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St Edward's Sapphire

St Edward's Sapphire is an octagonal, rose-cut sapphire that forms part of the British Crown Jewels. Its history is older than any other gemstone in the royal collection; the stone is thought to have been in the coronation ring of Edward the Confessor, known as St Edward, who ascended the throne of England in 1042, twenty-four years before the Norman conquest. Edward, one of the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England, was buried with the ring at Westminster Abbey in 1066, it was reputedly taken from the ring when Edward's body was re-interred at Westminster Abbey in 1163. How the gem survived the English Civil War in the 17th century is not clear, but it was most re-cut into its present form for Charles II after the restoration of the monarchy. Queen Victoria added the jewel to the Imperial State Crown, giving it a leading role in the centre of the cross at the top of the crown, where it remains today in the similar crown worn by Queen Elizabeth II. St Edward's Sapphire is on public display with the other Crown Jewels in the Jewel House at the Tower of London

Historic Chapels Trust

The Historic Chapels Trust is a British Registered Charity set up to care for redundant non-Anglican churches and places of worship in England. To date, its holdings encompass various nonconformist Christian denominations and Roman Catholic sites. Established in 1993, the Trust takes into ownership buildings of exceptional architectural and historic significance that are no longer used by their congregations. In practice this means buildings listed II * by English Heritage, it was founded in response to the large number of places of worship that were being demolished or destroyed by insensitive conversion and it remains the only body with this mission in England. Once acquired, the buildings are repaired and restored, available for new secular, community uses; the places of worship can be of other than the Anglican Church. To date they have included Nonconformist chapels of the Methodist, Baptist, Lutheran denominations, two Congregationalist chapels, two Quaker meeting houses and four Roman Catholic churches.

The Trust has the power to take synagogues and non-Christian places of worship but in spite of negotiations has not yet done so. The Trust arranges for the chapels to be open to the public at advertised times, wherever possible it introduces disabled access, its policy is that the chapels should be used for community activities, including concerts, conferences and any other activity compatible with conservation of the building. The Trust encourages the use of the buildings for services of worship. At about half of its sites the Trust has formed a volunteer local committee to organise events, arrange occasional services of worship. At others it engages volunteers as key-holders. Whenever possible and appropriate, the Trust installs modern heating and lighting and toilets. In 2012 the Trust declared a moratorium on rescuing new sites unless they are donated together with endowment funds, a policy it will review if finances allow. Executive Directors of the Trust were Dr. Jenny Freeman 1993 – 2011.

On her retirement Dr Freeman was awarded an OBE for her services to heritage. Roland Jeffery held the post of Director 2013–2018; the Trust receives no direct government grant. Its resources are won from English Heritage, the Heritage Lottery Fund, money earned by events at the buildings, grants from trusts and foundations, legacies from Supporters and donations from individuals and Patrons; this is in contrast with the larger Churches Conservation Trust, which received 70 percent of its funding from the Department for Culture and Sport, the Church of England but which can only take into care Anglican buildings. The Trust is a secular UK operates only in England. Since 2015 the President of the Trust is the Rt Hon Lord Beith. In 2018 the charity announced that because of the uncertainty of future funding the Trust's office would close with immediate effect and its work would be managed on its behalf by the Churches Conservation Trust, an Anglican not for profit organisation. In spite of its meagre resources the Trust has to date rescued 20 properties.

Some have been semi-derelict buildings, such as the Dissenters' Chapel in Kensal Green Cemetery, Salem Chapel in East Budleigh, Devon. Some chapels are in remote locations, such as Biddlestone Chapel in Northumberland, Farfield Friends Meeting House in West Yorkshire, Penrose Methodist Chapel in Cornwall. Others are in urban areas, such as Wallasey Memorial Unitarian Church in Merseyside, St George's German Lutheran Church in London; some are small and simple and elaborate buildings, such as the Bethesda Methodist Chapel in Hanley, Todmorden Unitarian Church in West Yorkshire, Umberslade Baptist Church in the West Midlands, the Shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes in Blackpool, Lancashire. During the first 13 years of its existence, the Trust won ten architectural awards, including a Europa Nostra Award for the Dissenters' Chapel. Churches Conservation Trust, the equivalent body for redundant Anglican churches Friends of Friendless Churches, a similar body for churches in Wales and for those turned down by the Churches Conservation Trust A This is the date of first construction of the existing building.

Historic Chapels Trust official site

Cliff Arnebeck

Clifford O. "Cliff" Arnebeck, Jr. is a national co-chair and attorney for the Alliance for Democracy. The son of an officer in the Bureau of Finance, Post Office Department, he graduated B. A. Wesleyan University in 1967 and received a J. D. from Harvard Law School in 1970. He first worked for Ohio Bell in Cleveland, Ohio and in the legal department for the American Electric Power Company before joining the Jones, Day law firm in Columbus, Ohio, he opened a private practice in Ohio. In 1990, he unsuccessfully contested the Republican Party primary election in Ohio's 15th District against 12-term congressman Chalmers Wylie. Arnebeck was a leader in the Ohio campaign for Ross Perot's failed 1992 presidential bid. Questioning the micromanagement of the campaign by Perot's staff in Houston, Arnebeck challenged its legitimacy in a Washington press conference before the election In 1996 Arnebeck ran for Congress as a Democrat against Wylie's successor, GOP Congresswoman Deborah Pryce. and once again lost by a large margin.

Disturbed at what he perceived as the behind the scenes manipulation of the political system, he filed a suit and challenged the Ohio Chamber of Commerce's financing of the campaign in 2000 to defeat Justice Alice Robie Resnick, a Democrat. Arnebeck sought to act as a legal watchdog during elections; the handling of the 2004 presidential election by the state administration prompted him to represent groups challenging the legitimacy of the state's vote count in a lawsuit, known as "Moss v. Bush", dismissed by the court at the plaintiffs' request following the acceptance of Ohio's electoral votes by the U. S. House and Senate on January 6, 2005. However, some believe that scrutiny brought by the lawsuit led to the abandonment of what they claimed was ongoing voting machine fraud. Ohio's Secretary of State filed a motion for sanction against the plaintiffs, alleging that the claim in Moss v. Bush was meritless, did not meet the standards of evidence required by law, was brought only for partisan political purposes.

The court held that Arnebeck's allegations in the contest of the presidential election were "at best improbable and defamatory and devoid of logic," but declined to impose sanctions on Arnebeck. Since Arnebeck has focused on what he claims is the fraudulent use of electronic voting machines in elections, a main issue in the 2004 suit, as the major threat to American elections; when the former Bush campaign operative Michael Connell died in a 2008 light aircraft crash in Ohio after being deposed by Arnebeck in his on-going suits on the 2004 election, Arnebeck felt that Karl Rove and others in the Bush 2004 campaign might be linked to the crash. On 26 July 2016, Arnebeck posted an open letter to President Obama & Vice President Biden claiming that Karl Rove helped Hillary Clinton win the 2016 Democratic Primary through voting machine hacks and other election fraud tactics; as of August 4th, 2016, Arnebeck believes his current witnesses are at risk since he believes that at least two of his past witnesses, former state legislative candidate Beverly Campbell and Congresswoman Stephanie Tubbs Jones, were assassinated.

In an interview, Arnbeck stated: "I don’t have to prove, what I have to prove is the election stealing, which I can do. The reason it’s important to make people aware of the assassinations is that, the cover-up. Another one of my witnesses, there was another attempt on her life. Now if I lose all my inside witnesses I can’t prove my election case, and they know that, I know that, one of the ways to protect my ability to prove the election stealing is to make the public aware of the assassination business so that there will be some protection. Having the FBI director as corrupt, he might as well be viewed as the conciliary of the global criminal cabal that’s behind all this stuff. So here’s the guy who’s supposed to be investigating the crime and he’s part of the crime, he’s an actor in the crime, he has a real conflict of interest, and the attorney general has a real conflict of interest, the President has a gun to his head in effect. So, I don’t know what to say, you talk about assassinations you get labeled a conspiracy theorist, but if I don’t talk about assassinations they just keep doing it, keep getting away with it, the cover-up goes on.

That is the key to the cover-up: no potential witnesses where they could testify."In a 25 July 2016 letter to Vice President Joe Biden, Arnebeck suggested that Biden's son, former Delaware Attorney General Beau Biden, who died of brain cancer in 2015 after many years of treatment, was assassinated. American Dream Radio: Cliff Arnebeck, lead counsel for the voters' lawsuit in Ohio which seeks to reverse the election outcome because of widespread voting irregularities, he explains about the lawsuit, discusses some of the voter suppression tactics used, talks about the expected course of the legal wrangling. 19 Dec. 2004 at 9:25 a.m. Pacifica Radio: Cliff Arnebeck claims how the Ohio vote was rigged C-SPAN video: Cliff Arnebeck, National Co-Chairman for the Alliance for Democracy and counsel in a lawsuit challenging the presidential election in Ohio, discusses the legal challenges to the 2004 vote in Ohio. 12/2/2004: WASHINGTON, DC: 30 min. 2004 United States election voting controversies Moss v. Bush

University of the State of New York

The University of the State of New York is the state of New York's governmental umbrella organization for both public and private institutions in New York State. The "university" is not an educational institution: it is, in fact, a licensing and accreditation body that sets standards for schools operating in New York State, from pre-kindergarten through professional and graduate school, as well as for the practice of a wide variety of professions; the group of people who make decisions about and for USNY is known as the New York State Board of Regents. The Board of Regents of the USNY was established by statute on May 1, 1784, to provide oversight to King's College – today known as Columbia University – a private institution, other colleges and academies incorporated in the state thereafter. On April 13, 1787, the legislature enacted a law that allowed individual educational institutions to have their own trustees and gave the Regents broader responsibilities for overseeing education in New York.

The new law empowered the Regents to "visit and inspect all the colleges and schools" in the state, award higher academic degrees and distribute funds, exercise other powers of a corporation. Early in the 19th century, the Regents established standards for incorporating private academies and colleges, including specifying the texts or subjects that academies must teach to qualify for state aid. Aid was restricted to those students. To combat the problem of academies lowering their standards in order to attract students and get state aid, during the nineteenth century the Regents developed and instituted educational standards for high schools statewide, through use of the Regents examinations and syllabi; the legislature gave the Regents responsibility for the New York State Library and New York State Museum in 1844 and 1845 and in 1889 and 1892 expanded the USNY's responsibilities to include the incorporation and supervision of all libraries, correspondence schools, other educational institutions.

An 1872 statute authorized the Regents to appoint examining and licensing boards in the state's medical schools, in 1890 the Regents were given the exclusive power to license physicians. Starting in 1890, the Secretary to the Board of Regents – Melvil Dewey head of the State Library – supervised full-time inspectors of secondary schools, libraries and other institutions reporting to the Regents. Starting in 1910, private trade schools were required to be licensed and inspected, in 1923 licensing requirements were extended to correspondence schools operating in the state. In 1948, New York State established a system of support organizations known as Boards of Cooperative Educational Services across the state; the head of each BOCES, known as the District Superintendent, acts as the New York State Commissioner of Education's, by extension, the Chancellor of the Board of Regents', field representative. A key former initiative of the Board of Regents, created to better bring higher education to New York State's nontraditional adult learners, was the Board of Regents' Regents External Degree Program, or REX, which became Regents College in 1984 and the separate and independent Excelsior College in 1998–2001.

This program was an outgrowth of the practice of giving World War II veterans school and college credit in recognition of their military education and experience. In 1963 the Regents introduced College Proficiency Examinations, now called Excelsior College Examinations to help teachers and nurses complete educational requirements. First named the "Regents External Degree Program," it was established in 1971 with financial support from the Ford and Carnegie Foundations. Degrees could be granted based on a combination of college proficiency exams and classroom and correspondence courses, or on a variety of exams alone; the first degrees were conferred in 1972. This program became independent of the Education Department in 1991 but continued to be governed by the Board of Regents until 1998, at which time it separated from the Board of Regents to become a private, independent college; the school, prohibited by the terms of its "independence" agreement from continuing to use the name Regents College, adopted the name Excelsior College in 2001.

Excelsior College is now a constituent member of USNY in the same way, in only the same way, that other institutions of higher education in New York State are. Like them, it has Board of Trustees; the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York oversees USNY. The Board includes 17 members elected by the New York State Legislature for five-year terms. Thirteen of the Regents represent the state's 13 judicial districts, four are at-large; the Regents serve without salary. USNY's affiliation and oversight are broad; as a legal technicality, USNY includes all of the state's more than 7,000 public and private elementary and secondary schools. Included in USNY are the State Archives. Additionally, USNY has the affiliation of, oversight for, more than half a million professionals practicing in 58 licensed professions, ranging from accountancy to architecture to engineering to massage therapy to hair styling, as well as 200,000 public certified school teachers, counselo

Boris Parygin

Boris Dmitrievitch Parygin was a Soviet and Russian philosopher and one of the founders of social psychology and member of a wide range of international academies. Parygin was a specialist in a sphere of philosophical and psychological problems of social psychology – its history, methodology and praxeology. Parygin was born in USSR, where he survived the Siege of Leningrad. After school he attended Saint Petersburg State University. In 1961 he defended a theses about a problem of the social mood. In 1967 defended a doctoral theses Social Psychology as a science. After graduation he was teaching philosophy at Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical Academy. In 1965, Saint Petersburg State University publishing house had released Parygin’s first monograph "Social Psychology as a Science", which became a bibliographical rarity. In 1967, a revised edition of the monograph was translated into Czech and Spanish. From 1968 Parygin was at the head of the Philosophy Department of a Herzen University. There he created the laboratory of the social and psychologic studies and social psychology faculty, the first one in the Soviet Union.

Many first-rate scientists lectured there and books edited by Boris Parygin were published. In 1971, Parygin's work titled. In his book, Parygin presented the concept of the main social and psychological problems and first of all—the question of personality and human communication; this book drew a wide response in a scientific sphere of abroad. The monograph was republished in Japan. At the meeting of Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Parygin was called a leader of international revisionism of Marxism because of his independent interpretation, he was accused of the intention to substitute Marxist philosophy by the Philosophy of Personality. Due to this, he had got a different job in a Social and Economic Problems Institute, where he organized and led the department of socio-psychologic problems of the labor collectives; the results of his work have found reflection in his books The Scientific-Technical Revolution and personality, “Social and psychological climate of the collective”, Social psychology of territorial self-government and others.

Parygin was the head of the Research Committee of a Social Association, coordinated international researches within a Comecon. He was the author of 10 prominent monographs and more than 400 articles, which were translated into many foreign languages. Main publications: Socio-Psychological Climate of a Collective. 1981.. Scientific and Technical Revolution and Personality. Moscow, 1978. – 249. P.. The Basics of Socio-Psychological Theory. Moscow, 1971. – 352 p.. Public Opinion. Moscow. 1966. – 328 p.. The Science of Social Psychology. L. – 208. 1965.. Articles: Parygin B. D; the subject matter of social psychology // American Psychologist. Vol. 19. May 1964, p. 342-349. Parygin B. D. On the subject of social psychology // Joint publications research Number: AD0405666. 16 apr.1963. Washington D. C Boris Parygin Foundation WorldCat. B. D. Parygin Большая биографическая энциклопедия на Академике B. D. Parygin. 8 works Social Psychology in the Soviet Union, by Levy Rahmani, 1973 Parygin, B. D. University of Notre Dame Boris Parygin's obituary

HIV/AIDS in Pakistan

HIV is recognized as a health concern in Pakistan with the number of cases growing. Moderately high drug use and lack of acceptance that non-marital sex is common in the society have allowed the HIV epidemic to take hold in Pakistan among injection drug users, male and transvestite sex workers as well as the repatriated migrant workers. HIV infection can lead to AIDS; the table above shows the sample distribution of high risk group done by the NACP. The National AIDS Programme’s latest figures show that by the mid of first decade in new millennium, the number of HIV cases have increased to 0,102 million; this number was estimated little over 4,000, as the HIV cases reported since 1986. The UN and government estimated the number of HIV/AIDS cases around 97,000 ranging from a lowest estimate of 46,000 to a highest estimate of 210,000. More realistic estimates that are based on actual surveillance figures, suggest that this number may be closer to 40,000–45,000; the overall prevalence of HIV infection in adults aged 15 to 49 is 0.1%..

Officials say that the majority of cases go unreported due to social taboos about sex and victims’ fears of discrimination. The other reason for all the cases not being reported is that HIV is a disease either not systematically tested for or reported in the routine surveillance system. HIV epidemic evolves in three phases. First phase is low prevalence, when prevalence of the disease is less than 5% in any high-risk group of the country. Second phase is concentrated epidemic when proportion of infected people in any high-risk group rises more than 5%. Third and last phase of epidemic is generalized epidemic when prevalence of HIV infection rises over 1% among blood donor or pregnant women. Like other Asian countries, Pakistan is following a comparable HIV epidemic trend having moved from ‘low prevalence, high risk’ to ‘concentrated’ epidemic in the early to mid-2000s. Pakistan’s epidemic is concentrated among two of the key population groups driving the epidemic in the country; these are people who inject drugs, with a national prevalence of 27.2%.

The prevalence in female sex workers still remains low at 0.6%. The geographic trend of key populations is from major urban cities and provincial capitals, expanding over time to smaller cities and peripheries. Pakistan faced a low prevalence phase of epidemic from 1987 to 2003; this may have been due to lack of formal surveillance systems, although no study found significant HIV in any group until 2002. In 2003, an outbreak of HIV among injection drug users in one city heralded the onset of HIV epidemic in the country. Since different studies and the national HIV surveillance have confirmed an escalating epidemic among IDUs and more among male and transgender sex workers; the national average prevalence of HIV among IDUs is nearly 20%. Several cities show concentrated epidemic among MSWs/ TSWs as well. However, as mentioned that HIV is taken as stigma in a culture such as that of Pakistan; this along with the absence of routine surveillance and testing for HIV in the health system, ascertaining the actual number will remain a challenge.

Other groups that have HIV among them are truck drivers, expatriated migrant workers and wives of IDUs. However, the incidence rate are not known for the reasons mentioned above. Two studies of men from the general population: Faisel and Cleland and A Study of Bridging Populations show no HIV and few STIs in this group. A study of women attending labor and delivery clinics in 4 cities had shown no HIV and rare STIs. Furthermore blood donor screening data all over the country are suggesting low HIV infection in the blood donor population, albeit with some increasing trends in selected centers. A number of factors may have contributed to keeping the overall transmission of HIV within the general population. One, Pakistan is a predominantly Muslim country with near universal circumcision. Secondly, taboos on sex may have led to a higher proportion of the need for non-marital sex to be met via sex between men, much from a smaller group of men within each person's acquaintance; some of this is suggested by the fact that about 45% of all sex acts sold are by either male or transgender sex workers.

These factors may have led to a high rate of HIV transmission among MSM/MSW networks but may slow down the transmission of HIV to the rest of the population. The low prevalence rate overall may be taken as a window of opportunity, still available and actions to curb any further disease spread should be roboust. However, it is worth mentioning that data is reported from the public sector health facilities. While, the current health seeking behaviours and health system forces majority of the population to the private sector. A major factor that must be accounted for in the overall HIV transmission scenario is the rampant use of therapeutic injections with non-sterile injection equipment. There are an estimated 800 million therapeutic injections given annually in Pakistan or 4.5 per capita. This is among the highest in the World. A small but significant proportion of these are reused; this has led to the prevalence of Hepatitis C infection to become >5% nationwide, although this seems to have stabilized at a national level.

Conservatively this suggests around 150,000 new HCV infections annually, leading to the conclusion that HIV can potentially spread via this route as