Greywell is a small village and civil parish in Hampshire, England – a past winner of the Best Kept Village in Hampshire competition and a recent winner of Best Small Village in Hampshire. It lies on the west bank of the River Whitewater, 6 miles east of Basingstoke and 1.5 miles west of Odiham. The area is popular with cyclists. Many photographers take pictures of some of the local architecture. There are 29 Grade II listed buildings or entries in the area, 2 Grade II* listed buildings; the nearby medieval Odiham Castle is of historical interest. At the centre of the village is the Fox and Goose public house; the village was not recorded in the Domesday Book being considered part of the manor of Odiham. Becoming a separate manor in the 13th century, it was sold to Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, the first Governor General of Canada in 1786, has stayed in that family since. A Saxon hunting settlement, the village's economy is rooted in agriculture and more latterly timber, which flourished at the same time as the Basingstoke Canal.
Built at the end of the 18th century, it runs under Greywell. However, the canal was never a commercial success and was soon overtaken by the advent of the railway; these days, agriculture remains the most important local industry, but most residents work elsewhere, commute to London or are retired. In the 17th century and Greywell manors were owned by the Zouche family of Bramshill the Henley family; the 876 acres of Greywell Manor were bought in 1787 by Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, former Governor General of Quebec. Trustees who purchased the Manor for Guy Carleton described it as "A delightful spot... charming hills much woods, good water, a small river in the bottom with good Trout... the Farm buildings in most excellent condition." There were three farms in the Manor, of which Grewell Farm was the least significant. An estate survey of 1788 shows the line of the tunnel for the Basingstoke Canal which crosses the north of the estate; the farm was tenanted, Guy Carleton choosing to live at Kempshott nearby and in Middlesex.
He died in 1808 and it was not until around 1824 when the farm had become a gentleman's residence that Arthur Henry Carleton, 2nd Lord Dorchester moved in. The Greenwood map, 1826, indicates that a formal garden has been started and it is clear that a gentleman's residence would have had pleasure grounds as well; the Tithe map of 1842 shows approach drive, stable block, grounds and a surrounding park. The 1st edition OS maps show a walled kitchen garden as well as lawns and features such as a fountain and a pond. An old chalk pit to the east of the approach drive has become The Dell. Footpaths lead through the park and there has been much planting of trees in the parkland. An article in the Gardeners' Chronicle, 1907, indicates that the period 1870s – 1890s there was a great deal of planting both of plants and trees. A Dutch garden is described in what was the chalk pit; the title of Lord Dorchester became extinct in 1897, but Henrietta Anne Carleton, daughter of the last Lord Dorchester, applied for reinstatement of the title, granted by Queen Victoria in 1899.
Henrietta became the 1st Baroness Dorchester. In its turn, this title became extinct in 1963 when Henrietta's son from her first marriage to Francis Paynton Pigott, died. However, their daughter had married William James Harris, 6th Earl of Malmesbury. In 2000, William James Harris died and James Carleton Harris became 7th Earl of Malmesbury thus a direct heir of Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, he is the current owner of Greywell Hill House. Greywell's church, dedicated to St Mary the Virgin, is an ancient structure of flint with stone quoins and dressings in the Norman and early English styles, it consists of a chancel, nave and tower surmounted by wooden belfry containing four bells. At the time of the Domesday Survey in 1086 it is thought that the Chapel of St. Mary, beside the Whitewater, was one of the two churches within the Manor of Odiham mentioned in the survey; the church is of Norman origin and was built in the 12th century. Restored in 1870, it still boasts many old features, the most important of, the early 16th century rood-screen, made of carved oak which before the restoration was used as a men's gallery with rood loft and circular stairs.
The narrow 13th-century Early English chancel arch is a prominent feature, while on the stonework to the left outside the church door there are visible remains of several consecration crosses dating back to the period of the Crusades. Church Cottage, beside the lych-gate on The Street, is believed to have been the priest's lodgings. St Mary's Church in Greywell is part of the United Parish of Newnham with Nately Scures with Mapledurwell with Up Nately with Greywell, which in turn is part of the North Hampshire Downs Benefice in the Church of England Diocese of Winchester. Greywell is within the Anglican United Parish, served by St Swithun's, Nately Scures; the Basingstoke Canal runs underneath part of the village through a 1,230 yards long tunnel, now no longer navigable. It ran from Basingstoke to join the Wey Navigation, but today it is derelict or has been built over from its original terminus near Basingstoke town centre, only starts to be navigable a mile or so to the east, it runs towards North Warnborough, passing the ruins of Odiham Castle and through Odiham and Woking.
The canal was authorised by an Act of Parliament obtained in 1778. The route as planned was to be about 44 miles long, running from Basingstoke to join the Wey and Godalming Nav
Church of England
The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor; the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury; the English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1534. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip; the Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach, the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed: catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church.
This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Athanasian creeds. Reformed in that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer. In the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs; the phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants. In the 17th century, the Puritan and Presbyterian factions continued to challenge the leadership of the Church which under the Stuarts veered towards a more catholic interpretation of the Elizabethan Settlement under Archbishop Laud and the rise of the concept of Anglicanism as the via media. After the victory of the Parliamentarians the Prayer Book was abolished and the Presbyterian and Independent factions dominated; the Episcopacy was abolished. The Restoration restored the Church of England and the Prayer Book.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to greater religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English; the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality; the church includes both liberal and conservative members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop. Within each diocese are local parishes; the General Synod of the Church of England is the legislative body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy and laity. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire; the earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century.
Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Serdica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th century Christian fathers. Britain was the home of Pelagius. While Christianity was long established as the religion of the Britons at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrew's from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England marks as the beginning of its formal history. With the help of Christians residing in Kent, Augustine established his church at Canterbury, the capital of the Kingdom of Kent, became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.
The Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, the Church of England considers itself to be the same church, more formally organised by Augustine. While some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. Queen Bertha of Kent was among the Christians in England who recognised papal authority before Augustine arrived, Celtic Christians were carrying out missionary work with papal approval long before the Synod of Whitby; the Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in England. This meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh called Whitby Abbey, it was presided over by King Oswiu, who made the final ruling.
The final ruling was decided in favor of Roman tradition because St. Peter holds the keys to the gate of Heaven. In 1534, King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an a
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organization and doctrine. Individual bodies, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, such as church or sometimes fellowship. Divisions between one group and another are defined by doctrine. Groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs and historical ties—are sometimes known as "branches of Christianity"; these branches differ in many ways through differences in practices and belief. Individual denominations vary in the degree to which they recognize one another. Several groups claim to be the direct and sole authentic successor of the church founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. Others, believe in denominationalism, where some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices; because of this concept, some Christian bodies reject the term "denomination" to describe themselves, to avoid implying equivalency with other churches or denominations.
The Catholic Church which claims 1.2 billion members – over half of all Christians worldwide – does not view itself as a denomination, but as the original pre-denominational church, a view rejected by other Christians. Protestant denominations account for 37 percent of Christians worldwide. Together and Protestantism comprise Western Christianity. Western Christian denominations prevail in Western, Northern and Southern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania; the Eastern Orthodox Church, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents, is the second-largest Christian organization in the world and considers itself the original pre-denominational church. Unlike the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church is itself a communion of independent autocephalous churches that mutually recognize each other to the exclusion of others; the Eastern Orthodox Church, together with Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East, constitutes Eastern Christianity. Eastern Christian denominations are represented in Eastern Europe, North Asia, the Middle East, Northeast Africa and South India.
Christians have various doctrines about the Church and about how the divine church corresponds to Christian denominations. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox hold that their own organizations faithfully represent the One Holy catholic and Apostolic Church to the exclusion of the other. Sixteenth-century Protestants separated from the Catholic Church because of theologies and practices that they considered to be in violation of their own interpretation. Members of the various denominations acknowledge each other as Christians, at least to the extent that they have mutually recognized baptisms and acknowledge orthodox views including the Divinity of Jesus and doctrines of sin and salvation though doctrinal and ecclesiological obstacles hinder full communion between churches. Since the reforms surrounding the Second Vatican Council of 1962–1965, the Catholic Church has referred to Protestant communities as "denominations", while reserving the term "church" for apostolic churches, including the Eastern Orthodox.
But some non-denominational Christians do not follow any particular branch, though sometimes regarded as Protestants. Each group uses different terminology to discuss their beliefs; this section will discuss the definitions of several terms used throughout the article, before discussing the beliefs themselves in detail in following sections. A denomination within Christianity can be defined as a "recognized autonomous branch of the Christian Church". "Church" as a synonym, refers to a "particular Christian organization with its own clergy and distinctive doctrines". Some traditional and evangelical Protestants draw a distinction between membership in the universal church and fellowship within the local church. Becoming a believer in Christ makes one a member of the universal church; some evangelical groups describe themselves as interdenominational fellowships, partnering with local churches to strengthen evangelical efforts targeting a particular group with specialized needs, such as students or ethnic groups.
A related concept is denominationalism, the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices.. Protestant leaders differ from the views of the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, the two largest Christian denominations; each church makes mutually exclusive claims for itself to be t
Church of England parish church
A parish church in the Church of England is the church which acts as the religious centre for the people within the smallest and most basic Church of England administrative region, the parish – since the 19th century called the ecclesiastical parish to avoid confusion with the civil parish which many towns and villages have. In England, there are parish churches for both the Church of the Roman Catholic Church. References to a "parish church", without mention of a denomination, however certainly be to those of the Church of England due to its status as the Established Church; this is true for Wales, although the Church in Wales is dis-established. The Church of England is made up of each one forming part of a diocese; every part of England is within both a parish and a diocese. These ecclesiastical parishes are no longer the same as the civil parishes in local government. Larger towns and cities those with cathedrals, still have ecclesiastical parishes and parish churches; each parish is ministered to by a parish priest called a vicar, rector or priest-in-charge.
More the parish priest is known as a "perpetual curate". In one instance only the priest is by historical custom known as an "archpriest"; each parish has one active parish church and more than one. A parish may be served by a number of chapels of ease. Unused'redundant' parish churches may exist in parishes formed by the merging of two or more parishes, or because of the cost of upkeep; these redundant churches may remain empty, or be converted for alternative uses. Church of England parish churches are the oldest churches to be found in England built before the 16th-century reformation, predating the division of Western Christianity. A number are of Anglo-Saxon date and all subsequent periods of architecture are represented in the country. Most parishes have churches that date back to the Middle Ages, though with many additions or alterations; the parish churches of the City of London are famous for their Baroque architecture. Each building reflects its status and there is considerable variety in the size and style of parish churches.
Some large former monastic or collegiate churches are now parish churches, not always in their complete original form. As well as their architecture, many Church of England parish churches are known for their interesting and beautiful church fittings which are remarkable survivals; these may include monuments, wall paintings, stained glass, floor tiles, carved pews, choir stalls and fonts, sometimes shrines or vestments. The Church of England parish church was always fundamental to the life of every community in rural areas. However, by the late 20th and early 21st century, with the decline in the number of worshippers and the shortage of Anglican priests, there has been a trend towards team or shared ministry and many parish churches no longer have a service every Sunday. Notable Church of England parish churches include: Ashmanhaugh, Norfolk, St. Swithin, The smallest round-tower church in the UK. Barton-upon-Humber, North Lincolnshire, St Peter's Church: good Saxon tower Bedford Bedfordshire, St Paul's church, on the site of a former ancient minster, the present medieval'hall church' was the BBC's wartime home of the Daily Service, now the county church with a fine Bodley screen and maintains a choral tradition.
Beverley, East Riding of Yorkshire, Beverley Minster: Perpendicular west front, continuous vault, Percy tomb, Hawksmoor font cover, the largest parish church in England by floor area. Bodmin, Cornwall, St Petroc's Church, the church building is late medieval and the largest parish church in Cornwall. Boston, Lincolnshire, St Botolph's Church: The Stump, lantern interior, 62 misericords. Brent, London, St Gabriel's, Cricklewood, a New Wine church, home to an historic organ used in BBC radio recitals. Bristol, St Mary Redcliffe Church: Twin porches, Perpendicular interior, 1,200 roof bosses. Brompton, London, Holy Trinity: Evangelical Anglican church where the Alpha course was first developed. Burford, Oxfordshire, St John's Church: Merchants' guild chapel, Red Indian memorial, Kempe glass. Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, St Mary’s Church: Burial place of Mary Tudor, Queen of France, sister of Henry VIII, second longest aisle for a Parish Church in England. Hammer beam roof with carved angels. Has a traditional robed choir which has existed for hundreds of years.
Canterbury, Kent, St Martin's: oldest surviving CofE parish church of English origin Christchurch, Christchurch Priory: Norman exterior, Decorated screen, Perpendicular tombs and chantries. Cirencester, Gloucestershire, St John the Baptist's Church: Perpendicular porch, fan vaults, merchants' tombs. City of London, St Magnus the Martyr, Wren church situated at the end of old London Bridge. Crediton, Crediton Parish Church, a former collegiate church, rebuilt in the 15th century and has some fine monuments. Culbone, Somerset, St Culbone's Church: smallest parish church in England. Doncaster, St George's Minster: "South Yorkshire's most majestic building". Earls Barton, All Saints' Church. Fairford, Gloucestershire, St Mary's Church: Complete set of medieval glass, stone carvings, misericords. Gawber, Barnsley, St Thomas the Apostle: a most beautiful small church in South Yorkshire Grantham, Lincolnshire, St Wulfram's Church: Steeple and
Newnham is a village and parish in Hampshire, England. It is situated 4 miles east of Basingstoke, 1 mile west of Hook. At the 2001 census it had a population of 513. Newnham is a civil parish with an elected parish council. Newnham parish falls within the area of Basingstoke and Deane District Council and of Hampshire County Council and all three councils are responsible for different aspects of local government. Nigel Bell Newnham: A History of the Parish and its Church 2004 Media related to Newnham, Hampshire at Wikimedia Commons
Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester
Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, KB, known between 1776 and 1786 as Sir Guy Carleton, was an Anglo-Irish soldier and administrator. He twice served as Governor of the Province of Quebec, from 1768 to 1778, concurrently serving as Governor General of British North America in that time, again from 1785 to 1795; the title Baron Dorchester was created on 21 August 1786. He commanded British troops in the American War of Independence, first leading the defence of Quebec during the 1775 rebel invasion and the 1776 counteroffensive that drove the rebels from the province. In 1782 and 1783 he led as the commander-in-chief of all British forces in North America. In this capacity he was notable for carrying out the Crown's promise of freedom to slaves who joined the British, he oversaw the evacuation of British forces and more than 3,000 freedmen from New York City in 1783 to transport them to a British colony; the military and political career of his younger brother, Thomas Carleton, was interwoven with his own, Thomas served under him in the Canadas.
Guy Carleton was born to a Protestant military family that had lived in Ireland since the 17th century, was one of two brothers that served in the British military. He had a sister Connolly Crawford; when he was fourteen his father, Christopher Carleton died, his mother Catherine Carleton remarried Reverend Thomas Skelton. He received a limited education. In 1742, at the age of seventeen, Carleton was commissioned as an ensign into the 25th Regiment of Foot, in which in 1745 he was promoted lieutenant. During this period he became a friend of James Wolfe. Two of his brothers and Thomas joined the British army. In 1740 the War of the Austrian Succession broke out in Europe. Despite British troops having been engaged on the European continent since 1742, it was not until 1747 that Carleton and his regiment were despatched to Flanders, they fought the French, but were unable to prevent the Fall of Bergen-op-Zoom, a major Dutch fortress, the war was brought to a halt by an armistice. In 1748 the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was signed and Carleton returned to Britain.
He was frustrated to still only be a lieutenant, believed his opportunities of advancement would be limited with the end of the war. In 1751 he joined the 1st Foot Guards and in 1752 was promoted to captain, his career received a major boost when he was chosen, at the suggestion of Wolfe, to act as a guide to the Duke of Richmond during a tour of the battlefields of the recent war. Richmond would become an influential patron to Carleton. In 1757 was made a lieutenant colonel and served as part of the Army of Observation made up of German troops designed to protect Hanover from French invasion; the army was forced to retreat following the Battle of Hastenbeck and concluded the Convention of Klosterzeven, taking them out of the war. After the Convention was signed, Carleton returned to Britain. In 1758 he was made the lieutenant colonel of the newly formed 72nd Regiment of Foot. James Wolfe selected Carleton as his aide in the 1758 attack on Louisburg. King George II declined to make this appointment because of negative comments he made about the soldiers of Hanover during his service on the Continent.
For some time he was unable to gain active position, until he was sent back to Germany to serve as an aide-de-camp to Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick. In December 1758 Wolfe, now a major general, was given command of the upcoming campaign against the city of Quebec, selected Carleton as his quarter-master general. King George refused to make this appointment until Lord Ligonier talked to the king about the matter and the king changed his mind; when Lieutenant-Colonel Carleton arrived in Halifax he assumed command of six hundred grenadiers. He was with the British forces when they arrived at Quebec in June 1759. Carleton was responsible for the provisioning of the army and acting as an engineer supervising the placement of cannon. Carleton received a head wound during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham and he returned to England after the battle in October 1759. On 29 March 1761, as the lieutenant colonel of the 72nd Regiment of Foot he took part in the attack on Belle Île, an island of the coast of the northern part of the Bay of Biscay, 10 miles off the coast of France.
Carleton led an attack on the French, but was wounded and prevented from taking any further part in the fighting. After four weeks of fighting, the British gained complete control of the island, he was made colonel in 1762 and took part in the British expedition against Cuba, which included Richard Montgomery, who went on to oppose him in 1775. On 22 July, he was wounded leading an attack on a Spanish outpost. In 1764 he transferred to the 93rd Regiment of Foot. On 7 April 1766, Carleton was named acting Lieutenant Governor and Administrator of Quebec with James Murray in charge, he arrived in Quebec on 22 September 1766. As Carleton had no experience in public affairs and came from a politically insignificant family, his appointment is unusual and was a surprise to him. One connection may have been due to the Duke of Richmond, who in 1766 been made Secretary of State for the North American colonies. Fourteen years earlier, Carleton had tutored the Duke; the Duke was the colonel of the 72nd Regiment of Foot.
He appointed Carleton as commander-in-chief of all troops stationed in Quebec. The government consisted of a Governor, a council, an assembly; the governor could veto any action of the council, but London had given Carleton instructions that all of his actions required the approval of the coun