Florey, Australian Capital Territory
Florey is a residential suburb of the Belconnen district of Canberra, located within the Australian Capital Territory, Australia. Florey was gazetted on 5 August 1975 and most houses were constructed in the mid-1980s. A minor industrial area was located in the suburb prior to residential development; the suburb itself is named after Howard Florey, Baron Florey, who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 for his role in the extraction of penicillin. The streets of Florey are named after Australian scientists. Florey is the closest suburb to the Belconnen Town Centre, has its own shopping centre, on the corner of Kesteven Street and Ratcliffe Crescent; the shopping centre displays a bronze plaque explaining the significance of Lord Florey's life and work. The suburb supports three schools, the Catholic St. Francis Xavier College and St John's Primary, Florey Primary School; the suburb has a large town centre with a variety of shops. Florey Medical Centre is a small local clinic.
For the purposes of Australian federal elections for the House of Representatives, Florey is in the Fenner. For the purposes of Australian Capital Territory elections for the ACT Legislative Assembly, Florey is in the Ginninderra electorate. Going from the north east corner to the south west, bands of the following rocks, all of Silurian age, make up the geology of Florey: Green grey dacite and quartz andesite of the Hawkins Volcanics The Deakin Fault Calcareous shale from the Yass Subgroup green grey and purple rhyodacite purple rhyodacite pink rhyolite purple-pink rhyolite ABC Canberra suburbs: Florey
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of called programs; these programs enable computers to perform an wide range of tasks. A "complete" computer including the hardware, the operating system, peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system; this term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices; this includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. The Internet is run on computers and it connects hundreds of millions of other computers and their users.
Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century; the first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The speed and versatility of computers have been increasing ever since then. Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element a central processing unit, some form of memory; the processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices include input devices, output devices, input/output devices that perform both functions. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known use of the word "computer" was in 1613 in a book called The Yong Mans Gleanings by English writer Richard Braithwait: "I haue read the truest computer of Times, the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, he reduceth thy dayes into a short number." This usage of the term referred to a human computer, a person who carried out calculations or computations. The word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. During the latter part of this period women were hired as computers because they could be paid less than their male counterparts. By 1943, most human computers were women. From the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations; the Online Etymology Dictionary gives the first attested use of "computer" in the 1640s, meaning "one who calculates". The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the use of the term to mean "'calculating machine' is from 1897."
The Online Etymology Dictionary indicates that the "modern use" of the term, to mean "programmable digital electronic computer" dates from "1945 under this name. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years using one-to-one correspondence with fingers; the earliest counting device was a form of tally stick. Record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi which represented counts of items livestock or grains, sealed in hollow unbaked clay containers; the use of counting rods is one example. The abacus was used for arithmetic tasks; the Roman abacus was developed from devices used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC. Since many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented. In a medieval European counting house, a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid to calculating sums of money; the Antikythera mechanism is believed to be the earliest mechanical analog "computer", according to Derek J. de Solla Price.
It was designed to calculate astronomical positions. It was discovered in 1901 in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, has been dated to c. 100 BC. Devices of a level of complexity comparable to that of the Antikythera mechanism would not reappear until a thousand years later. Many mechanical aids to calculation and measurement were constructed for astronomical and navigation use; the planisphere was a star chart invented by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in the early 11th century. The astrolabe was invented in the Hellenistic world in either the 1st or 2nd centuries BC and is attributed to Hipparchus. A combination of the planisphere and dioptra, the astrolabe was an analog computer capable of working out several different kinds of problems in spherical astronomy. An astrolabe incorporating a mechanical calendar computer and gear-wheels was invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan, Persia in 1235. Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī invented the first mechanical geared lunisolar calendar astrolabe, an early fixed-wired knowledge processing machine with a gear train and gear-wheels, c. 1000 AD.
The sector, a calculating instrument used for solving problems in proportion, trigonometry and division, for various functions, such as squares and cube roots, was developed in
Society of Saint Vincent de Paul
The Society of St Vincent de Paul is an international voluntary organization in the Catholic Church, founded in 1833 for the sanctification of its members by personal service of the poor. Innumerable Catholic parishes have established "conferences", most of which affiliate with a diocesan council. Among its varied efforts to offer material help to the poor or needy, the Society has thrift stores which sell donated goods at a low price and raise money for the poor. There are a great variety of outreach programs sponsored by the local conferences and councils, addressing local needs for social services; the Society of St. Vincent de Paul was founded in 1833 to help impoverished people living in the slums of Paris, France; the primary figure behind the Society's founding was Blessed Frédéric Ozanam, a French lawyer and professor in the Sorbonne. Frédéric collaborated with Emmanuel Bailly, editor of the Tribune Catholique, in reviving a student organization, suspended during the revolutionary activity of July 1830.
Ozanam was 20 years old. He was beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1997. Emmanuel Bailly was chosen as the first President; the Society took Saint Vincent de Paul as its patron under the influence of Sister Rosalie Rendu, DC. Sister Rosalie, beatified in November 1999 by Pope John Paul II, was a member of the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, earlier known for her work with people in the slums of Paris, she his companions in their approach towards those in need. SVP expanded outside Paris in the mid-19th century and received benefactors in places such as Tours where figures such as the Venerable Leo Dupont, known as the Holy Man of Tours, became collaborators; the Society is part of the Vincentian Family which includes two congregations founded by St. Vincent de Paul – the Congregation of the Mission with Vincentian priests and brothers and the Ladies of Charity – along with the Sisters of Charity in the Setonian tradition and several others, including some religious groups that are part of the Anglican Communion like the Company of Mission Priests.
Servant of God Fr. Ignatius Spencer from London came to know the Society in visits to Paris. Parisian Monsieur Baudon, who would assume the presidency of SVDP in 1847, visited London in 1842 and persuaded Spencer to write about the Society in the Catholic Magazine. In January 1844 M. Pagliano, a London restaurateur and recent convert to Catholicism, gathered 13 Catholic men and the first English SVP conference was founded. Early initiatives included the formation of the Catholic Shoe Black Brigade, providing boys with gainful employment and the first home of “the Rescue Society” which under various names still offers child care in many dioceses. In 2013 there were more than 10,000 members in more than 1,000 Conferences in the United Kingdom, making over 500,000 recorded visits annually to more than 100,000 people; the Society’s first Conference in the United States was established in 1845 in St. Louis, Missouri, at the Basilica of St. Louis King of France, or "Old Cathedral". Fr. John Timon, CM, had learned of the Society while visiting with his Vincentian superiors in Paris.
From Dublin, Ireland, he brought to St. Louis copies of the SVP Rule. On November 16, 1845, Bishop Peter Richard Kenrick dedicated the new St. Vincent de Paul church on South Eighth Street and invited Timon to preach. Timon discussed the Society in his sermon, in the presence of prominent laymen who took hold of the idea and held an organizational meeting on November 20, 1845; the Conference included Dr. Moses Linton, founder of the St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal, as chair Judge Bryan Mullanphy who would become mayor of St. Louis. Bishop Kenrick appointed Fr. Ambrose Heim as spiritual advisor to the Conference. Father Gerald Ward was born in London in 1806 and was recruited for the Melbourne mission by the pioneering father bishop, Patrick Geoghegan. Ward was familiar with SVP from London and, observing the plight of the poor after the Victorian gold rush, established the Society in Australia in 1854. Ward helped establish the SVP orphanage in South Melbourne. Charles O'Neill, an engineer and parliamentarian who had led the Society in Scotland, established it in Sydney.
Fr. Chataigner, SM, established the first Conference in New Zealand in July 1867, but did not affiliate with the Council-General in Paris; the first to affiliate was the Wellington Conference founded in 1908 by Fr. Petitjean, SM, Charles O'Neill, followed by other Conferences out of Wellington. Charles Gordon O'Neill was born in Glasgow in 1828, he graduated as a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Upon graduation he had joined the Society of St Vincent de Paul, he was secretary at Dumbarton in 1851. He led the St Vincent de Paul Society in the Western Districts of Scotland between 1859 and 1863. By 1863 he was president of the Superior Council of Glasgow and a member of the Council-General in Paris. SVP came to Mumbai in 1862 when the Conference of Our Lady of Hope, was established at the cathedral by the future bishop Fr. Leo Meurin, S. J. With the closure of the cathedral in 1942, the Conference was transferred to the Church of Our Lady of Health, Cavel. Meurin established a Conference at St. Teresa, Girgaum, in 1862, four more in Mumbai in 1863: St. Peter, Bandra.
The Society is active in southern India, headquartered in Kerala. The Society numbers about 800,000 members in some 140 countries worldwide, whose members operate through "conferences". A Conference may be based out of a church, community center, etc. and is composed of Catholic volunteers who pursue their own Christian growth i
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, computer science, others. Robotics deals with the design, construction and use of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, information processing; these technologies are used to develop machines that can substitute for humans and replicate human actions. Robots can be used in many situations and for lots of purposes, but today many are used in dangerous environments, manufacturing processes, or where humans cannot survive. Robots can take on any form but some are made to resemble humans in appearance; this is said to help in the acceptance of a robot in certain replicative behaviors performed by people. Such robots attempt to replicate walking, speech and anything a human can do. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature; the concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow until the 20th century.
Throughout history, it has been assumed by various scholars, inventors and technicians that robots will one day be able to mimic human behavior and manage tasks in a human-like fashion. Today, robotics is a growing field, as technological advances continue. Many robots are built to do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, finding survivors in unstable ruins, exploring mines and shipwrecks. Robotics is used in STEM as a teaching aid; the advent of nanorobots, microscopic robots that can be injected into the human body, could revolutionize medicine and human health. Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design and operation of robots; this field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics and bioengineering. The word robotics was derived from the word robot, introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R. U. R., published in 1920. The word robot comes from the Slavic word robota; the play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots, creatures who can be mistaken for humans – similar to the modern ideas of androids.
Karel Čapek himself did not coin the word. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef Čapek as its actual originator. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Liar!", published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction. Asimov was unaware. In some of Asimov's other works, he states that the first use of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround, where he introduced his concept of The Three Laws of Robotics. However, the original publication of "Liar!" Predates that of "Runaround" by ten months, so the former is cited as the word's origin. In 1948, Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of the basis of practical robotics. Autonomous only appeared in the second half of the 20th century; the first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them.
Commercial and industrial robots are widespread today and used to perform jobs more cheaply and more reliably, than humans. They are employed in some jobs which are too dirty, dangerous, or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are used in manufacturing, assembly and packaging, transport and space exploration, weaponry, laboratory research and the mass production of consumer and industrial goods. There are many types of robots. For example, a robot designed to travel across heavy dirt or mud, might use caterpillar tracks; the mechanical aspect is the creator's solution to completing the assigned task and dealing with the physics of the environment around it. Form follows function. Robots have electrical components. For example, the robot with caterpillar tracks would need some kind of power to move the tracker treads; that power comes in the form of electricity, which will have to travel through a wire and originate from a battery, a basic electrical circuit. Petrol powered machines that get their power from petrol still require an electric current to start the combustion process, why most petrol powered machines like cars, have batteries.
The electrical aspect of robots is used for movement and operation (robots need some level of electrical energy supplied to their motors and sensors in order to activate and perform b
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Canberra and Goulburn
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Canberra – Goulburn is a Latin Rite archdiocese located in the Australian Capital Territory, the South West Slopes, Southern Tablelands and the South Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. Erected in 1948, the archdiocese is attached to the Archdiocese of Sydney but directly subject to the Holy See. St. Christopher's Cathedral at Manuka is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Canberra – Goulburn. On 12 September 2013 it was announced that the Bishop of Sale, Christopher Prowse, had been appointed as the next Archbishop of Canberra and Goulburn. Archbishop Prowse was installed on 19 November 2013; the diocese of Goulburn was established in 1864 to serve the needs of the scattered rural, overwhelmingly Irish, Catholics of the south coast, southern highlands and south-west slopes of New South Wales. On 5 February 1948 the diocese was redesignated an archdiocese; the following individuals have served as Roman Catholic Bishop of Goulburn: The following individuals have served as Roman Catholic Archbishop of Canberra – Goulburn: St Christopher's was built as the first parish church in Canberra by the first priest, Father Patrick Haydon, although the beginnings of Catholic life in the district go back to 1862 when the Diocese of Goulburn was erected.
The parish was part of St Gregory's Parish, until 1912. Following the erection of the Diocese of Wagga Wagga in 1918, the parish was transferred to the Diocese of Goulburn. A foundation stone was laid by Archbishop Kelly in 1927 for a school; the following year St Christopher's became an independent parish with the first classes taught in the adjacent school, the open day attended by the Prime Minister, Bruce. In 1930 a large cathedral was proposed for the site behind Regatta Point, but economic circumstances and World War II made this impractical. A foundation stone for the cathedral was laid in 1938 by Archbishop of Sydney Gilroy in a ceremony which included Joseph Lyons and James Scullin; the choice of St Christopher as patron saint was selected on the basis that Canberra would be a place to which many travellers would come. In the presence of Robert Menzies, the Apostolic Delegate, Archbishop Panico, opened the parish church in 1939; the first ordination in St Christopher's Church took place in 1947 when Vivian Morrison, the son of the pioneering Morrison family of Tralee Queanbeyan, was ordained to the priesthood.
The following year, the Archdiocese of Canberra was created and St Christopher's became a pro-cathedral. When Archbishop Eris O'Brien took up residence in Canberra it became a co-cathedral with St Peter and St Paul, Goulburn. St Christopher's was extended to twice its size; this work, which retained the stained glass windows of the original church, was completed in 1973 according to plans developed by Clement Glancy, son of the original architect. The plans for the enlarged church included the bell tower, Blessed Sacrament Chapel, large sacristies and a crypt; the extensions were consecrated by Archbishop Cahill and the extended St Christopher's became the cathedral church of the Archdiocese of Canberra and Goulburn, superseding St Peter and St Paul, Goulburn. In June 2008, under the direction of Archbishop Mark Coleridge, the cathedral was refurbished to mark the diamond jubilee of the archdiocese; the cathedral has had three Catholic prime ministers as regular parishioners. The present pipe organ was built by Hill, Norman & Beard from Melbourne and was used by St James' Anglican Church, King Street, while their organ was being rebuilt.
Its size was doubled when installed on the gallery in 1972. There are 1100 metal pipes contained in two cases on either side of the rose window. In 2010 it was reported that the archdiocese planned to commence a A$35 million redevelopment of the precinct surrounding St Christopher's Cathedral, to include church offices and aged care units. In subsequent media reports, the diocese entered into an agreement with the ACT Government to exchange land held by the church in Braddon to fund the redevelopment of the cathedral site. However, a proposed listing of St Patrick's Church in Braddon on the register of the Heritage Council may mean that the redevelopment may not proceed. Archbishops Eris O'Brien and Thomas Cahill are buried in the crypt of the cathedral; the official residence of the Archbishop is in Canberra, at Regatta Point, Parkes, ACT. It was opened on 8 April 1930, during the time of Bishop John Barry; the foundation stone at the front is inscribed in Latin. At the time of its erection, it would have overlooked the valley of the Molonglo River with views to Parliament House to the south.
The house is on a hill at the south-eastern side of the road fly-over of Commonwealth Avenue and Parkes Way. When Lake Burley Griffin was built in the 1960s road access became more difficult, as the driveway if at an off-ramp of Parkes Way to Commonwealth Avenue; the archdiocese is divided into five separate deaneries which administer individual parishes: The Central Deanery covers the Australian Capital Territory with parishes located in the Canberra suburbs of Manuka, Campbell, Canberra Central, Evatt, Kaleen, Kippax, North Woden, O'Connor, South Tuggeranong (
The District of Gungahlin is one of the original eighteen districts of the Australian Capital Territory used in land administration. The district is subdivided into divisions and blocks. Gungahlin is an Aboriginal word meaning either "white man's house" or "little rocky hill"; as of 2013 Gungahlin comprised eleven suburbs, including three under construction and a further seven suburbs planned. The town of Gungahlin was part of the original 1957 plan for future development in the ACT and in 1991 was launched as Canberra’s fourth ‘town’ by the ACT Chief Minister. At the time, the population of Gungahlin was just 389 residents. According to the 2016 census, the population of the district was 70,871, a increase from 46,971 in the 2011 census; this figure is expected to rise to 83,167 by the year 2020. Within the district is Canberra's northernmost town centre, situated 10 kilometres north of Canberra city centre; the town centre is one of five satellites of Canberra, seated in Woden, Weston Creek and Belconnen.
The traditional custodians of the district are the indigenous people of the Ngunawal tribe. Following the transfer of land from the Government of New South Wales to the Commonwealth Government in 1911, the district was established in 1966 by the Commonwealth via the gazettal of the Districts Ordinance 1966 which, after the enactment of the Australian Capital Territory Act 1988, became the Districts Act 1966; this Act was subsequently repealed by the ACT Government and the district is now administered subject to the Districts Act 2002. During colonial times and up until the late 1960s, present-day Gungahlin was part of the former farmlands of Ginninderra. Ginninderra Village and still the village of Hall serviced the needs of the local farming community. Free settlers included farming families such as the Rolfe, Shumack and Gribble families; these settlers established wheat and sheep properties such as'Weetangara','Gold Creek','The Valley','Horse Park' and'Tea Gardens'. Much of the local produce supplied the large workforce at goldfields located at Braidwood and Major's Creek in New South Wales.
The district is a set of contiguous residential and industrial suburbs that surround a town centre, together with undeveloped pastoral leases that border with the state of New South Wales to the north, north-east and east. The suburbs are divided from the surrounding districts of Belconnen to the west and south-west, Canberra Central to the south, Majura to the south-east, Hall to the north-west; the main industrial suburb of the district is Mitchell. At the 2011 census, there were 46,971 people in the Gungahlin district, of these 49.4 per cent were male and 50.6 per cent were female. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 1.2 per cent of the population, lower than the national and territory averages. The median age of people in the Gungahlin district was 31 years, lower than the national median of 37 years. Children aged 0 – 14 years made up 24.6 per cent of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 4.7 per cent of the population. Of people in the area aged 15 years and over, 54.8 per cent were married and 9.1 per cent were either divorced or separated.
Population growth in the Gungahlin district between the 2001 census and the 2006 census was 35.6 per cent. When compared with total population growth of Australia for the same periods, being 5.78 per cent and 8.32 per cent population growth in Gungahlin district was higher than the national average. The median weekly income for residents within the Gungahlin district was nearly double the national average, higher than the territory average. At the 2011 census, the proportion of residents in the Gungahlin district who stated their ancestry as Australian or Anglo-Saxon exceeded 70 per cent of all residents. In excess of 40 per cent of all residents in the Gungahlin district nominated a religious affiliation with Christianity at the 2011 census, lower than the national average of 50.2 per cent. Meanwhile, as at the census date, compared to the national average, households in the Gungahlin district had a higher than average proportion where two or more languages are spoken. Asterisk indicates undeveloped suburbs as of 2018.
The primary mode of transport within the district is by private vehicle. Despite continued discussion about the preference for sustainable public transport light rail, Gungahlin's development is still guided by a philosophy of reliance on private personal transport and an extensive road network; the ACTION bus service provides public transport throughout Canberra and is the only form of scheduled public transport in the Gungahlin district. Services from the various suburbs pass through a bus interchange located at the Gungahlin Town Centre from where they continue to Civic as well as other town centres in Canberra's south; some services operate direct to the Belconnen Town Centre. The Gungahlin bus interchange is located in Hibberson Street; the route 200 Red Rapid limited stops express service from the Gungahlin Interchange to Civic, the office precincts of Barton and Russell and Fyshwick runs every 15 minutes between 7am and 7pm on weekdays. On Saturdays and Sundays, route 200 runs between Civic only.
Construction of a light rail network linking the Gungahlin Town Centre to Civic is underway. The project is intended to address peak-ho
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k