Westminster School is an independent day and boarding school in London, located within the precincts of Westminster Abbey. With origins before the 12th century, the educational tradition of Westminster dates back as far as 960, in line with the Abbey's history. Boys are admitted to the Under School to the senior school at age thirteen; the school has around 750 pupils. The school motto, Dat Deus Incrementum, is taken from the New Testament 1 Corinthians 3:6, it is one of the original nine public schools of England as defined by the Clarendon Commission of 1861. Charging up to £7,800 per term for day pupils and £11,264 for boarders in 2014/15, Westminster is the 13th most expensive HMC day school and 10th most expensive HMC boarding school in the UK. Westminster School is the most prestigious academic secondary school in the UK, having achieved the highest percentage of students accepted by Oxbridge colleges over the period 2002–2006, has been ranked as the best boy's school in the country in terms of GCSE results in 2017.
The earliest records of a school at Westminster date back to the 1370s and are held in Westminster Abbey's Muniment Room, with parts of the buildings now used by the school dating back to the 10th century Anglo-Saxon Abbey at Westminster. In their annual accounts the school cites their origin as lying in a decree of Pope Alexander III in 1179 though the evidence for this is unclear. In 1540, Henry VIII ordered the dissolution of the monasteries in England, including that of the powerful Abbots of Westminster, but ensured the School's survival by his royal charter; the Royal College of St. Peter carried on with forty "King's Scholars" financed from the royal purse. By this point Westminster School had become a public school. During Mary I's brief reign the Abbey was reinstated as a Roman Catholic monastery, but the school continued. Elizabeth I refounded the school in 1560, with new statutes to select 40 Queen's Scholars from boys who had attended the school for a year. Queen Elizabeth visited her scholars, although she never signed the statutes nor endowed her scholarships, 1560 is now taken as the date that the school was "founded".
Elizabeth I appointed William Camden as headmaster, he is the only layman known to have held the position until 1937. It was Dr Busby, himself an Old Westminster, who established the reputation of the school for several hundred years, as much by his classical learning as for his ruthless discipline by the birch, immortalised in Pope's Dunciad. Busby prayed publicly Up School for the safety of the Crown, on the day of Charles I's execution, locked the boys inside to prevent their going to watch the spectacle a few hundred yards away. Regardless of politics, he thrashed Puritan boys alike without fear or favour. Busby took part in Oliver Cromwell's funeral procession in 1658, when a Westminster schoolboy, Robert Uvedale, succeeded in snatching the "Majesty Scutcheon" draped on the coffin. Busby remained in office throughout the Civil War and the Commonwealth, when the school was governed by Parliamentary Commissioners, well into the Restoration. In 1679, a group of scholars killed a bailiff, ostensibly in defence of the Abbey's traditional right of sanctuary, but because the man was trying to arrest a consort of the boys.
Dr Busby obtained a royal pardon for his scholars from Charles II and added the cost to the school bills. Until the 19th century, the curriculum was predominantly made up of Latin and Greek, all taught Up School; the Westminster boys were uncontrolled outside school hours and notoriously unruly about town, but the proximity of the school to the Palace of Westminster meant that politicians were well aware of the boys' exploits. After the Public Schools Act 1868, in response to the Clarendon Commission on the financial and other malpractices at nine pre-eminent public schools, the school began to approach its modern form, it was separated from the Abbey, although the organisations remain close and the Dean of Westminster Abbey is ex officio the Chairman of the Governors. There followed a scandalous public and parliamentary dispute lasting a further 25 years, to settle the transfer of the properties from the Canons of the Abbey to the school. School statutes have been made by Order in Council of Queen Elizabeth II.
The Dean of Christ Church and the Master of Trinity College, are ex officio members of the school's governing body. Unusually among public schools, Westminster did not adopt most of the broader changes associated with the Victorian ethos of Thomas Arnold, such as the emphasis on team over individual spirit, the school retained much of its distinctive character. Despite many pressures, including evacuation and the destruction of the school roof during the Blitz, the school refused to move out of the city, unlike other schools such as Charterhouse and St. Paul's, remains in its central London location. Westminster Under School was formed in 1943 in the evacuated school buildings in Westminster, as a distinct preparatory school for day pupils between the ages of eight to 13. Only the separation is new: for example, in the 18th century, Edward Gibbon attended Westminster from the age of 11 and Jeremy Bentham from the age of eight; the Under School has since moved to Vincent Square. Its current Master is Mark O'Donnell
Lady Margaret Boat Club
The Lady Margaret Boat Club is the rowing club for members of St John's College, England. The club is named after founder of the College; the Lady Margaret men's first boat is Head of the River for both Lent Bumps and May Bumps. They are current winners of the Oxford/Cambridge Men's Intercollegiate fixture at the Henley Boat Races, beating Oriel College, Oxford with a verdict of 4 lengths. LMBC was founded in 1825 by twelve members of the College as the first college boat club in Cambridge. In its original rules, the Club was to "consist of eighteen contributing members, besides honorary ones", all members had to be able to row. An early member was Patrick Colquhoun who in 1837 instigated the Colquhoun Sculls, in the year in which he won the Wingfield Sculls; the greatest influence in the 1860s and 1870s was J. H. D. Goldie, who raised LMBC to the "Headship of the River", won the "Colquhoun Sculls", stroked Cambridge four times; the Goldie Boathouse, used by the university crews, commemorates his services to Cambridge rowing as does the name of the university second VIII known as the Goldie Crew and competes annually against Isis just before the University Boat Race.
Another important name in LMBC history is LHK Bushe-Fox who had a long career with LMBC, becoming President of the Club in 1897. One of the greatest influences of this century was Roy Meldrum who established the "Lady Margaret" style, which he detailed in his rowing books; the Boathouse was opened in the May term of 1901. It was extended in the 1970s, was the first boathouse to have a workshop for the boatman. In the early 1980s, when the college began to admit women, further modifications were made upstairs to create the women's changing rooms; the boathouse was extended further in 2000 to create more indoor training space. A shed is now being built to house the club's fours, which are racked outside; the Club's heyday was in the late 1950s. LMBC won the "Ladies Plate" in 1949 with a new course record. In 1950, they made 4 bumps to go "Head of the Mays", stayed "Head" for five years. In 1951, Lady Margaret won the Grand at Henley Royal Regatta and had five members of the successful Cambridge crew, which defeated Harvard and Yale in the United States.
Between 1975 and 1981, Lady Margaret were Head of the Lent Bumps for 26 consecutive days, the longest continuous defence of the Lent Headship. LMBC took the men's May Headship on day 4 of the 2016 races, the first time they have held the Headship since 1989. LMBC retained the Mays headship in 2017 and 2018. In Lent Bumps 2017, LMBC took the men's Lents Headship on day 3, the first time they have held the Headship since 1990. LMBC retained the Lents headship in 2018. In March 2017, Lady Margaret's men's first boat represented the Cambridge colleges in the Men's Intercollegiate fixture at the Henley Boat Races against Oriel College, Oxford. Lady Margaret won with a verdict of 4 lengths. Members of the club are well known for their scarlet jackets, which gave rise to the modern term blazer. Members with "First May Colours" are entitled to wear trim and gold buttons on their blazer, while "First Lent" or "Second May Colours" are entitled to wear silver buttons on their blazer; the club is traditionally strong in the May CUCBC Bumps race.
Due to its affiliation with St. John's College, the club always fields many very successful, boats with first time rowers during the first university term. Club members often go to row with university lightweight and heavyweight crews to compete against Oxford; the club motto has been "Si je puis" since 1825. The boat club song, Viva laeta, has a chorus that goes as follows: Vive laeta, Beatorum insulis. Although the music is printed in the boat club's history and the song is sung at every Boat Club Dinner, few members know the tune. Dinners are known for more controversial songs. St. John's, Cambridge has long had a close rivalry with Cambridge; every year, a strange tradition takes place during the Bumps Weeks in Lent and May term, known as the "Stomp". Crews gather on the College Backs every morning preceding the races. One crew at a time will stop at a lone tree, knock three times on its trunk and shout out the name of the crew that will be starting in front of them that day to be "bumped".
The whole club strolls through the backs towards arch-rivals Trinity. Once in Trinity College's great court, a standoff between the rival boat clubs occurs followed by a tackling session in which boat club members from each side attempt to "kidnap" members of the opposite club. If captured, one is put to shame by being bought breakfast in the rival college's hall. University rowing Henley Boat Race Rowing Blazers University of Cambridge University of Oxford Durack, John; the Bumps: An Account of the Cambridge University Bumping Races 1827-1999 ISBN 0-9538475-1-9 CUCBC - Lent and May Bumps programmes. Club Website
Corpus Christi College Boat Club (Cambridge)
Corpus Christi College Boat Club is the rowing club for members of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Corpus blade colours are maroon with a vertical white stripe and rowers wear kit of the same colour; the boat club crest features the same mythical pelican as that of the College pictured in front of a pair of crossed blades. Corpus is one of the smallest colleges in the University of Cambridge fielding 2-3 men's crews and 1-2 women's crews in the Lent and May Bumps races each year, it shares a boat house with the boat clubs of Sidney Sussex and Wolfson colleges. Corpus Christi College Boat Club was founded in 1828; the club benefited when the Lent and May Bumps became separate events in 1887. The 1st VIII managed to take the headship that year, they did again in 1891, but fell away into the 2nd division thereafter, although rising as high as 6th in 1953. Due to how the May Bumps start order was derived in 1887, Corpus started low down and has since spent most of its time in or around the 2nd division.
To date, 1887 and 1891 are the only headships. A women's crew first appeared in 1984 and has spent most of their early years in the 2nd division of both the Lents and Mays making the 1st division in the 1987 Lents. In the bumps, the small size of Corpus has meant that a periodic shortage of well-trained crews has meant Corpus is prone to yo-yo; this has meant Corpus has traditionally found it difficult to get a sufficient run of good crews to get into the 1st Division. The men were last in the Mays 1st Division in 1994, however a run of bad form in the late 1990s and 2000s saw them slip down to the top of the 3rd Division by 2009. After a few years around the bottom of the 2nd Division, they have been progressing upwards since 2014, in 2017 finished 9th in the 2nd Division. In the Lent Bumps the men have been around the middle to bottom of the 2nd Division since the early 1990s, although like in the Mays, have been moving upward in recent years, they finished the 2017 Lent Bumps 7th in the 2nd Division.
The women have fluctuated between the middle of the 2nd Division and the 3rd Division in recent years in the May Bumps. In 2016 they achieved a club record of +6. In the Lent Bumps the small size of Corpus has meant the women have sometimes been unable to field a crew in recent years. In 2016 they finished 15th in the 2nd Division. In 2016 Corpus won the Pegasus Cup for the most successful college boat club in the May races
Anglia Ruskin Boat Club
Anglia Ruskin Boat Club is the rowing club for members of Anglia Ruskin University. It was known as CCAT Boat Club until 2008; the name CCAT derives from a former name for the University, the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology, abbreviated to CCAT. The boat club has chosen to retain the name CCAT for historical reasons, it was once thought the club would lose its positions in the bumps races if the name were changed, but, urban legend. Although not affiliated with Cambridge University, ARBC have rowed in the Lent and May Bumps since the 1980s as a guest club. CCAT first put a men's crew on in 1988 in both events, rose to lie in the middle of the 2nd division in both sets of bumps races, although have slipped into the lower half; the women first appeared in the May Bumps in 1983 and Lent Bumps in 1984, but have only had a continuous presence since 1987 in both events. ARBC 1st women rose to take a place in the bottom of the Lents 1st division in the late 1990s but have since faded to the bottom of the 2nd division.
In the May Bumps, ARBC 1st women rose to get into the 1st division for two days in 2002 but have now fallen to the bottom of the 2nd division. In the 2003 May bumps, the Ladies 2nd VIII won blades, by bumping an unprecedented 5 bumps. ARBC crews participate in other races and regattas throughout the year, on and off the River Cam, including Bedford and London, where crews have enjoyed numerous success over the recent years. ARBC 1st Women won the ARA Novice 8+ Plate Competition in Bedford Regatta 2006, both the 1st Men and 1st Women won the Sunday Novice 8+ races at Peterborough Regatta 2006, with ARBC women taking first and third place in the final. In 2007 Peterborough Regatta, ARBC enjoyed particular success with the Men and Women's 1st VIIIs winning their Senior 4 8+ events on Saturday, the 2nd Women's VIII winning their Novice 8+ event on Sunday; as well, the 1st Women finished 97th out of 274 crews from across the UK and Europe in the Women's Eights Head of the River Race in London in 2006.
In 2014 the women's crew won Blades at the May Bumps, bumping Clare Hall, Fitzwilliam II, First & Third II and Newnham III. In 2017 the men’s crew won Blades at May Bumps. Durack, John; the Bumps: An Account of the Cambridge University Bumping Races 1827–1999 ISBN 0-9538475-1-9 CUCBC – Lent and May Bumps programmes. Bumps Charts Archive 1992–2004 Anglia Ruskin Boat Club
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Caius Boat Club
Caius Boat Club is the boat club for members of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. The Club has rowed on the River Cam since 1827, like the other college boat clubs its aim is to gain and hold the headship of the Lent Bumps and May Bumps, now held in eight-oared boats, separately for men and women; the club had a golden era from 1998 to 2007, finding itself in the top echelons of college rowing on both the men's and women's sides. From the May Bumps 1998 until the May Bumps 2007 Caius took 15 of these by the men. In 2000 they became the first college to take a double headship on both the men's and women's side in the May Bumps. From its inception in 1827 as "Caius Wherry Club" the club has been active on the river, became properly established by the construction of its own boat house; the Club saw some prominence in its early years, holding the headship in 1840, 1841 and 1844, but this was followed by a long drought. In 1987 The Men lost it the following year. During the golden era from 1998 to 2007, Caius took 5 consecutive Lent Headships and so claim to have earned the right to erect a clock tower on their boathouse, a popular myth on the River Cam, that may be made reality when the plans for the college's new boathouse are approved.
After another brief period in the doldrums, the Men's crew of 2010/2011 achieved the unlikely feat of remaining unbeaten on the river Cam in eights for an entire year. This run saw them bump up 4 times to the headship of the Lent Bumps and up 2 times to the headship of the May Bumps, they represented the Cambridge Colleges against Christ Church, Oxford in a collegiate varsity race at the Henley Boat Races, becoming the only Cambridge men's crew to be successful against their dark blue opponents that year. The men's crew continue to be successful, retaining both the Lents and Mays Headship in 2012 and maintained their winning streak in side by side racing by beating Pembroke College, Oxford at the Henley Boat Races. During the May bumps of 1998, the top 3 men's crews and the top 3 women's crews all secured the awarding of Blades by bumping up on each of the 4 days with the men's 1st VIII finishing Head of the River. This'clean sweep' of the top 6 boats being awarded their "Blades" has not happened or since.
The men's first boat lost the Mays headship in 2016 to Maggie, the Lents in 2017 to Maggie. The women's first boat is second in Mays and thirteenth in Lents. Caius Boat Club has a strong tradition of encouraging its athletes to trial for the university boat clubs. In 2014 there were Caians in both the men and women's Blue Boat, the CUWBC Lightweight boat and the men's lightweight spare pair. Caius Boat Club has received planning permission for a new boathouse to be built on the site of the original; this project is estimated to cost £3 million, is due to be completed in 2016. Josh West, Olympic silver medalist Alison Mowbray, Olympic silver medalist There exists a club for members who have left the college called Gonville Boat Club. Although GBC is a recreational club, it enters regattas and sometimes races the current CBC 1st men's VIII. In 2008 a GBC crew took to the water with a total of 28 Cambridge headships between them. CUCBC at Cambridge University Combined Boat Club Caius Boat Club
Churchill College Boat Club
Churchill College Boat Club is the rowing club for members of Churchill College, Cambridge. The club colours are pink and brown, chosen as they were the horse-racing colours of Sir Winston Churchill. In recent years, the club has become famous for its lurid pink racing shells; the men's 1st VIII started the trend in 2002, with the women taking delivery of their own in 2006. The trend has continued to the extent; the women sport pink splash-tops and lycra in the summer months. Churchill College shares a boat house, known as "Combined", with King's and The Leys School; the boat house is the farthest downstream of all the College boathouses, a natural advantage for early morning outings. The men's boat club was founded in 1961, following a remark during the Lent Bumps of that year that a college was not a College until it was on the River. Frank Maine and Ed Markham led the effort to get the club on the river, under guidance from Canon Noel Duckworth, the first chaplain at the college; the boat of postgraduates used the, as yet unheard of, training time of 6 am – 9 am on weekday mornings as the river was deserted.
This time is now common across all clubs at Cambridge. The 1st boat started the May Bumps in the seventh division in 1961, bumping twice before being stopped by carnage on the third day being bumped themselves on the last. Following a successful Lent Bumps in 1962, the Churchill 1st VIII were repositioned up into the 3rd division for the May Bumps of the same year. By the early 1970s, the men's 1st VIII had risen to the 1st division of the Lent and May Bumps but found itself back in the 2nd division by the end of the decade, it achieved its highest position at 5th in Lent Bumps 1998. In May Bumps 2006, the crew rose to an all-time high for that competition; the women's boat club took part in the first women's bumps in 1974, racing in fours until 1989. The 1st women's VIII took the headship of the Lent Bumps in 1984. In the May Bumps, Churchill women have been Head of the River a total of 6 times, the joint most of any other women's boat club, although only for the last headship were the races held in eight-oared boats.
Between 1985 and 1987, Churchill finished Head of the Mays on 12 consecutive days – the longest continuous defence of the women's Mays Headship. The College has been awarded both the Pegasus Cup, the Marconi Cup for the best performing college in May and Lent Bumps respectively. Both the Men's and Women's crews hold spots in the first division of these races. Churchill Women won the "College A" event at the inaugural Henley Women's Regatta in 1988, again in 1990. Churchill Men last qualified for the Temple Challenge Cup in 1996 at Henley Royal Regatta, progressing to the second round. Churchill College Boat Club Website Old site with plenty of history