Wessex was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century. The Anglo-Saxons believed that Wessex was founded by Cerdic and Cynric; the two main sources for the history of Wessex are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List, which sometimes conflict. Wessex was expanded under his rule. Cædwalla conquered Sussex and the Isle of Wight, his successor, issued one of the oldest surviving English law codes and established a second West Saxon bishopric. The throne subsequently passed to a series of kings with unknown genealogies. During the 8th century, as the hegemony of Mercia grew, Wessex retained its independence, it was during this period. Under Egbert, Sussex, Kent and Mercia, along with parts of Dumnonia, were conquered, he obtained the overlordship of the Northumbrian king. However, Mercian independence was restored in 830. During the reign of his successor, Æthelwulf, a Danish army arrived in the Thames estuary, but was decisively defeated.
When Æthelwulf's son, Æthelbald, usurped the throne, the kingdom was divided to avoid war. Æthelwulf was succeeded in turn by the youngest being Alfred the Great. Wessex was invaded by the Danes in 871, Alfred was compelled to pay them to leave, they were forced to withdraw. In 878 they forced Alfred to flee to the Somerset Levels, but were defeated at the Battle of Edington. During his reign Alfred issued a new law code, gathered scholars to his court and was able to devote funds to building ships, organising an army and establishing a system of burhs. Alfred's son, captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of his sister, Æthelflæd. Edward's son, Æthelstan, conquered Northumbria in 927, England became a unified kingdom for the first time. Cnut the Great, who conquered England in 1016, created the wealthy and powerful earldom of Wessex, but in 1066 Harold Godwinson reunited the earldom with the crown and Wessex ceased to exist.
Modern archaeologists use the term Wessex culture for a Middle Bronze Age culture in this area. A millennium before that, in the Late Neolithic, the ceremonial sites of Avebury and Stonehenge were completed on Salisbury Plain; this area has many other earthworks and erected stone monuments from the Neolithic and Early Bronze periods, including the Dorset Cursus, an earthwork 10 km long and 100 m wide, oriented to the midwinter sunset. Although agriculture and hunting were pursued during this long period, there is little archaeological evidence of human settlements. From the Neolithic onwards the chalk downland of Wessex was traversed by the Harrow Way, which can still be traced from Marazion in Cornwall to the coast of the English Channel near Dover, was connected with the ancient tin trade. During the Roman occupation starting in the 1st century AD, numerous country villas with attached farms were established across Wessex, along with the important towns of Dorchester and Winchester; the Romans, or rather the Romano-British, built another major road that integrated Wessex, running eastwards from Exeter through Dorchester to Winchester and Silchester and on to London.
The early 4th century was a peaceful time in Roman Britain. However, following a previous incursion in 360, stopped by Roman forces, the Picts and Scots attacked Hadrian's Wall in the far north in 367 and defeated the soldiers stationed along it, they laid siege to London. The Romans responded promptly, Count Theodosius had recovered the land up to the Wall by 368; the Romans temporarily ceased to rule Britain on the death of Magnus Maximus in 388. Stilicho attempted to restore Roman authority in the late 390s, but in 401 he took Roman troops from Britain to fight the Goths. Two subsequent Roman rulers of Britain, appointed by the remaining troops, were murdered. Constantine III became ruler, but he left for Gaul and withdrew more troops; the Britons requested assistance from Honorius, but when he replied in 410 he told them to manage their own defenses. By this point, there were no longer any Roman troops in Britain. Economic decline occurred after these events: circulation of Roman coins ended and the importation of items from the Roman Empire stopped.
In An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England, Peter Hunter Blair divides the traditions concerning the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain into two categories: Welsh and English. De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, written by Gildas, contains the best preservation of the Welsh tradition. In brief, it states that after the Romans left, the Britons managed to continue for a time without any major disruptions. However, when faced with northern invaders, a certain unnamed ruler in Britain requested assistance from the Saxons in exchange for land. There were no conflicts between the British and the Saxons for a time, but following "a dispute about the supply of provisions" the Saxons warred against the British and damaged parts of the country. In time, some Saxon troops left Britain. A lengthy conflict ensued, in which neither side gained any decisive advantage until the Britons routed the Saxons at the Battle of M
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone. A monastery includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church, or temple, may serve as an oratory. Monasteries vary in size, comprising a small dwelling accommodating only a hermit, or in the case of communities anything from a single building housing only one senior and two or three junior monks or nuns, to vast complexes and estates housing tens or hundreds. A monastery complex comprises a number of buildings which include a church, cloister, library and infirmary. Depending on the location, the monastic order and the occupation of its inhabitants, the complex may include a wide range of buildings that facilitate self-sufficiency and service to the community; these may include a hospice, a school, a range of agricultural and manufacturing buildings such as a barn, a forge, or a brewery. In English usage, the term monastery is used to denote the buildings of a community of monks.
In modern usage, convent tends to be applied only to institutions of female monastics communities of teaching or nursing religious sisters. A convent denoted a house of friars, now more called a friary. Various religions may apply these terms in more specific ways; the word monastery comes from the Greek word μοναστήριον, neut. of μοναστήριος – monasterios from μονάζειν – monazein "to live alone" from the root μόνος – monos "alone". The earliest extant use of the term monastērion is by the 1st century AD Jewish philosopher Philo in On The Contemplative Life, ch. III. In England the word monastery was applied to the habitation of a bishop and the cathedral clergy who lived apart from the lay community. Most cathedrals were not monasteries, were served by canons secular, which were communal but not monastic. However, some were run by monasteries orders, such as York Minster. Westminster Abbey was for a short time a cathedral, was a Benedictine monastery until the Reformation, its Chapter preserves elements of the Benedictine tradition.
See the entry cathedral. They are to be distinguished from collegiate churches, such as St George's Chapel, Windsor. In most of this article, the term monastery is used generically to refer to any of a number of types of religious community. In the Roman Catholic religion and to some extent in certain branches of Buddhism, there is a somewhat more specific definition of the term and many related terms. Buddhist monasteries are called vihara. Viharas may be occupied by men or women, in keeping with common English usage, a vihara populated by females may be called a nunnery or a convent. However, vihara can refer to a temple. In Tibetan Buddhism, monasteries are called gompa. In Thailand and Cambodia, a monastery is called a wat. In Burma, a monastery is called a kyaung. A Christian monastery may be a priory, or conceivably a hermitage, it may be a community of men or of women. A charterhouse is any monastery belonging to the Carthusian order. In Eastern Christianity, a small monastic community can be called a skete, a large or important monastery can be given the dignity of a lavra.
The great communal life of a Christian monastery is called cenobitic, as opposed to the anchoretic life of an anchorite and the eremitic life of a hermit. There has been under the Osmanli occupation of Greece and Cyprus, an "idiorrhythmic" lifestyle where monks come together but being able to own things individually and not being obliged to work for the common good. In Hinduism monasteries are called matha, koil, or most an ashram. Jains use the Buddhist term vihara. In most religions the life inside monasteries is governed by community rules that stipulate the gender of the inhabitants and require them to remain celibate and own little or no personal property; the degree to which life inside a particular monastery is separate from the surrounding populace can vary widely. Others focus on interacting with the local communities to provide services, such as teaching, medical care, or evangelism; some monastic communities are only occupied seasonally, depending both on the traditions involved and the local weather, people may be part of a monastic community for periods ranging from a few days at a time to an entire lifetime.
The life within the walls of a monastery may be supported in several ways: by manufacturing and selling goods agricultural products, by donations or alms, by rental or investment incomes, by funds from other organizations within the religion, which in the past formed the traditional support of monasteries. There has been a long tradition of Christian monasteries providing hospitable and hospital services. Monasteries have been associated with the provision of education and the encouragement of scholarship and research, which has led to the establishment of schools and colleges and the association with universities. Christian monastic life has adapted to modern society by offering computer services, accounting services and management as well as modern hospital and educational administration. Buddhist monasteries, known as vihāra i
Porth-y-Tŵr is a gatehouse and bell tower overlooking St Davids Cathedral in the small city of St Davids, Wales, UK. It is the sole survivor of four medieval gates to the walled Cathedral Close; the 13th-century octagonal tower, adjoining the gateway, now contains the cathedral's bells. Porth-y-Tŵr is located less than 100m west of St Davids' main Cross Square and a similar distance southeast of the main south door of the cathedral; the bell tower to the north is a 60 feet high two-storey octagonal stone building with pointed louvred windows. The gateway and rounded tower to the south are a lesser height and built from a rougher rubble stone, it looks down on the cathedral from an elevated position. The Buildings of Wales describes the slope as setting "the cathedral and Bishop's Palace in a green bowl" with 39 steps leading down the steep incline from the gateway. Porth-y-Tŵr is the sole survivor of four gates to the Cathedral Close, an ancient enclosure which dates back to at least the 12th century and has been described as an "ecclesiastical palladium" encircling the cathedral with a 1,200 yards of crenellated parapet.
The bell tower of Porth-y-Tŵr dates to the late 13th century, with the gateway and its south tower being added in the 14th century. What is nowadays the bell tower was used by the bishops of St Davids for their consistory court and a record office for the episcopal see; the south tower and the range of rooms above the gate were used as a council chamber. Well appointed apartments, suitable for the mayor, were accessed via a doorway on the town side of the tower. Joseph Lord's 1720 map of the Cathedral Close shows a plan of Porth-y-Tŵr, describing it as "The East gate and rooms adjoyning to it where the Bishop's & Mayor's courts were held". Porth-y-Tŵr was in ruins by the 20th century and, in 1929, the octagonal tower was restored by ecclesiastical architect W. D. Caroe, with funding coming from an anonymous donor. In the 1930s a ring of bells were installed in the octagonal tower – the bells in the tower of St Davids Cathedral had been removed in 1730 to prevent the cathedral's tower collapsing.
Two further bells were added in 2001, donated by the American Friends of St Davids Cathedral. There are ten bells in total, hung for change ringing. One of the original cathedral bells is exhibited at Porth-y-Tŵr; the towers and gateway gained a Grade I heritage listing in 1963. Grade I listed buildings in Pembrokeshire Fenton, Richard, A Historical Tour Through Pembrokeshire, London: Longman, Rees, Orme & Co, pp. 60–61 Lloyd, Thomas.
St David's Cathedral, Hobart
The Cathedral Church of St David in Hobart is the principal Anglican church in Tasmania. The dean is the Very Reverend Richard Humphrey. Consecrated in 1874, St David's is the Bishop of Tasmania's principal place of teaching, it is a cathedral because it is the place where the bishop's seat is placed. It is the venue for great occasions of diocese and state; the mission of St David's is "Proclaiming Jesus as Lord in the Heart of Hobart to build a community of living faith, profound hope and practical love." The building sits on the corner of Macquarie and Murray Streets and forms one quadrant of what is considered to be the finest Georgian streetscape in Australia. On the pinnacles of each gable is a quatrefoil, repeated on the extremities of the large crucifix of the rood screen which dominates the sanctuary; the cathedral choir offers sacred music both in concert. The organ, considered one of the superior organs of Australia, is played by quality organists; the acoustics and 650 seating capacity demand frequent concerts.
Appearances of the Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra, Hobart City Band, massed military bands, the Royal Copenhagen Chapel Choir and the Sydney Brass Quintet were features of 2008. The cathedral tower has a peal of 10 bells, with the tenor of 21 long cwt, set for full circle ringing. Most of the bells are from 1935 and all were founded by John Taylor & Co, they are rung by New Zealand Association of Bellringers. St David's is known for its contemporary Anglican liturgy. Linked with England's Coventry Cathedral, the dean and associate clergy are "committed to creative liturgies that lift the heart and proclaim the Biblical faith as our society dissatisfied with a purely materialistic world view, seeks a sense of the transcendent and apprehension of a living spirituality."This desire for a "living spirituality" is reflected in the cathedral's commitment to serve the city and community. In services from those for the opening of law term, the opening of parliament, Heart Foundation, the Cancer Council Tasmania, Battle of Britain, Anzac Day and Collegiate schools and as a venue for state secondary and senior secondary schools the tranquillity and peace is suspended with laughter and memories.
The memorial service for the Port Arthur tragedy is remembered in the Hope Chapel. A memorial to the last ANZAC, Alec Campbell, who died on 16 May 2002, aged 103, is in the cathedral. In 1842 Hobart was declared a city and the existing St David's Church became St David's Cathedral; the Reverend Francis Russell Nixon was appointed first Bishop of Tasmania and Frederick Holdship Cox the first Dean of St David's. The current St David's Cathedral is in the Gothic Revival style; the original design was by the English architect George Frederick Bodley. There are old flags dating from the time. There are stained-glass windows depicting saints, knights and biblical characters. Along the walls there are small memorial plaques dedicated to deceased members; the cathedral's distinctive features include an arcaded entrance with a large west window and buttressed turrets. Located at the corner of Macquarie and Murray Streets, the building is on the register of the National Estate. List of tallest buildings in Hobart Official website
Henry I of England
Henry I known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death in 1135. Henry was educated in Latin and the liberal arts. On William's death in 1087, Henry's elder brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus inherited Normandy and England but Henry was left landless. Henry purchased the County of Cotentin in western Normandy from Robert, but William and Robert deposed him in 1091. Henry rebuilt his power base in the Cotentin and allied himself with William against Robert. Henry was present when William died in a hunting accident in 1100, he seized the English throne, promising at his coronation to correct many of William's less popular policies. Henry married Matilda of Scotland but continued to have a large number of mistresses by whom he had many illegitimate children. Robert, who invaded in 1101, disputed Henry's control of England; the peace was short-lived, Henry invaded the Duchy of Normandy in 1105 and 1106 defeating Robert at the Battle of Tinchebray. Henry kept Robert imprisoned for the rest of his life.
Henry's control of Normandy was challenged by Louis VI of France, Baldwin VII of Flanders and Fulk V of Anjou, who promoted the rival claims of Robert's son, William Clito, supported a major rebellion in the Duchy between 1116 and 1119. Following Henry's victory at the Battle of Brémule, a favourable peace settlement was agreed with Louis in 1120. Considered by contemporaries to be a harsh but effective ruler, Henry skilfully manipulated the barons in England and Normandy. In England, he drew on the existing Anglo-Saxon system of justice, local government and taxation, but strengthened it with additional institutions, including the royal exchequer and itinerant justices. Normandy was governed through a growing system of justices and an exchequer. Many of the officials who ran Henry's system were "new men" of obscure backgrounds rather than from families of high status, who rose through the ranks as administrators. Henry encouraged ecclesiastical reform, but became embroiled in a serious dispute in 1101 with Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, resolved through a compromise solution in 1105.
He supported the Cluniac order and played a major role in the selection of the senior clergy in England and Normandy. Henry's only legitimate son and heir, William Adelin, drowned in the White Ship disaster of 1120, throwing the royal succession into doubt. Henry took a second wife, Adeliza of Louvain, in the hope of having another son, but their marriage was childless. In response to this, Henry declared his daughter, Empress Matilda, his heir and married her to Geoffrey of Anjou; the relationship between Henry and the couple became strained, fighting broke out along the border with Anjou. Henry died on 1 December 1135 after a week of illness. Despite his plans for Matilda, the King was succeeded by his nephew, Stephen of Blois, resulting in a period of civil war known as the Anarchy. Henry was born in England in 1068, in either the summer or the last weeks of the year in the town of Selby in Yorkshire, his father was William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy who had invaded England in 1066 to become the King of England, establishing lands stretching into Wales.
The invasion had created an Anglo-Norman elite, many with estates spread across both sides of the English Channel. These Anglo-Norman barons had close links to the kingdom of France, a loose collection of counties and smaller polities, under only the minimal control of the king. Henry's mother, Matilda of Flanders, was the granddaughter of Robert II of France, she named Henry after her uncle, King Henry I of France. Henry was the youngest of Matilda's four sons. Physically he resembled his older brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus, being, as historian David Carpenter describes, "short and barrel-chested," with black hair; as a result of their age differences and Richard's early death, Henry would have seen little of his older brothers. He knew his sister Adela well, as the two were close in age. There is little documentary evidence for his early years, he was educated by the Church by Bishop Osmund, the King's chancellor, at Salisbury Cathedral. It is uncertain how far Henry's education extended, but he was able to read Latin and had some background in the liberal arts.
He was given military training by an instructor called Robert Achard, Henry was knighted by his father on 24 May 1086. In 1087, William was fatally injured during a campaign in the Vexin. Henry joined his dying father near Rouen in September, where the King partitioned his possessions among his sons; the rules of succession in western Europe at the time were uncertain. In other parts of Europe, including Normandy and England, the tradition was for lands to be divided up, with the eldest son taking patrimonial lands – considered to be the most valuable – and younger sons given smaller, or more acquired, partitions or estates. In dividing his lands, William appears to have followed the Norman tradition, distinguishing between Normandy, which he had inherited, England, which he had acquired through war. William's second son, had died in a hunting accident, leaving
The rood screen is a common feature in late medieval church architecture. It is an ornate partition between the chancel and nave, of more or less open tracery constructed of wood, stone, or wrought iron; the rood screen would have been surmounted by a rood loft carrying the Great Rood, a sculptural representation of the Crucifixion. In English and Welsh cathedral and collegiate churches, there were two transverse screens, with a rood screen or rood beam located one bay west of the pulpitum screen, but this double arrangement nowhere survives complete, accordingly the preserved pulpitum in such churches is sometimes referred to as a rood screen. At Wells Cathedral the medieval arrangement was restored in the 20th century, with the medieval strainer arch supporting a rood, placed in front of the pulpitum and organ. Rood screens can be found in churches in many parts of Europe: the German word for one is Lettner. However, in Catholic countries they were removed during the Counter-reformation, when the retention of any visual barrier between the laity and the high altar was seen as inconsistent with the decrees of the Council of Trent.
Accordingly, rood screens now survive in much greater numbers in Lutheran churches. The iconostasis in Eastern Christian churches is a visually similar barrier, but is now considered to have a different origin, deriving from the ancient altar screen or templon; the word rood is derived from the Saxon word rood or rode, meaning "cross". The rood screen is so called because it was surmounted by the Rood itself, a large figure of the crucified Christ. To either side of the Rood, there stood supporting statues of saints Mary and St John, in an arrangement comparable to the Deesis always found in the centre of an Orthodox iconostasis. Latterly in England and Wales the Rood tended to rise above a narrow loft, which could be substantial enough to be used as a singing gallery; the panels and uprights of the screen did not support the loft, which instead rested on a substantial transverse beam called the "rood beam" or "candle beam". Access was via a narrow rood stair set into the piers supporting the chancel arch.
In parish churches, the space between the rood beam and the chancel arch was filled by a boarded or lath and plaster tympanum, set behind the rood figures and painted with a representation of the Last Judgement. The roof panels of the first bay of the nave were richly decorated to form a celure or canopy of honour; the carving or construction of the rood screen included latticework, which makes it possible to see through the screen from the nave into the chancel. The term "chancel" itself derives from the Latin word cancelli meaning "lattice"; the passage through the rood screen was fitted with doors, which were kept locked except during services. The terms. From this it was concluded by Victorian liturgists that the specification ad pulpitum for the location for Gospel lections in the rubrics of the Use of Sarum referred both to the cathedral pulpitum screen and the parish rood loft. However, rood stairs in English parish churches are if found to have been built wide enough to accommodate the Gospel procession required in the Sarum Use.
The specific functions of the late medieval parish rood loft and above supporting the rood and its lights, remain an issue of conjecture and debate. In this respect it may be significant that, although there are terms for a rood screen in the vernacular languages of Europe, there is no counterpart specific term in liturgical Latin. Nor does the 13th century liturgical commentator Durandus refer directly to rood screens or rood lofts; this is consistent with the ritual uses of rood lofts being a late medieval development. Until the 6th century the altar of Christian churches would have been in full view of the congregation, separated only by a low altar rail around it. Large churches had a ciborium, or canopy on four columns, over the altar, from which hung altar curtains which were closed at certain points in the liturgy. However, following the example of the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, churches began to surround their altars with a colonnade or templon which supported a decorated architrave beam along which a curtain could be drawn to veil the altar at specific points in the consecration of the Eucharist.
In Rome the ritual choir tended to be located west of the altar screen, this choir area was surrounded by cancelli, or low chancel screens. These arrangements still survive in the Roman basilicas of San Clemente and Santa Maria in Cosmedin, as well as St Mark's Basilica in Venice. In the Eastern Church, the templon and its associated curtains and decorations evolved into the modern iconostasis. In the
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity. The office may be given as an honorary title to a clergyman, not the head of a monastery; the female equivalent is abbess. The title had its origin in the monasteries of Egypt and Syria, spread through the eastern Mediterranean, soon became accepted in all languages as the designation of the head of a monastery; the word is derived from the Aramaic av meaning "father" or abba, meaning "my father". In the Septuagint, it was written as "abbas". At first it was employed as a respectful title for any monk, but it was soon restricted by canon law to certain priestly superiors. At times it was applied to various priests, e.g. at the court of the Frankish monarchy the Abbas palatinus and Abbas castrensis were chaplains to the Merovingian and Carolingian sovereigns’ court and army respectively. The title abbot came into general use in western monastic orders whose members include priests.
An abbot is the head and chief governor of a community of monks, called in the East hegumen or archimandrite. The English version for a female monastic head is abbess. In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, the jurisdiction of the abbot, or archimandrite, was but loosely defined. Sometimes he ruled over only one community, sometimes over several, each of which had its own abbot as well. Saint John Cassian speaks of an abbot of the Thebaid. By the Rule of St Benedict, until the Cluniac reforms, was the norm in the West, the abbot has jurisdiction over only one community; the rule, as was inevitable, was subject to frequent violations. Monks, as a rule, at the outset was the abbot any exception. For the reception of the sacraments, for other religious offices, the abbot and his monks were commanded to attend the nearest church; this rule proved inconvenient when a monastery was situated in a desert or at a distance from a city, necessity compelled the ordination of some monks. This innovation was not introduced without a struggle, ecclesiastical dignity being regarded as inconsistent with the higher spiritual life, before the close of the 5th century, at least in the East, abbots seem universally to have become deacons, if not priests.
The change spread more in the West, where the office of abbot was filled by laymen till the end of the 7th century. The ecclesiastical leadership exercised by abbots despite their frequent lay status is proved by their attendance and votes at ecclesiastical councils, thus at the first Council of Constantinople, AD 448, 23 archimandrites or abbots sign, with 30 bishops. The second Council of Nicaea, AD 787, recognized the right of abbots to ordain their monks to the inferior orders below the diaconate, a power reserved to bishops. Abbots used to be subject to episcopal jurisdiction, continued so, in fact, in the West till the 11th century; the Code of Justinian expressly subordinates the abbot to episcopal oversight. The first case recorded of the partial exemption of an abbot from episcopal control is that of Faustus, abbot of Lerins, at the council of Arles, AD 456; these exceptions, introduced with a good object, had grown into a widespread evil by the 12th century creating an imperium in imperio, depriving the bishop of all authority over the chief centres of influence in his diocese.
In the 12th century, the abbots of Fulda claimed precedence of the archbishop of Cologne. Abbots more and more assumed episcopal state, in defiance of the prohibition of early councils and the protests of St Bernard and others, adopted the episcopal insignia of mitre, ring and sandals, it has been maintained that the right to wear mitres was sometimes granted by the popes to abbots before the 11th century, but the documents on which this claim is based are not genuine. The first undoubted instance is the bull by which Alexander II in 1063 granted the use of the mitre to Egelsinus, abbot of the monastery of St Augustine at Canterbury; the mitred abbots in England were those of Abingdon, St Alban's, Battle, Bury St Edmunds, St Augustine's Canterbury, Croyland, Glastonbury, Gloucester, St Benet's Hulme, Malmesbury, Ramsey, Selby, Tavistock, Westminster, St Mary's York. Of these the precedence was yielded to the abbot of Glastonbury, until in AD 1154 Adrian IV granted it to the abbot of St Alban's, in which monastery he had been brought up.
Next after the abbot of St Alban's ranked the abbot of Westminster and Ramsey. Elsewhere, the mitred abbots that sat in the Estates of Scotland were of Arbroath, Coupar Angus, Holyrood, Kelso, Kinloss, Paisley, Scone, St Andrews Priory and Sweetheart. To distinguish abbots from bishops, it was ordained that their mitre should be made