Otonabee River and stayed for a brief time near the present-day site of Bridgenorth, just north of Peterborough.
In 1818, Adam Scott settled on the west shore of the Otonabee River. The following year he began construction of a sawmill and gristmill, establishing the area as Scott's Plains; the mill was located at the foot of present-day King Street and was powered by water from Jackson Creek. This location, adjacent to the Ontario government Ministry of Natural Resources building, Peterborough's Millennium Park may have been the site of landfall for a portage which connects in a direct line with Bridgenorth; the site has an Ojibway name "Nogojiwanong" which means "the place at the end of the rapids". The year 1825 marked the arrival of Irish immigrants from the city of Cork to Scott's Plains. In 1822, the British Parliament had approved an experimental emigration plan to transport poor Irish Catholic families to Upper Canada. Peter Robinson, a member of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada and a prominent businessman from York, Upper Canada was the man who took on the emigration plan of 1825. Scott's Plains was renamed Peterborough in his honour.
Robinson interviewed individual males to make the long voyage. These families had to meet specific criteria in order to be eligible for the voyage; the specifics required for Robinson's settlers were that they had to be Catholic and with a knowledge of farming. Males had to be less than forty-five years of age and in good health and families were unrelated; the majority of the Irish emigrants were chosen from North Cork. Robinson was urged by landlords to remove the "pauper and undesirables", he resisted and stated that he had "no wish...to hold out a bounty to persons of bad character...but as Robinson traveled through the countryside they became flesh and blood'people of a good sort' he called them,'bred to farming... I found them much more intelligent. Most of them could read and write'". Thomas Poole, a nineteenth century writer, wrote that all 2024 passengers boarded nine ships in June 1825, with everything they owned, from Cork across the Atlantic Ocean to Quebec City; the journey took 30 days to cross the Atlantic and on board the ship they were provided with bunks and food rations.
Hard tack or ship biscuits were one of the many foods that were made to provide energy for the passengers. Hard tack was easy to make and could be stored for months without spoiling. After the settlers landed in Quebec City they traveled further down the St-Lawrence River reaching Lachine where they boarded a bateau. Heading west to Kingston and to Kingston and Cobourg, they camped in tents in Cobourg for several weeks until Peter Robinson joined them to lead them up to their final destination. The long voyage across the ocean was enough to weaken the emigra
Education in Canada
Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly and overseen by federal and local governments. Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the province. Education in Canada is divided into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary. Within the provinces under the ministry of education, there are district school boards administering the educational programs. Education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in every province in Canada, except for Manitoba and New Brunswick, where the compulsory age is 18, or as soon as a high school diploma has been achieved. In some provinces early leaving exemptions can be granted under certain circumstances at 14. Canada has 190 school days in the year starting from September to the end of June. In British Columbia secondary schools, there are 172 school days during a school year.. In Alberta, high school students get an additional four weeks off to accommodate for exam break. Classes end on the 15th of those two months.
Elementary, intermediate and post-secondary education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and there are many variations between the provinces. The federal government's responsibilities in education are limited to the Royal Military College of Canada, funding the education of indigenous peoples. In 2016, 8.5% of men and 5.4% of women aged 25 to 34 had less than a high school diploma. In many places, publicly funded high school courses are offered to the adult population; the ratio of high school graduates versus non diploma-holders is changing partly due to changes in the labour market that require people to have a high school diploma and, in many cases, a university degree. Nonetheless, more than 54.0% of Canadians have a college or university degree, the highest rate in the world. The majority of schools, 67%, are co-educational. Canada spends about 5.4% of its GDP on education. The country invests in tertiary education. Recent reports suggest that from 2006 the tuition fees of Canadian universities have increased by 40 percent.
Since the adoption of section 23 of the Constitution Act, 1982, education in both English and French has been available in most places across Canada, although French Second Language education/French Immersion is available to anglophone students across Canada. According to an announcement of Canadian Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Canada is introducing a new, fast-track system to let foreign students and graduates with Canadian work experience become permanent eligible residents in Canada. Most schools have introduced one or more initiatives such as programs in Native studies, Aboriginal cultures and crafts. Although these classes are offered, most appear to be limited by the area or region in which students reside. "The curriculum is designed to elicit development and quality of people's cognition through the guiding of accommodations of individuals to their natural environment and their changing social order"Subjects that get assessed assume greater importance than non-assessed subjects or facets of the curriculum.
Some scholars view academics as a form of "soft power" helping to educate and to create positive attitudes, although there is criticism that educators are telling students what to think, instead of how to think for themselves, using up a large proportion of classroom time in the process. Efforts to keep students happy and correct come at the expense of academic achievement. Social promotion policies, grade inflation, lack of corrective feedback for students, teaching methods that slow the development of basic skills compared to past decades, reform mathematics, the failure to objectively track student progress have forced high schools and colleges to lower their academic standards; the Constitution of Canada provides constitutional protections for some types of publicly funded religious-based and language-based school systems. The Constitution Act, 1867 contains a guarantee for publicly funded religious-based separate schools, provided the separate schools were established by law prior to the province joining Confederation.
Court cases have established that this provision did not apply to Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, since those provinces did not provide a legal guarantee for separate schools prior to Confederation. The provision did apply to Ontario, Saskatchewan and Newfoundland and Labrador, since these provinces did have pre-existing separate schools; this constitutional provision was repealed in Quebec by a constitutional amendment in 1997, for Newfoundland and Labrador in 1998. The constitutional provision continues to apply to Ontario and Alberta. There is a similar federal statutory provision. Section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees the right of citizens who were educated in the minority language in a particular province to have their children educated in the minority language in