Dalkeith is a town in Midlothian, Scotland, on the River Esk. It was granted a burgh of barony in 1401 and a burgh of regality in 1540; the settlement of Dalkeith grew southwestwards from its 12th-century castle. Dalkeith has a population of 12,342 people according to the 2011 census; the town is split into four distinct areas: Dalkeith proper with its town centre and historic core, with Eskbank to its west. and Woodburn to its east. Eskbank is the well-heeled district of Dalkeith with newer houses. To the south of Eskbank is Newbattle with its abbey. Woodburn is a working class council estate. Dalkeith is the main administrative centre for Midlothian, it is twinned with France. In 2004, Midlothian Council re-paved Jarnac Court in honour of Dalkeith and Jarnac's long standing link. There is an estate called Thornybank on the edge of Dalkeith near the industrial estate beyond, the newly built Dalkeith Campus - housing the high schools of Dalkeith and St David's. Dalkeith is understood to be a Cumbric name, cognate with Welsh ddôl'meadow, valley' + coed'wood'.
One of the earliest historical references to Dalkeith is found in the Chronicles of Jean Froissart who stayed at Dalkeith Castle for fifteen days. He writes of the Battle of Otterburn and the death of James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Douglas: "I, author of this book, in my youth had ridden nigh over all the realm of Scotland, I was fifteen days in the house of earl William Douglas, father to the same earl James, of whom I spake of now, in a castle of five leagues from Edinburgh, called in the country Dalkeith; the same time I saw there this earl James, a fair young child, a sister of his called the lady Blanche." In 1650, Oliver Cromwell's army came to Dalkeith. His officer General George Monck, was Commander in Scotland, the government of the country was based out of Dalkeith castle. In the 17th century, Dalkeith had one of Scotland's largest markets in its exceptionally broad High Street. In 1831, Dalkeith was linked to Edinburgh by a railway line that transported coal and agricultural produce. Two decades in 1853, a Corn Exchange, at the time the largest indoor grain market in Scotland, was built.
In 1879, Dalkeith was where William Ewart Gladstone started his campaign for British Prime Minister, which became known as the "Midlothian Campaign". The Collegiate Church of St Nicholas Buccleuch known as Dalkeith Parish Church, stands on High Street. Dedicated to St Nicholas, this medieval church became a collegiate establishment in 1406, founded by Sir James Douglas; the nave and transepts date from 1854, when the inside of the church was altered. The chancel was abandoned in 1590, walled off from the rest of the church, is now ruinous. Sir James Douglas, 1st Earl of Morton, his wife Joanna, daughter of James I, are buried in the choir and have stone effigies. St Nicholas Buccleuch Church remains one of the two Church of Scotland parish churches in Dalkeith, the other being St John's and King's Park Church; the Episcopal Church, St Mary's is on High Street, at the entrance to Dalkeith Country Park. St David's Church, on Eskbank Road, is the only Roman Catholic church in the town, it is a category A listed building and was built in 1854.
Dalkeith Palace which replaced the castle in the late 16th century and was rebuilt in the early 18th century, lies at the north-east edge of the town. It is a seat of the Duke of Buccleuch, surrounded by parkland and follies; the building on High Street now known as the Tolbooth began to be used as a tolbooth for the administration of the town in the early 18th century. The plaque above the door reads'1648' but this was taken from another building and does not denote when the Tolbooth was built, it served as a place for law and order and featured a prison in the west half, a court room on the east, a dungeon known as the ‘black hole’ below ground. In front of the building there is a circle of stones to mark the spot where the last public hanging in Dalkeith occurred in 1827. Other notable buildings include a Watch Tower at the cemetery, a water tower and early 19th century iron mills. There is a modern Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints meeting house on Newbattle Road. Robert Aitken, bible publisher Sir John Anderson, Home Secretary 1939–1940, Chancellor of the Exchequer 1943–1945 Edmund Thornton Crawford, artist Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville, politician Fish, singer with Marillion Darren Fletcher footballer with Manchester United, West Bromwich Albion and Stoke City John Kay, artist Robert Macpherson, photographer David Mushet, pioneer of iron production Bob Pringle professional golfer Bobby Smith, footballer with Hibernian and Leicester City Robert Smith, American architect James Stagg, meteorologist Peter Guthrie Tait, mathematical physicist Until 2008, Dalkeith was on the A68, one of the main routes south from Edinburgh to Jedburgh and across the border to Darlington.
A bypass to take traffic away from the town centre was completed in September, 2008. Other main roads serving Dalkeith are: A6094 — leads SW towards Bonnyrigg and Peebles, NE towards Musselburgh A768 — leads west from Eskbank to Lasswade and Loanhead B6373 — a road wholly within Dalkeith and rejoining the A6106 B6414 — leaves the A6094 on the NE edge of Dalkeith and leads NE to Tranent B6392 — runs north–south through Eskbank, used to be the route of the A7 which leads from Edinburgh to Galashiels and Hawick B703 — leads
State schools are primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. While such schools are to be found in every country, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programs. State education encompasses primary and secondary education, as well as post-secondary educational institutions such as universities and technical schools that are funded and overseen by government rather than by private entities; the position before there were government-funded schools varied: in many instances there was an established educational system which served a significant, albeit elite, sector of the population. The introduction of government-organised schools was in some cases able to build upon this established system, both systems have continued to exist, sometimes in a parallel and complementary relationship and other times less harmoniously. State education is inclusive, both in its treatment of students and in that enfranchisement for the government of public education is as broad as for government generally.
It is organised and operated to be a deliberate model of the civil community in which it functions. Although provided to groups of students in classrooms in a central school, it may be provided in-home, employing visiting teachers, and/or supervising teachers, it can be provided in non-school, non-home settings, such as shopping mall space. State education is available to all. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to attend school up to a certain age, but the option of attending private school is open to many. In the case of private schooling, schools operate independently of the state and defray their costs by charging parents tuition fees; the funding for state schools, on the other hand, is provided by tax revenues, so that individuals who do not attend school help to ensure that society is educated. In poverty stricken societies, authorities are lax on compulsory school attendance because child labour is exploited, it is these same children whose income-securing labour cannot be forfeited to allow for school attendance.
The term "public education" when applied to state schools is not synonymous with the term "publicly funded education". Government may make a public policy decision that it wants to have some financial resources distributed in support of, it may want to have some control over, the provision of private education. Grants-in-aid of private schools and vouchers systems provide examples of publicly funded private education. Conversely, a state school may rely on private funding such as high fees or private donations and still be considered state by virtue of governmental ownership and control. State primary and secondary education involves the following: compulsory student attendance. In some countries, private associations or churches can operate schools according to their own principles, as long as they comply with certain state requirements; when these specific requirements are met in the area of the school curriculum, the schools will qualify to receive state funding. They are treated financially and for accreditation purposes as part of the state education system though they make decisions about hiring and school policy, which the state might not make itself.
Government schools are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, whereas independent schools charge attendance fees. They can be divided into two categories: selective schools; the open schools accept all students from their government-defined catchment areas. Government schools educate 65% of Australian students, with 34% in Catholic and independent schools. Regardless of whether a school is part of the Government or independent systems, they are required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks of their state or territory; the curriculum framework however provides for some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such as religious education can be taught. Most school students wear uniforms. Public or Government funded; these schools teach students from Year 1 to 10, with examinations for students in years 5, 8, 10. All public schools follow the National Board Curriculum. Many children girls, drop out of school after completing the 5th Year in remote areas. In larger cities such as Dhaka, this is uncommon.
Many good public schools conduct an entrance exam, although most public schools in the villages and small towns do not. Public schools are the only option for parents and children in rural areas, but there are large numbers of private schools in Dhaka and Chittagong. Many Bangladeshi private schools teach their students in English and follow curricula from overseas, but in public schools lessons are taught in Bengali. Per the Canadian constitution, public-school education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and, as such, there are many variations among the provinces. Junior kindergarten exists as an official program in only Ontario and Quebec while kindergarten is available in every province, but provincial funding and the level of ho
Darren Barr Fletcher is a Scottish professional footballer who plays as a central midfielder for Stoke City and the Scotland national team. He has played as a right winger and on occasion in defence. Fletcher came through the ranks of Manchester United's Youth Academy and spent 20 years with United, making 342 appearances for the club. With them, he won five Premier Leagues, one FA Cup, two League Cups, the UEFA Champions League, four FA Community Shields and the FIFA Club World Cup. Fletcher was included in the PFA Premier League Team of the Year for 2009–10, he was named vice-captain in his last season with the club. He joined West Bromwich Albion in February 2015, where he made 97 appearances, before signing for Stoke City in June 2017. Fletcher made his Scotland debut in 2003 and scored his first international goal on his second appearance; the following year, he played as the team's youngest captain for over a century. After Barry Ferguson was banned from international football because of a breach of regulations, Fletcher was given the captaincy on a full-time basis in August 2009.
He scored five goals for Scotland. The middle of Fletcher's career was disrupted by an extended break from football due to continuing health problems caused by ulcerative colitis. Between November 2011 and December 2013, he played only ten times for his club, undergoing in early 2013 an operation to lessen the effects of the condition after a failed return in September 2012. Fletcher was raised in Mayfield near Edinburgh, he was educated at St David's RC High School in Dalkeith. Fletcher played his youth football at Hutchison Vale, Tynecastle Boys Club and Celtic Boys Club before being scouted by Manchester United, he joined Manchester United as a youth player at the age of 11. Fletcher was set to become the youngest player to appear in the Manchester United first-team when he was selected for the club's final fixture of the 1999–2000 FA Premier League season against Aston Villa on 14 May 2000, but Premier League rules prohibited players on schoolboy contracts from appearing at the senior level, Fletcher's debut was delayed.
He subsequently signed a trainee contract in July 2000, before signing his first professional contract on 1 February 2001, his 17th birthday. Meanwhile, he progressed through the club's youth teams, was part of the reserve team that won the Manchester Senior Cup in 1999–2000, he was seen as a right midfielder in the David Beckham mould and was tipped by many to break into the first-team with ease and stay there for many years to come, but as he developed he came to be viewed more as a central midfielder. Over the next couple of seasons, Fletcher's involvement was limited due to various injuries, including a broken foot. By the 2002–03 season, he had become a regular member of the reserve team, after several appearances as an unused substitute, he made his first-team debut on 12 March 2003 – three years behind schedule – starting on the right side of midfield against Basel in the second group stage of the UEFA Champions League, he was substituted for David Beckham after 73 minutes, but a second Champions League appearance followed against Deportivo de La Coruña a week and he was named as a substitute for both legs of the quarter-final tie against Real Madrid.
For his performances for the reserve team during the 2002–03 season, Fletcher received the Denzil Haroun Reserve Player of the Year award. Fletcher broke into the Manchester United team during the 2003–04 campaign, playing a number of important matches and starting in United's FA Cup Final win over Millwall in May 2004. Despite a slow start to the 2004–05 campaign, in which in the early part of the season he made few competitive appearances, Fletcher again broke into the United first-team. On 1 January 2005, Fletcher scored his first goal at club level in a 2–0 win over Middlesbrough. Fletcher was one of the players singled out for criticism by club captain Roy Keane in the wake of United's 4–1 defeat to Middlesbrough in October 2005. Keane said, "I can't understand why people in Scotland rave about Darren Fletcher." However, Keane attempted to set the record straight stating, "If you listen to any of my comments over the last two or three years, if I've given any player credit over the years it would be Fletch.
Fletch will tell you that himself." Fletcher went some way towards answering his critics on 6 November 2005, with his performance in the vital league match at home to Chelsea, scoring the only goal of the game with a looping header. His winning goal ended Chelsea's 40-match unbeaten run in the Premier League. In 2006–07, at the start of the season Fletcher retained a place in the first-team but only on the bench and scored in an away win over Charlton Athletic, as well as scoring the headed winner in the away game with Middlesbrough in December and another headed goal in the home win against Charlton in February, making it a double against the club that season; as the season progressed, Alex Ferguson preferred the midfield quartet of Cristiano Ronaldo, Paul Scholes, Michael Carrick and Ryan Giggs, limiting Fletcher to a few substitute appearances. However, with Scholes absent through suspension, he made a starring appearance in United's 7–1 win over Roma in the Champions League quarter-final.
In the 2007–08 season, with the arrival at the club of fellow central midfielders Owen Hargreaves and Anderson and winger Nani, Fletcher played less than he did during the previous season. As before, Ferguson preferred Carrick, Scholes and Ronaldo to him in midfield, got less playing time than the new arrivals, he did, put in some stalwart performances when given the chance, including two goals in the 4–0 defeat of Ar
Special education is the practice of educating students in a way that addresses their individual differences and needs. Ideally, this process involves the individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials, accessible settings; these interventions are designed to help individuals with special needs achieve a higher level of personal self-sufficiency and success in school and in their community which may not be available if the student were only given access to a typical classroom education. Special education includes learning disabilities, communication disorders and behavioral disorders, physical disabilities, developmental disabilities and many other disabilities. Students with these kinds of disabilities are to benefit from additional educational services such as different approaches to teaching, the use of technology, a adapted teaching area, or a resource room. Intellectual giftedness is a difference in learning and can benefit from specialized teaching techniques or different educational programs, but the term "special education" is used to indicate instruction of students with disabilities.
Gifted education is handled separately. Whereas special education is designed for students with learning disabilities, remedial education can be designed for any students, with or without special needs. For example people of high intelligence can be under-prepared if their education was disrupted, for example, by internal displacement during civil disorder or a war. In most developed countries, educators modify teaching methods and environments so that the maximum number of students are served in general education environments. Therefore, special education in developed countries is regarded as a service rather than a place. Integration can improve academic achievement for many students; the opposite of special education is general education. General education is the standard curriculum supports. Students receiving special education services can sometimes enroll in a General education setting to learn along with students without disabilities; some children are identified as candidates for special needs due to their medical history.
For example, they may have been diagnosed with a genetic condition, associated with intellectual disability, may have various forms of brain damage, may have a developmental disorder, may have visual or hearing disabilities, or other disabilities. On the other hand, for students with less obvious disabilities, such as those who have learning difficulties, two primary methods have been used for identifying them: the discrepancy model and the response to intervention model; the discrepancy model depends on the teacher noticing that the students' achievements are noticeably below what is expected. At which the teacher may make the decision for the student to receive support from a special education specialist. Before doing so, the teacher must show documentation of low academic achievement; the response to intervention model advocates earlier intervention. In the discrepancy model, a student receives special education services for a specific learning difficulty if the student has at least normal intelligence and the student's academic achievement is below what is expected of a student with his or her IQ.
Although the discrepancy model has dominated the school system for many years, there has been substantial criticism of this approach among researchers. One reason for criticism is that diagnosing SLDs on the basis of the discrepancy between achievement and IQ does not predict the effectiveness of treatment. Low academic achievers who have low IQ appear to benefit from treatment just as much as low academic achievers who have normal or high intelligence; the alternative approach, response to intervention, identifies children who are having difficulties in school in their first or second year after starting school. They receive additional assistance such as participating in a reading remediation program; the response of the children to this intervention determines whether they are designated as having a learning disability. Those few who still have trouble may receive designation and further assistance. Sternberg has argued that early remediation can reduce the number of children meeting diagnostic criteria for learning disabilities.
He has suggested that the focus on learning disabilities and the provision of accommodations in school fails to acknowledge that people have a range of strengths and weaknesses and places undue emphasis on academics by insisting that students should be supported in this arena and not in music or sports. A special education program should be customized to address each individual student's unique needs. Special educators provide a continuum of services, in which students with various disabilities receive multiple degrees of support based on their individual needs, it is crucial for special education programs to be individualized so that they address the unique combination of needs in a given student. In the United States and the UK, educational professionals use a student's Individualized Education Program. Another name for a student's Individualized Education Plan is a student's Individual Learning Pl
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k