The term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo, applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders, dating back to the first millennium but formally created in the 13th century, some Anglican religious orders, created in the 19th century, though technically there is no "Order of St. Augustine" in Anglicanism. Within Anglicanism the Rule of St. Augustine is followed only by women, who form several different communities of Augustinian nuns in the Anglican Communion. Within Roman Catholicism, Augustinians may be members of either one of two separate and distinct types of Order: Several mendicant Orders of friars, who lived a mixed religious life of contemplation and apostolic ministry and follow the Rule of St. Augustine, a brief document providing guidelines for living in a religious community; the largest and most familiar known as the Hermits of St. Augustine and known as the Austin friars in England, is now referred to as the Order of St. Augustine. Two other Orders, the Order of Augustinian Recollects and the Discalced Augustinians, were once part of the Augustinian Order under a single Prior General.
The Recollect friars, founded in 1588 as a reform movement of the Augustinian friars in Spain, became autonomous in 1612 with their first Prior General, Enrique de la Sagrada. The Discalced friars became an independent congregation with their own Prior General in 1592, were raised to the status of a separate mendicant order in 1610. Various congregations of clerics known as Canons Regular who follow the Rule of St. Augustine, embrace the evangelical counsels and lead a semi-monastic life, while remaining committed to pastoral care appropriate to their primary vocation as priests, they form one large community which might serve parishes in the vicinity, are organized into autonomous congregations, which are distinct by region. In a religious community, "charism" is the particular contribution that each religious order, congregation or family and its individual members embody; the teaching and writing of Augustine, the Augustinian Rule, the lives and experiences of Augustinians over sixteen centuries help define the ethos and special charism of the order.
As well as telling his disciples to be "of one mind and heart on the way towards God", Augustine of Hippo taught that "Nothing conquers except truth and the victory of truth is love", the pursuit of truth through learning is key to the Augustinian ethos, balanced by the injunction to behave with love towards one another. It does not unduly single out the exceptional favour the gifted, nor exclude the poor or marginalised. Love is not earned through human merit, but received and given by God's free gift of grace undeserved yet generously given; these same imperatives of affection and fairness have driven the order in its international missionary outreach. This balanced pursuit of love and learning has energised the various branches of the order into building communities founded on mutual affection and intellectual advancement; the Augustinian ideal is inclusive. Augustine spoke passionately of God's "beauty so ancient and so new", his fascination with beauty extended to music, he taught that "whoever sings prays twice" and music is a key part of the Augustinian ethos.
Contemporary Augustinian musical foundations include the famous Augustinerkirche in Vienna, where orchestral masses by Mozart and Schubert are performed every week, as well as the boys' choir at Sankt Florian in Austria, a school conducted by Augustinian canons, a choir now over 1,000 years old. Augustinians have produced a formidable body of scholarly works; the Canons Regular follow the more ancient form of religious life which developed toward the end of the first millennium and thus predates the founding of the friars. They represent a clerical adaptation of monastic life, as it grew out of an attempt to organize communities of clerics to a more dedicated way of life, as St. Augustine himself had done, it paralleled the lay movement of monasticism or the eremetical life from which the friars were to develop. In their tradition, the canons added the commitment of religious vows to their primary vocation of pastoral care; as the canons became independent of the diocesan structures, they came to form their own monastic communities.
The official name of the Order is the Canons Regular of St. Augustine. Like the Order of St. Benedict, it is not one legal body, but a union of various independent congregations. Though they follow the Rule of St. Augustine, they differ from the friars in not committing themselves to corporate poverty, a defining element of the mendicant orders. Unlike the friars and like monks, the canons are organized as one large community to which they are attached for life with a vow of stability, their houses are given the title of an abbey, from which the canons tend to various surrounding towns and villages for spiritual services. The religious superior of their major houses is titled an abbot. Smaller communities are headed by provost; the distinctive habit of canon regulars is the rochet, worn over a cassock or tunic, indicative of their clerical origins. This has evolved in various ways among different congregations, from wearing the full rochet to the wearing of a white tunic and scapular; the Austrian congregation, as an example, wears a sarozium, a narrow band of white cloth—a vestige of the scapular—which hangs down both front and back over a cassock for their weekday wear.
For more solemn occasions, they wear the rochet under a violet mozzetta. Communities of canons served the poor and the sick throughout Europe, through both nur
Old Course at St Andrews
The Old Course at St Andrews is considered the oldest golf course in the world and known as'The Cathedral of Golf'. It is a public course over common land in St Andrews, Scotland and is held in trust by The St Andrews Links Trust under an act of Parliament; the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews club house sits adjacent to the first tee, although it is but one of many clubs that have playing privileges on the course, along with the general public. The Old Course at St Andrews is considered by many to be the "home of golf" because the sport was first played on the Links at St Andrews in the early 15th century. Golf was becoming popular in Scotland until in 1457, when James II of Scotland banned golf because he felt that young men were playing too much golf instead of practicing their archery; the ban was upheld by the following kings of Scotland until 1502, when King James IV became a golfer himself and removed the ban. In 1552, Archbishop John Hamilton gave the townspeople of St. Andrews the right to play on the links.
In 1754, 22 noblemen and landowners founded the Society of St Andrews Golfers. This society would become the precursor to the Royal and Ancient, the governing body for golf everywhere outside of the United States and Mexico. St Andrews Links had a scare when they went bankrupt in 1797; the Town Council of St. Andrews decided to allow rabbit farming on the golf course to challenge golf for popularity. Twenty years of legal battling between the golfers and rabbit farmers ended in 1821 when a local landowner and golfer named James Cheape of Strathtyrum bought the land and is credited with saving the links for golf; the course evolved without the help of any one architect for many years, though notable contributions to its design were made by Daw Anderson in the 1850s and Old Tom Morris, who designed the 1st and 18th holes. It was played over the same set of fairways out and back to the same holes; as interest in the game increased, groups of golfers would be playing the same hole, but going in different directions.
The Old Course was pivotal to the development of. For instance, in 1764, the course had 22 holes and the members would play the same hole going out and in with the exception of the 11th and 22nd holes. William St Clair of Rosslyn as the captain of The Captain and Gentlemen Golfers authorized changes to St. Andrews on 4 October 1764, he decided that the first four and last four holes on the course were too short and should be combined into four total holes. St Andrews had 18 holes and, how the standard of 18 holes was created. Around 1863, Old Tom Morris had the 1st green separated from the 17th green, producing the current 18-hole layout with 7 double greens and 4 single greens; the Old Course is home of the oldest of golf's major championships. The Old Course has hosted this major 29 times since 1873, most in 2015; the 29 Open Championships that the Old Course has hosted is more than any other course, The Open is played there every five years. Bobby Jones first played St Andrews in the 1921 Open Championship.
During the third round, he infamously hit his ball into a bunker on the 11th hole. After he took four swings at the ball and still could not get out, he lost his temper and continued the round, but did not turn in his score card, disqualifying himself. However, he did continue to play in the fourth round. Six years when the Open Championship returned to St Andrews, Jones returned. Not only did he win, he became the first amateur to win back-to-back Open Championships, he won wire-to-wire, shooting a 285, the lowest score at either a U. S. Open or Open Championship at the time, he ended up winning the tournament by a decisive six strokes. In 1930, Jones returned to St Andrews for the British Amateur, he won, beating Roger Wethered by a score of 6 in the final match. He subsequently won the other three majors, making him the only man in the history of the sport to win the Grand Slam. Jones went on to fall in love with the Old Course for the rest of his life. Years he said "If I had to select one course upon which to play the match of my life, I should have selected the Old Course."
In 1958 the town of St Andrews gave Jones the key to the city. After he received the key, he said "I could take out of my life everything but my experiences here in St. Andrews and I would still have had a rich and full life." One of the unique features of the Old Course are the large double greens. Seven greens are shared by two holes each, with hole numbers adding up to 18; the Swilcan Bridge, spanning the first and 18th holes, has become a famous icon for golf in the world. Everyone who plays the 18th hole walks over this 700-year-old bridge, many iconic pictures of the farewells of the most iconic golfers in history have been taken on this bridge. A life-size stone replica of the Bridge is situated at the World Golf Hall of Fame museum in St. Augustine, Florida. Only the 1st, 9th, 17th and 18th holes have their own greens. Another unique feature is that the course can be played in either direction, clockwise or anti-clockwise. Along with that, the Old Course has 112 bunkers which are all individually named and have their own unique story and history behind them.
The two most famous are the 10 ft deep "Hell Bunker" on the 14th hole, the "Road Bunker" on the 17th hole. Countless professional golfers have seen their dream
St Andrews Cathedral
The Cathedral of St Andrew is a ruined Roman Catholic cathedral in St Andrews, Scotland. It was built in 1158 and became the centre of the Medieval Catholic Church in Scotland as the seat of the Archdiocese of St Andrews and the Bishops and Archbishops of St Andrews, it fell into disuse and ruin after Catholic mass was outlawed during the 16th-century Scottish Reformation. It is a monument in the custody of Historic Environment Scotland; the ruins indicate that the building was 119 m long, is the largest church to have been built in Scotland. The cathedral was founded to supply more accommodation than the older church of St. Regulus afforded; this older church, located on what became the cathedral grounds, had been built in the Romanesque style. Today, there remains the square tower, 33 metres high, the quire, of diminutive proportions. On a plan of the town from about 1531, a chancel appears, seals affixed to the city and college charters bear representations of other buildings attached. To the east is an older religious site, the Church of St Mary on the Rock, the Culdee house that became a Collegiate Church.
Work continued for over a century. The west end was blown down in a storm and rebuilt between 1272 and 1279; the Cathedral was completed in 1318 and featured a central tower and six turrets. On the 5th of July it was consecrated in the presence of King Robert I, according to legend rode up the aisle on his horse. A fire destroyed the building in 1378; the cathedral was served by a community of Augustinian Canons, the St Andrews Cathedral Priory, which were successors to the Culdees of the Celtic church. Greyfriar and Blackfriar friars had properties in the town by the late 15th century and as late as 1518. In June 1559 during the reformation, a Protestant mob incited by the preaching of John Knox ransacked the Cathedral, the interior of the building was destroyed; the Cathedral fell into decline following the attack and became a source of building material for the town. By 1561 it had been left to fall into ruin. At about the end of the sixteenth century the central tower gave way, carrying with it the north wall.
Afterwards large portions of the ruins were taken away for building purposes, nothing was done to preserve them until 1826. Since it has been tended with scrupulous care, an interesting feature being the cutting out of the ground-plan in the turf; the principal portions extant Norman and Early Scottish, are the east and west gables, the greater part of the south wall of the nave and the west wall of the south transept. At the end of the seventeenth century some of the priory buildings remained entire and considerable remains of others existed, but nearly all traces have now disappeared except portions of the priory wall and the archways, known as The Pends. St Rule's tower is located in the Cathedral grounds but predates it, having served as the church of the priory up to the early 12th century; the building was retained to allow worship to continue uninterrupted during the building of its much larger successor. The tower and adjoining choir were part of the church built in the 11th century to house the relics of St Andrew.
The nave, with twin western turrets, the apse of the church no longer stand. The church's original appearance is illustrated in stylised form on some of the early seals of the Cathedral Priory. Legend credits St Rule with bringing relics of St Andrew to the area from their original location at Patras in Greece. Today the tower commands an admirable view of the town, harbour and surrounding countryside. Beautifully built in grey sandstone ashlar, immensely tall, it is a land- and sea-mark seen from many miles away, its prominence doubtless meant to guide pilgrims to the place of the Apostle's relics. In the Middle Ages a spire atop the tower made it more prominent; the tower was ascended using ladders between wooden floors, but a stone spiral staircase was inserted in the 18th century. Roger de Beaumont William Wishart William de Lamberton William Fraser William de Landallis James Kennedy Andrew Forman Very Rev John Adamson DD John Anderson, Principal of St Leonards College Rev Alexander Anderson son of above Rev Prof George Buist DD Robert Chambers Rev Prof George Cook DD FRSE Rev Prof John Cook DD FRSE Rev Prof William Crawford DD father of Thomas Jackson Crawford Sir Robert Anstruther Dalyell Prof James Donaldson Adam Ferguson Andrew Forman Rev Prof James Gillespie Rev Prof Thomas Gillespie, Professor of Humanity Robert Haldane Thomas Halyburton Matthew Forster Heddle George Hill Prof Henry David Hill Rev Prof James Hunter Prof Thomas Jackson FRSE David Miller Kay, military hero and missionary Prof Peter Redford Scott Lang, mathematician Rev Prof John McGill LLD, translator of the Old Testament Norman MacLeod Young Tom Morris Old Tom Morris William Henry Murray Rev Francis Nicoll DD Principal of St Salvator's College, St Andrews Hugh Lyon Playfair Rev James Playfair
Nostell Priory is a Palladian house located in Nostell, near Crofton close to Wakefield, West Yorkshire, approached by the Doncaster road from Wakefield. It dates from 1733, was built for the Winn family on the site of a medieval priory; the Priory and its contents were given to the National Trust in 1953 by the trustees of the estate and Rowland Winn, 3rd Baron St Oswald. The property was owned by the Gargrave family after being purchased in 1567 by Sir Thomas Gargrave, Speaker of the House of Commons from James Blount, 6th Baron Mountjoy, for £3,560; the estate was purchased in 1654 by the London alderman, Sir Rowland Winn, after the owner was declared bankrupt in 1650. Construction of the present house started in 1733, the furniture and decorations made for the house remain in situ; the Winns were textile merchants in London, George Wynne of Gwydir was appointed Draper to Elizabeth I, his grandson, Sir George Winn was created 1st Baronet of Nostell in 1660 and the family subsequently owed its wealth to the coal under the estate, from leasing land in Lincolnshire for mining iron ore during the Industrial Revolution.
The house was built by James Paine for Sir Rowland Winn 4th Bart on the site of a 12th-century priory dedicated to Saint Oswald. Robert Adam was commissioned to design additional wings, only one of, completed, complete the state rooms. Adam added a double staircase to the front of the house, designed buildings on the estate, including the stable block. Nostell Priory is home to a large collection of Chippendale furniture, all made for the house. Thomas Chippendale had workshops in St Martins Lane, London; the Nostell Priory art collection includes The Procession to Calvary by Pieter Brueghel the Younger, William Hogarth's Scene from Shakespeare's The Tempest - the first depiction in a painting of any scene from Shakespeare's plays - and a self-portrait by Angelica Kauffman, as well as Rowland Lockey's copy of the painting by Hans Holbein of Sir Thomas More and Family. A longcase clock, with an completely wooden internal mechanism, made by John Harrison in 1717, is housed in the billiard room.
Harrison, whose father Henry is thought to have been an estate carpenter, was born within half a mile of the estate. He was referred to as John "Longitude" Harrison, after devoting his life to solving the problem of finding longitude at sea by creating an accurate marine timekeeper. Known as H4, this chronometer can be seen at the Royal Observatory, London. In August 1982 there was a music festival there and organized by Theakston's Brewery, a great success. Two years in 1984 there was another festival organized by a different group of people. Although this event was a commercial festival, the "Convoy" was involved in organising a free festival next to it. Riot police were mobilised to suppress this aspect of the event. In May 2007, a set of Gillows furniture returned to the house after refurbishment; these pieces now furnish the tapestry room, as do a pair of large Venetian vases, made of wood inlaid with ivory and semi-precious stones. The Adam stable block has undergone major renovation and is now open as a visitor centre for house and parkland.
In June 2009 a suite of bedrooms on the second floor was handed to the National Trust. These bedrooms used by the Winns, had never been on public view before, they contain the original contents, including a regency fourposter bed and suite of Victorian bedroom furniture. Another room open to visitors is the butler's pantry, with a display of Winn family silver, in the adjacent strongroom cabinets. Nostell Priory occupies 121 hectares of parkland. Within the grounds and gardens are lakeside walks; the main facade of the house faces east towards a grass vista. Leading to the lake on the west side of the house is the west lawn; the parkland has lakeside and woodland walks, views of the druid's bridge and walks to the restored Obelisk Lodge through wildflower meadows. The park was purchased from Lord St Oswald by the National Trust with funding from the Heritage Lottery fund; this grant enabled the trust to acquire pictures and furniture from the family. The main lawn and the lower fields to the east of the Priory have been used for various large and small events over the years, however it was "Central Yorkshire Scout County" in 2000 that provided a fundamental change to how the grounds could be used.
The organisation chose Nostell Priory as the site for its year 2000 "Millennium Camp", to attract around 2500 people from across the Yorkshire Scouting movement. During the 12-month preparation project to create temporary facilities and infrastructure, Yorkshire Water employee Jon Potter persuaded his employers to donate/install a subterranean high-pressure water mains and stand-pipe points around the entire eastern grounds; this was unprecedented both in terms of a corporate donation and in its benefit to the Priory, which up to that point had been considering how they could self-fund this improvement. In 2012 the BBC reported that planning permission had been granted for a new operating base for the Yorkshire Air Ambulance; the new site, including a hangar and aircrew accommodation, was operational by summer 2013. It replaced the previous facility at Leeds/Bradford Airport; the priory was a 12th-century Augustinian foundation, dedicated to St Oswald, supported by Robert de Lacy of Pontefract, Thurstan of York.
By about 1114, confessor to Henry I of England, was prior of a group of regular canons at Nostell. Sir John Field, the first Copernican Astronomer of note in England, is believ
The Byre Theatre is a theatre in St Andrews, Scotland. It was founded in 1933 by Charles Marford, an actor and Alexander B. Paterson, a local journalist and playwright, with help from a theatre group made up from members of Hope Park Church, St Andrews. Today's Byre Theatre was built by award-winning architects Nicoll Russell Studios of Broughty Ferry, Dundee; the theatre grew from Charles Marford and A. B. Paterson's aspirations for a modern theatre addressing the needs of the entire community; the current building was opened in 2001 by Sir Sean Connery. Its main auditorium is named after A. B. Paterson. There is a second 80-seat performance space named after the late golf photographer, Lawrence Levy; the theatre is said to be haunted by the benevolent ghost of one of its founders. The Byre Theatre's first home was a disused cow byre which the group cleaned out and ran as the St. Andrews Play Club, giving performances to audiences who sat on cushions on the floor; the first performance was Murder Trial by Sydney Box in 1935.
Within a couple of years, the Byre Theatre had established a considerable reputation running a programme of performances which attracted audiences the theatre was able to hold. In 1969, the original building was demolished to make way for a new housing development, in 1970 the second building was opened. At a cost of £40,000, funded by a public appeal and the local authority, it was modeled on the Mermaid Theatre in London; the facilities were modest, for both public and staff, but it was thought to be rather grand compared to its predecessor. In 1994, Ken Alexander became Artistic Director. A. B. Paterson's last ambition was yet again to modernise and refurbish the Byre Theatre to meet current expectations and requirements, in particular to address the inadequate facilities for those with special access needs, including visual or audio impairment. At the time of his death in 1989, a proposal for expansion of the theatre's facilities had been initiated; the £5.5m expansion was completed in 2001, the theatre opened with a production of Into The Woods by Stephen Sondheim.
Ken Alexander was replaced as Artistic Director by Stephen Wrentmore in 2004. A cut in funding in 2006 meant that the Byre had to abandon producing its own plays, subsequently provided a venue for visiting productions and community activities. Jacqueline McKay became Chief Executive in March 2007. In January 2013, the theatre went into administration and ceased hosting performances despite a sustained campaign by "Save the Byre Theatre" activists, endorsed by figures like Sean Connery; the University of St Andrews announced in August 2014 that the theatre was to reopen under the management of the University, after striking a deal with owners Fife Council and Creative Scotland. Under the agreement, which takes the form of a 25-year lease, the Byre will be used as a theatre, educational resource, general arts venue and music centre; when the announcement was made, the University stressed that the "rescue package will be delivered at no cost to council tax payers in Fife who hitherto had subsidised the ailing theatre".
Michael Downes, the University of St Andrews’ Director of Music, was appointed as Artistic Director in September 2014, replaced by Liam Sinclair in 2016. Official site
United College, St Andrews
The United College of St Salvator and St Leonard is one of the two statutory colleges of the University of St Andrews in St Andrews, Scotland. It was founded in 1747 by the merger of St Salvators College and St Leonard's College when the University was in decline; the College encompasses the Faculties of Arts and Science and is headed by the Master of the United College. As of May 2017 the Master of the United College was Professor Garry Taylor; the college no longer functions as an administrative body and its use is purely formal. The other statutory college of the University is St Mary's College which encompasses the University's Faculty of Divinity. A third college, St Leonard's College was re-established in 1972 as a non-statutory college, which encompasses postgraduate and postdoctoral students
St Andrews Castle
St Andrew's Castle is a ruin located in the coastal Royal Burgh of St Andrews in Fife, Scotland. The castle sits on a rocky promontory overlooking a small beach called Castle Sands and the adjoining North Sea. There has been a castle standing at the site since the times of Bishop Roger, son of the Earl of Leicester, it housed the burgh’s wealthy and powerful bishops while St Andrews served as the ecclesiastical centre of Scotland during the years before the Protestant Reformation. In their Latin charters, the Archbishops of St Andrews wrote of the castle as their palace, signing, "apud Palatium nostrum."The castle's grounds are now maintained by Historic Environment Scotland as a scheduled monument. The site is entered through a visitor centre with displays on its history; some of the best surviving carved fragments from the castle are displayed in the centre, which has a shop. During the Wars of Scottish Independence, the castle was destroyed and rebuilt several times as it changed hands between the Scots and the English.
Soon after the sack of Berwick in 1296 by Edward I of England, the castle was taken and made ready for the English king in 1303. In 1314, after the Scottish victory at Bannockburn, the castle was retaken and repaired by Bishop William Lamberton, Guardian of Scotland, a loyal supporter of King Robert the Bruce; the English had recaptured it again by the 1330s and reinforced its defences in 1336, but were not successful in holding the castle. Sir Andrew Moray, Regent of Scotland in the absence of David II, recaptured it after a siege lasting three weeks. Shortly after this, in 1336-1337, it was destroyed by the Scots to prevent the English from once again using it as a stronghold, it remained in this ruined state until Bishop Walter Trail rebuilt it at the turn of the century. His castle forms the basis of, he completed work on the castle in about 1400 and died within its walls in 1401. Several notable figures spent time in the castle over the next several years. James I of Scotland received part of his education from Bishop Henry Wardlaw, the founder of St Andrews University in 1410.
A resident, Bishop James Kennedy, was a trusted advisor of James II of Scotland. In 1445 the castle was the birthplace of James III of Scotland. During these years, the castle served as a notorious prison; the castle's bottle dungeon is a dank and airless pit cut out of solid rock below the north-west tower. It housed local miscreants who fell under the Bishop's jurisdiction as well as several more prominent individuals such as David Stuart, Duke of Rothesay in 1402, Duke Murdoch in 1425, Archbishop Patrick Graham, judged to be insane and imprisoned in his own castle in 1478. During the Scottish Reformation, the castle became a centre of religious persecution and controversy. Referring to the bottle dungeon the Scottish reformer, John Knox, wrote, "Many of God's Children were imprisoned here." In 1521 James Beaton Archbishop of Glasgow, won the seat of St Andrews and took up residence in the castle. Beaton altered the defences to enable the castle to withstand a heavy artillery attack, a threat as tensions grew between English Protestants and Scottish Catholics.
In 1538 James Beaton was succeeded by Cardinal David Beaton. His strong opposition to the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots, with Prince Edward, the son and heir of Henry VIII of England, helped to spark renewed fighting in 1544. Scottish Protestants were viewed as dangerous turncoats who sided with the English. In 1546 David Beaton imprisoned the Protestant preacher George Wishart in the castle’s Sea Tower and had him burnt at the stake in front of the castle walls on 1 March. Today, brick lettering with his initials marks the spot. In May the same year, Wishart's friends conspired against the cardinal. On 26 May they gained entry to the castle by disguising themselves as masons when some building work was in progress. After overcoming the garrison, they murdered Cardinal Beaton and hung his body from his window on the front of the castle. Following this murder, the Protestants took refuge in the castle and formed the first Protestant congregation in Scotland. A long siege was ordered by the James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran.
In October 1546 a mine was begun by the attackers, counter-mined by the defenders. Both the mine and counter-mine cut through solid rock, they remain open to the public today. Arran heard that an English army was on its way to relieve the Castle and asked Fife Lairds like John Wemyss of that Ilk to come by 4 November 1546, bringing his followers and whatever artillery they had to resist a sea invasion. Although Henry VIII made plans to assist the Protestants within the castle, the invasion never came and his son Edward VI did not send aid. During an armistice in April 1547, John Knox entered the castle and served as the garrison's preacher for the remainder of the siege. For a time Knox had the freedom to pass to and from the castle to preach in the parish church; this peaceful interlude came to end, when a French fleet arrived bringing an Italian engineer Leone Strozzi who directed a devastating artillery bombardment to dislodge the Protestant lairds. The lairds knew an expert was in the field when their own Italian engineer observed cannon being winched into position with ropes rather than exposing the besiegers to their fire.
Guns were placed on St Salvator's and the cathedral towers. One of the largest Scottish cannon was called "thrawynmouthe." The castle was rendered indefensible. Within six hours according to Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie; the defeated Protestants were taken away: some were imprisoned in France