Henry I of England
Henry I known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death in 1135. Henry was educated in Latin and the liberal arts. On William's death in 1087, Henry's elder brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus inherited Normandy and England but Henry was left landless. Henry purchased the County of Cotentin in western Normandy from Robert, but William and Robert deposed him in 1091. Henry rebuilt his power base in the Cotentin and allied himself with William against Robert. Henry was present when William died in a hunting accident in 1100, he seized the English throne, promising at his coronation to correct many of William's less popular policies. Henry married Matilda of Scotland but continued to have a large number of mistresses by whom he had many illegitimate children. Robert, who invaded in 1101, disputed Henry's control of England; the peace was short-lived, Henry invaded the Duchy of Normandy in 1105 and 1106 defeating Robert at the Battle of Tinchebray. Henry kept Robert imprisoned for the rest of his life.
Henry's control of Normandy was challenged by Louis VI of France, Baldwin VII of Flanders and Fulk V of Anjou, who promoted the rival claims of Robert's son, William Clito, supported a major rebellion in the Duchy between 1116 and 1119. Following Henry's victory at the Battle of Brémule, a favourable peace settlement was agreed with Louis in 1120. Considered by contemporaries to be a harsh but effective ruler, Henry skilfully manipulated the barons in England and Normandy. In England, he drew on the existing Anglo-Saxon system of justice, local government and taxation, but strengthened it with additional institutions, including the royal exchequer and itinerant justices. Normandy was governed through a growing system of justices and an exchequer. Many of the officials who ran Henry's system were "new men" of obscure backgrounds rather than from families of high status, who rose through the ranks as administrators. Henry encouraged ecclesiastical reform, but became embroiled in a serious dispute in 1101 with Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, resolved through a compromise solution in 1105.
He supported the Cluniac order and played a major role in the selection of the senior clergy in England and Normandy. Henry's only legitimate son and heir, William Adelin, drowned in the White Ship disaster of 1120, throwing the royal succession into doubt. Henry took a second wife, Adeliza of Louvain, in the hope of having another son, but their marriage was childless. In response to this, Henry declared his daughter, Empress Matilda, his heir and married her to Geoffrey of Anjou; the relationship between Henry and the couple became strained, fighting broke out along the border with Anjou. Henry died on 1 December 1135 after a week of illness. Despite his plans for Matilda, the King was succeeded by his nephew, Stephen of Blois, resulting in a period of civil war known as the Anarchy. Henry was born in England in 1068, in either the summer or the last weeks of the year in the town of Selby in Yorkshire, his father was William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy who had invaded England in 1066 to become the King of England, establishing lands stretching into Wales.
The invasion had created an Anglo-Norman elite, many with estates spread across both sides of the English Channel. These Anglo-Norman barons had close links to the kingdom of France, a loose collection of counties and smaller polities, under only the minimal control of the king. Henry's mother, Matilda of Flanders, was the granddaughter of Robert II of France, she named Henry after her uncle, King Henry I of France. Henry was the youngest of Matilda's four sons. Physically he resembled his older brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus, being, as historian David Carpenter describes, "short and barrel-chested," with black hair; as a result of their age differences and Richard's early death, Henry would have seen little of his older brothers. He knew his sister Adela well, as the two were close in age. There is little documentary evidence for his early years, he was educated by the Church by Bishop Osmund, the King's chancellor, at Salisbury Cathedral. It is uncertain how far Henry's education extended, but he was able to read Latin and had some background in the liberal arts.
He was given military training by an instructor called Robert Achard, Henry was knighted by his father on 24 May 1086. In 1087, William was fatally injured during a campaign in the Vexin. Henry joined his dying father near Rouen in September, where the King partitioned his possessions among his sons; the rules of succession in western Europe at the time were uncertain. In other parts of Europe, including Normandy and England, the tradition was for lands to be divided up, with the eldest son taking patrimonial lands – considered to be the most valuable – and younger sons given smaller, or more acquired, partitions or estates. In dividing his lands, William appears to have followed the Norman tradition, distinguishing between Normandy, which he had inherited, England, which he had acquired through war. William's second son, had died in a hunting accident, leaving
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity. The office may be given as an honorary title to a clergyman, not the head of a monastery; the female equivalent is abbess. The title had its origin in the monasteries of Egypt and Syria, spread through the eastern Mediterranean, soon became accepted in all languages as the designation of the head of a monastery; the word is derived from the Aramaic av meaning "father" or abba, meaning "my father". In the Septuagint, it was written as "abbas". At first it was employed as a respectful title for any monk, but it was soon restricted by canon law to certain priestly superiors. At times it was applied to various priests, e.g. at the court of the Frankish monarchy the Abbas palatinus and Abbas castrensis were chaplains to the Merovingian and Carolingian sovereigns’ court and army respectively. The title abbot came into general use in western monastic orders whose members include priests.
An abbot is the head and chief governor of a community of monks, called in the East hegumen or archimandrite. The English version for a female monastic head is abbess. In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, the jurisdiction of the abbot, or archimandrite, was but loosely defined. Sometimes he ruled over only one community, sometimes over several, each of which had its own abbot as well. Saint John Cassian speaks of an abbot of the Thebaid. By the Rule of St Benedict, until the Cluniac reforms, was the norm in the West, the abbot has jurisdiction over only one community; the rule, as was inevitable, was subject to frequent violations. Monks, as a rule, at the outset was the abbot any exception. For the reception of the sacraments, for other religious offices, the abbot and his monks were commanded to attend the nearest church; this rule proved inconvenient when a monastery was situated in a desert or at a distance from a city, necessity compelled the ordination of some monks. This innovation was not introduced without a struggle, ecclesiastical dignity being regarded as inconsistent with the higher spiritual life, before the close of the 5th century, at least in the East, abbots seem universally to have become deacons, if not priests.
The change spread more in the West, where the office of abbot was filled by laymen till the end of the 7th century. The ecclesiastical leadership exercised by abbots despite their frequent lay status is proved by their attendance and votes at ecclesiastical councils, thus at the first Council of Constantinople, AD 448, 23 archimandrites or abbots sign, with 30 bishops. The second Council of Nicaea, AD 787, recognized the right of abbots to ordain their monks to the inferior orders below the diaconate, a power reserved to bishops. Abbots used to be subject to episcopal jurisdiction, continued so, in fact, in the West till the 11th century; the Code of Justinian expressly subordinates the abbot to episcopal oversight. The first case recorded of the partial exemption of an abbot from episcopal control is that of Faustus, abbot of Lerins, at the council of Arles, AD 456; these exceptions, introduced with a good object, had grown into a widespread evil by the 12th century creating an imperium in imperio, depriving the bishop of all authority over the chief centres of influence in his diocese.
In the 12th century, the abbots of Fulda claimed precedence of the archbishop of Cologne. Abbots more and more assumed episcopal state, in defiance of the prohibition of early councils and the protests of St Bernard and others, adopted the episcopal insignia of mitre, ring and sandals, it has been maintained that the right to wear mitres was sometimes granted by the popes to abbots before the 11th century, but the documents on which this claim is based are not genuine. The first undoubted instance is the bull by which Alexander II in 1063 granted the use of the mitre to Egelsinus, abbot of the monastery of St Augustine at Canterbury; the mitred abbots in England were those of Abingdon, St Alban's, Battle, Bury St Edmunds, St Augustine's Canterbury, Croyland, Glastonbury, Gloucester, St Benet's Hulme, Malmesbury, Ramsey, Selby, Tavistock, Westminster, St Mary's York. Of these the precedence was yielded to the abbot of Glastonbury, until in AD 1154 Adrian IV granted it to the abbot of St Alban's, in which monastery he had been brought up.
Next after the abbot of St Alban's ranked the abbot of Westminster and Ramsey. Elsewhere, the mitred abbots that sat in the Estates of Scotland were of Arbroath, Coupar Angus, Holyrood, Kelso, Kinloss, Paisley, Scone, St Andrews Priory and Sweetheart. To distinguish abbots from bishops, it was ordained that their mitre should be made
George Gilbert Scott
Sir George Gilbert Scott, styled Sir Gilbert Scott, was a prolific English Gothic revival architect, chiefly associated with the design and renovation of churches and cathedrals, although he started his career as a leading designer of workhouses. Over 800 buildings were altered by him. Scott was the architect of many iconic buildings, including the Midland Grand Hotel at St Pancras Station, the Albert Memorial, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, all in London, St Mary's Cathedral, the main building of the University of Glasgow, St Mary's Cathedral in Edinburgh and King's College London Chapel. Born in Gawcott, Buckinghamshire, Scott was the son of a cleric and grandson of the biblical commentator Thomas Scott, he studied architecture as a pupil of James Edmeston and, from 1832 to 1834, worked as an assistant to Henry Roberts. He worked as an assistant for his friend, Sampson Kempthorne, who specialised in the design of workhouses, a field in which Scott was to begin his independent career.
Scott's first work was built in 1833. It was a vicarage for a clergyman, in the village of Wappenham, Northamptonshire, it replaced. Scott went on to design several other buildings in the village. In about 1835, Scott took on William Bonython Moffatt as his assistant and as his partner. Over ten years or so, Scott and Moffatt designed more than forty workhouses,during the boom in building such institutions brought about by the Poor Law of 1834. In 1837 they built the Parish Church of St John in Staffordshire. At Reading, they built the prison in a castellated style. Scott's first church, St Nicholas', was built at Lincoln, after winning a competition in 1838. With Moffat he built the Neo-Norman church of St Peter at Surrey. Meanwhile, he was inspired by Augustus Pugin to participate in the Gothic revival. While still in partnership with Moffat, he designed the Martyrs' Memorial on St Giles', St Giles' Church, both of which helped establish his reputation within the movement. Commemorating three Protestants burnt during the reign of Queen Mary, the Martyrs' Memorial was intended as a rebuke to those high church tendencies, instrumental in promoting the new authentic approach to Gothic architecture.
St Giles', was in plan, with its long chancel, of the type advocated by the Ecclesiological Society: Charles Locke Eastlake said that "in the neighbourhood of London no church of its time was considered in purer style or more orthodox in its arrangement". It did, like many churches of the time, incorporate wooden galleries, not used in medieval churches and disapproved of by the high church ecclesiological movement. In 1844 he received the commission to rebuild the Nikolaikirche in Hamburg, following an international competition. Scott's design had been placed third in the competition, the winner being one in a Florentine inspired style by Gottfried Semper, but the decision was overturned by a faction who favoured a Gothic design. Scott's entry had been the only design in the Gothic style. In 1854 he remodelled the Camden Chapel in Camberwell, a project in which the critic John Ruskin took a close interest and made many suggestions, he added an apse, in a Byzantine style, integrating it to the existing plain structure by substituting a waggon roof for the existing flat ceiling.
Scott was appointed architect to Westminster Abbey in 1849. In 1853 he built. In 1858 he designed Christchurch Cathedral, New Zealand which now lies ruined following the earthquake in 2011 and subsequent attempts to demolish the cathedral by the Anglican Church authorities. Demolition was blocked after appeals by the population of Christchurch but the future of this historic building is still in disputeThe choir stalls at Lancing College in Sussex, which Scott designed with Walter Tower, were among many examples of his work that incorporated green men. Scott went beyond copying mediaeval English gothic for his Victorian Gothic or Gothic Revival buildings, began to introduce features from other styles and European countries as evidenced in his Midland red-brick construction, the Midland Grand Hotel at London's St Pancras Station, from which approach Scott believed a new style might emerge. Between 1864 and 1876, the Albert Memorial, designed by Scott, was constructed in Hyde Park, it was a commission on behalf of Queen Victoria in memory of Prince Albert.
Scott advocated the use of Gothic architecture for secular buildings, rejecting what he called "the absurd supposition that Gothic architecture is and intrinsically ecclesiastical." He was the winner of a competition to design new buildings in Whitehall to house the Foreign Office and War Office. Before work began, the administration which had approved his plans went out of office. Palmerston, the new Prime Minister, objected to Scott's use of the Gothic, the architect, after some resistance drew up new plans in a more acceptable style. Scott was awarded the RIBA's Royal Gold Medal in 1859, he was appointed an Honorary Liveryman of the Turners' Company and in 1872, he was knighted. He is buried in Westminster Abbey. A London County Council blue plaque marks Scott's residence at the Admiral's House on Admiral's Walk in Hampstead. Scott married Caroline Oldrid of Boston in 1838. Two of his sons George Gilbert Scott, Jr. and John Oldrid Scott, his grandson Giles Gilbert Scott, were prominent architects.
His third son, Albert Henry Scott died at the age of twe
Porth-y-Tŵr is a gatehouse and bell tower overlooking St Davids Cathedral in the small city of St Davids, Wales, UK. It is the sole survivor of four medieval gates to the walled Cathedral Close; the 13th-century octagonal tower, adjoining the gateway, now contains the cathedral's bells. Porth-y-Tŵr is located less than 100m west of St Davids' main Cross Square and a similar distance southeast of the main south door of the cathedral; the bell tower to the north is a 60 feet high two-storey octagonal stone building with pointed louvred windows. The gateway and rounded tower to the south are a lesser height and built from a rougher rubble stone, it looks down on the cathedral from an elevated position. The Buildings of Wales describes the slope as setting "the cathedral and Bishop's Palace in a green bowl" with 39 steps leading down the steep incline from the gateway. Porth-y-Tŵr is the sole survivor of four gates to the Cathedral Close, an ancient enclosure which dates back to at least the 12th century and has been described as an "ecclesiastical palladium" encircling the cathedral with a 1,200 yards of crenellated parapet.
The bell tower of Porth-y-Tŵr dates to the late 13th century, with the gateway and its south tower being added in the 14th century. What is nowadays the bell tower was used by the bishops of St Davids for their consistory court and a record office for the episcopal see; the south tower and the range of rooms above the gate were used as a council chamber. Well appointed apartments, suitable for the mayor, were accessed via a doorway on the town side of the tower. Joseph Lord's 1720 map of the Cathedral Close shows a plan of Porth-y-Tŵr, describing it as "The East gate and rooms adjoyning to it where the Bishop's & Mayor's courts were held". Porth-y-Tŵr was in ruins by the 20th century and, in 1929, the octagonal tower was restored by ecclesiastical architect W. D. Caroe, with funding coming from an anonymous donor. In the 1930s a ring of bells were installed in the octagonal tower – the bells in the tower of St Davids Cathedral had been removed in 1730 to prevent the cathedral's tower collapsing.
Two further bells were added in 2001, donated by the American Friends of St Davids Cathedral. There are ten bells in total, hung for change ringing. One of the original cathedral bells is exhibited at Porth-y-Tŵr; the towers and gateway gained a Grade I heritage listing in 1963. Grade I listed buildings in Pembrokeshire Fenton, Richard, A Historical Tour Through Pembrokeshire, London: Longman, Rees, Orme & Co, pp. 60–61 Lloyd, Thomas.
The nave is the central part of a church, stretching from the main entrance or rear wall, to the transepts, or in a church without transepts, to the chancel. When a church contains side aisles, as in a basilica-type building, the strict definition of the term "nave" is restricted to the central aisle. In a broader, more colloquial sense, the nave includes all areas available for the lay worshippers, including the side-aisles and transepts. Either way, the nave is distinct from the area reserved for clergy; the nave extends from the entry—which may have a separate vestibule —to the chancel and may be flanked by lower side-aisles separated from the nave by an arcade. If the aisles are high and of a width comparable to the central nave, the structure is sometimes said to have three naves, it provides the central approach to the high altar. The term nave is from navis, the Latin word for ship, an early Christian symbol of the Church as a whole, with a possible connection to the "ship of St. Peter" or the Ark of Noah.
The term may have been suggested by the keel shape of the vaulting of a church. In many Scandinavian and Baltic countries a model ship is found hanging in the nave of a church, in some languages the same word means both'nave' and'ship', as for instance Danish skib, Swedish skepp or Spanish; the earliest churches were built when builders were familiar with the form of the Roman basilica, a public building for business transactions. It had a wide central area, with aisles separated by columns, with windows near the ceiling. Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome is an early church, it was built in the 4th century on the orders of Roman emperor Constantine I, replaced in the 16th century. The nave, the main body of the building, is the section set apart for the laity, while the chancel is reserved for the clergy. In medieval churches the nave was separated from the chancel by the rood screen. Medieval naves were divided into the repetition of form giving an effect of great length. During the Renaissance, in place of dramatic effects there were more balanced proportions.
Longest nave in Denmark: Aarhus Cathedral, 93 m Longest nave in England: St Albans Cathedral, St Albans, 85 m Longest nave in Ireland: St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, 91 m, externally Longest nave in France: Bourges Cathedral, 91 m, including choir where a crossing would be if there were transepts Longest nave in Germany: Cologne cathedral, 58 m, including two bays between the towers Longest nave in Italy: St Peter's Basilica in Rome, 91 m, in four bays Longest nave in Spain: Seville, 60 m, in five bays Longest nave in the United States: Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, New York City, United States, 70 m Highest vaulted nave: Beauvais Cathedral, France, 48 m, but only one bay of the nave was built. Highest completed nave: Rome, St. Peter's, Italy, 46 m Abbey, with architectural discussion and groundplans Cathedral architecture Cathedral diagram List of highest church naves
The rood screen is a common feature in late medieval church architecture. It is an ornate partition between the chancel and nave, of more or less open tracery constructed of wood, stone, or wrought iron; the rood screen would have been surmounted by a rood loft carrying the Great Rood, a sculptural representation of the Crucifixion. In English and Welsh cathedral and collegiate churches, there were two transverse screens, with a rood screen or rood beam located one bay west of the pulpitum screen, but this double arrangement nowhere survives complete, accordingly the preserved pulpitum in such churches is sometimes referred to as a rood screen. At Wells Cathedral the medieval arrangement was restored in the 20th century, with the medieval strainer arch supporting a rood, placed in front of the pulpitum and organ. Rood screens can be found in churches in many parts of Europe: the German word for one is Lettner. However, in Catholic countries they were removed during the Counter-reformation, when the retention of any visual barrier between the laity and the high altar was seen as inconsistent with the decrees of the Council of Trent.
Accordingly, rood screens now survive in much greater numbers in Lutheran churches. The iconostasis in Eastern Christian churches is a visually similar barrier, but is now considered to have a different origin, deriving from the ancient altar screen or templon; the word rood is derived from the Saxon word rood or rode, meaning "cross". The rood screen is so called because it was surmounted by the Rood itself, a large figure of the crucified Christ. To either side of the Rood, there stood supporting statues of saints Mary and St John, in an arrangement comparable to the Deesis always found in the centre of an Orthodox iconostasis. Latterly in England and Wales the Rood tended to rise above a narrow loft, which could be substantial enough to be used as a singing gallery; the panels and uprights of the screen did not support the loft, which instead rested on a substantial transverse beam called the "rood beam" or "candle beam". Access was via a narrow rood stair set into the piers supporting the chancel arch.
In parish churches, the space between the rood beam and the chancel arch was filled by a boarded or lath and plaster tympanum, set behind the rood figures and painted with a representation of the Last Judgement. The roof panels of the first bay of the nave were richly decorated to form a celure or canopy of honour; the carving or construction of the rood screen included latticework, which makes it possible to see through the screen from the nave into the chancel. The term "chancel" itself derives from the Latin word cancelli meaning "lattice"; the passage through the rood screen was fitted with doors, which were kept locked except during services. The terms. From this it was concluded by Victorian liturgists that the specification ad pulpitum for the location for Gospel lections in the rubrics of the Use of Sarum referred both to the cathedral pulpitum screen and the parish rood loft. However, rood stairs in English parish churches are if found to have been built wide enough to accommodate the Gospel procession required in the Sarum Use.
The specific functions of the late medieval parish rood loft and above supporting the rood and its lights, remain an issue of conjecture and debate. In this respect it may be significant that, although there are terms for a rood screen in the vernacular languages of Europe, there is no counterpart specific term in liturgical Latin. Nor does the 13th century liturgical commentator Durandus refer directly to rood screens or rood lofts; this is consistent with the ritual uses of rood lofts being a late medieval development. Until the 6th century the altar of Christian churches would have been in full view of the congregation, separated only by a low altar rail around it. Large churches had a ciborium, or canopy on four columns, over the altar, from which hung altar curtains which were closed at certain points in the liturgy. However, following the example of the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, churches began to surround their altars with a colonnade or templon which supported a decorated architrave beam along which a curtain could be drawn to veil the altar at specific points in the consecration of the Eucharist.
In Rome the ritual choir tended to be located west of the altar screen, this choir area was surrounded by cancelli, or low chancel screens. These arrangements still survive in the Roman basilicas of San Clemente and Santa Maria in Cosmedin, as well as St Mark's Basilica in Venice. In the Eastern Church, the templon and its associated curtains and decorations evolved into the modern iconostasis. In the
Pembrokeshire is a county in the southwest of Wales. It is bordered by Carmarthenshire to the east, Ceredigion to the northeast, the sea everywhere else; the county is home to Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, the only national park in the United Kingdom established because of the coastline. Industry is nowadays focused on agriculture and gas, tourism. Mining and fishing were important activities; the county has a diverse geography with a wide range of geological features and wildlife. Its prehistory and modern history have been extensively studied, from tribal occupation, through Roman times, to Welsh and Flemish influences. Pembrokeshire County Council's headquarters are in the county town of Haverfordwest; the council has a majority of Independent members, but the county's representatives in both the Welsh and Westminster Parliaments are Conservative. Pembrokeshire's population was 122,439 at the 2011 census, an increase of 7.2 per cent from the 2001 figure of 114,131. Ethnically, the county is 99 per cent white and, for historical reasons, Welsh is more spoken in the north of the county than in the south.
The county town is Haverfordwest. Other towns include Pembroke, Pembroke Dock, Milford Haven, Tenby, Narberth and Newport. In the west of the county, St Davids is the United Kingdom's smallest city in terms of both size and population. Saundersfoot is the most populous village in Pembrokeshire. Less than 4 per cent of the county, according to CORINE, is green urban. See List of places in Pembrokeshire for a comprehensive list of settlements in Pembrokeshire. There are three weather stations in Pembrokeshire: at Tenby, Milford Haven and Penycwm, all on the coast. Milford Haven enjoys a mild climate and Tenby shows a similar range of temperatures throughout the year, while at Penycwm, on the west coast and 100m above sea level, temperatures are lower. Pembrokeshire, featured twice in the 2016 wettest places in Wales at Whitechurch in the north of the county and Scolton Country Park, near Haverfordwest. Orielton was the tenth driest place in Wales in 2016; the county has on average the highest coastal winter temperatures in Wales due to its proximity to the warm Atlantic Ocean.
Inland, average temperatures tend to fall 0.5 °C for each 100 metres increase in height. The air pollution rating of Pembrokeshire is "Good", the lowest rating; the rocks in the county were formed between 290 million years ago. More recent rock formations were eroded when sea levels rose 80 million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous Period. Around 60 million years ago, the Pembrokeshire landmass emerged through a combination of uplift and falling sea levels; the landscape was subject to considerable change as a result of ice ages. While Pembrokeshire is not a seismically active area, in August 1892 there was a series of pronounced activities over a six-day period; the Pembrokeshire coastline includes sandy beaches. The Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, the only park in the UK established because of its coastline, occupies more than a third of the county; the park contains the Pembrokeshire Coast Path, a near-continuous 186-mile long-distance trail from Amroth, by the Carmarthenshire border in the southeast, to St Dogmaels just down the River Teifi estuary from Cardigan, Ceredigion, in the north.
The National Trust owns 60 miles of Pembrokeshire's coast. Nowhere in the county is more than 10 miles from tidal water; the large estuary and natural harbour of Milford Haven cuts deep into the coast. Since 1975, the estuary has been bridged by the Cleddau Bridge, a toll bridge carrying the A477 between Neyland and Pembroke Dock. Large bays are Fishguard Bay, St Bride's Bay and western Carmarthen Bay. There are several small islands off the Pembrokeshire coast, the largest of which are Ramsey, Skokholm and Caldey. There are many known shipwrecks off the Pembrokeshire coast with many more undiscovered. A Viking wreck off The Smalls has protected status; the county has six lifeboat stations, the earliest of, established in 1822. Pembrokeshire's diverse range of geological features was a key factor in the establishment of the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park and a number of sites of special scientific interest. In the north of the county are the Preseli Hills, a wide stretch of high moorland supporting sheep farming and some forestry, with many prehistoric sites and the probable source of the bluestones used in the construction of the inner circle of Stonehenge in England.
The highest point is Foel Cwmcerwyn at 1,759 feet, the highest point in Pembrokeshire. Elsewhere in the county most of the land is used for farming, compared with 60 per cent for Wales as a whole. Pembrokeshire has a number of seasonal seabird breeding sites, including for razorbill, guillemot