Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Linden Park, South Australia
Linden Park is a suburb of Adelaide, South Australia in the City of Burnside. It derives its name from the Linden Tree. Many of its streets are named after British First Sea Lords and admiralty, such as: Hood st: Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood Keyes st: Roger Keyes, 1st Baron Keyes Sturdee st: Doveton Sturdee Jellicoe st: John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe Beatty st: David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty Wemyss st: Rosslyn Wemyss, 1st Baron Wester Wemyss Hay Rd: Lord John Hay
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
History of Burnside
The history of Burnside, a local government area in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia, spans three centuries. Burnside was inhabited by the Kaurna Indigenous people prior to European settlement, living around the creeks of the River Torrens during the winter and in the Adelaide Hills during the summer; the area was first settled in 1839 by Peter Anderson, a Scots migrant, who named it Burnside after his property's location adjacent to Second Creek. The village of Burnside was established shortly after, the District Council of Burnside was gazetted in 1856, separating itself from the larger East Torrens Council; the mainstays of the early Burnside economy were viticulture and olive groves. The present council chambers were built in 1926 in Tusmore. With strong growth and development throughout the region, Burnside was proclaimed a city in 1943; the 1960s brought to Burnside a swimming centre. Today, Burnside is one of Adelaide's most upper-class and sought-after regions in; the village of Kensington was established in May 1839, only 29 months after the foundation of the colony.
The village was agricultural and had a close relationship with the nearby village of Norwood. The two villages formed one of Adelaide's first municipalities in 1853 as the Town of Norwood and Kensington, evolving into today's City of Norwood Payneham St Peters. Parts of Kensington that are now included in Burnside are the suburbs of Kensington Gardens and Kensington Park; the village of Makgill was first established as the 524-acre Makgill Estate, owned by two Scots—Robert Cock and William Ferguson—who met on board the Buffalo en route to the newly founded colony. It was named after David M Makgill. Ferguson, charged with farming the estate, built the estate's homestead in 1838. Soon after farming started, the two were short of funds, thus Magill became the first foothills village to be subdivided; the village of Glen Osmond was associated with the discovery of silver and lead on the slopes of Mount Osmond by two Cornish immigrants. Their discovery of minerals provided the colony with valuable export income, at a time when the early South Australian economy was not yet established and facing bankruptcy.
Governor Gawler visited the early discovery and the first mine, Wheal Gawler, was named in his honour. South Australia's first mine exported overseas throughout the 1840s, providing employment to early Cornish and German immigrants after several mines were bought by a German businessman; the early village assumed a strong Cornish, a German character. Mining declined after an exodus of workers when a gold rush began in 1851 in the neighbouring colony of Victoria; the Anderson family was the first to settle the land, to become the village of Burnside. They brought with them good character testimonials from Scotland, valuable farming experience and 3000 pounds; the Andersons moved on to Morphett Vale in 1847, abandoning their homestead. The buyer of the Anderson land, William Randell, soon decided to build a village in his new property in 1849, he hired planner Nathan Hailes to lay out the new village. Hailes was both surprised and disappointed when he found that it had been settled and left—especially since the growth and adaptation of European foliage to the area.
The first villages to be established in the region, those of Glen Osmond and Kensington had existed for some time when the new village of Burnside was proclaimed. The new village was in a good position to grow; the village was soon attracting residents. The village was described in advertisements by Hailes in 1850 as "Burnside the Beautiful" with advantages of "perpetual running water and diversified view, rich garden soil and good building stone..." with a "... direct, newly-opened and unblemished route to Adelaide". All the villages in what was to become the Burnside District Council were in the District Council of East Torrens of 159 km2. East Torrens bordered the River Torrens in the north, the Adelaide Hills to the east, Mount Barker Road to the south, the Adelaide Parklands to the west. East Torrens was gazetted in 1853 by the District Councils Act 1852. Dr David Wark, James Cobbledick, Charles Bonney, Daniel Ferguson and George Müller were the council's first representatives. Bonney, in addition to being a councillor, was the Commissioner of Crown Lands.
The councillors met for the first time at World's End Hotel in Magill on 12 June 1853. Initial plans were put in place to first survey and evaluate the council area and to collect licence fees and taxes as provided for by the Councils Act. TB Penfold of Magill, a former captain, was to become the first District Clerk and Collector on 1 January 1854. On 4 January 1854 there was a vote in which ratepayers decided on how much they would pay to the council.
City of Burnside
The City of Burnside is a local government area in the South Australian city of Adelaide stretching from the Adelaide Parklands into the Adelaide foothills with an area of 2,753 hectares. It was founded in August 1856 as the District Council of Burnside, the name of a property of an early settler, was classed as a city in 1943; the LGA is bounded by Adelaide, Adelaide Hills Council, Mitcham, Norwood Payneham and St Peters and Unley. A residential upper middle class area, Burnside has little to no industrial activity and a small commercial sector. Over 257 hectares of its area is dedicated to Parks and Reserves, the result being one of the greenest areas in Adelaide, it was one of the first areas outside of Adelaide to be settled, with the early villages of Magill, Burnside and Glen Osmond now inner suburbs. At the 2006 census, the City had a SEIFA score of 1108, the highest figure for any local government area in South Australia — individual CCD scores ranged from 909 in eastern Glenside to 1194 in Stonyfell.
Burnside was inhabited by the Kaurna Indigenous people prior to European Settlement, with the natives living around the creeks of the River Torrens during the summer months and living in the Adelaide Hills during the wintertime. The area was first settled in 1839 by Peter Anderson, a Scots migrant, who named it Burnside after his property's location adjacent to Second Creek; the Village of Burnside was established shortly thereafter and the District Council of Burnside was gazetted in 1856, being separated from the larger East Torrens Council. The council's first chairman was Dr. C. R. Penfold of Penfolds Wines fame. Beaumont House, a historic structure, was constructed for the first bishop of Adelaide, Augustus Short, during 1851. Wineries and olive groves were the mainstay of an early Burnside economy; the first council chamber was designed by chairman George Soward and built in 1869 by Thomas Hill and William Yateman. The present Council Chambers were built in 1927/8 in Tusmore, with the council becoming a municipality in 1935.
With strong growth and development throughout the region, Burnside was proclaimed a city in 1943. The 1960s' brought to Burnside a community library and a swimming centre, both were further expanded and upgraded between 1997 and 2001. Burnside has an area of 2,753 hectares and is located from the east to the south-east of the Adelaide city centre and parklands, extending east to the Cleland Conservation Park in the Mount Lofty Ranges. Two creeks of the River Torrens run through a sloping plain from the ranges. Before European Settlement in South Australia, much of the Adelaide Plains were woodland. In what became Burnside, plains leading out to Unley hosted the large Black Forest of Grey Box woodland. To the north and the floodplains of First and Second Creeks, there were Blue Gums and River Red Gums. Nearer to the foothills, in Mount Osmond and Waterfall Gully, a more diverse range of plant species existed, however Manna Gums and Blue Gums were predominant. With colonisation, much of the native foliage was cut down to enable crops and grazing.
Market Gardens in the Adelaide Hills lowered the amount of water flowing down the creeks and some of the Hills Face was used for quarrying. Early crops included olives, grapes for winemaking and barley. Over the years agriculture declined and only vineyards survive today in Magill and Waterfall Gully. With new suburbs being gazetted in the 20th century, the Burnside Council undertook ambitious tree-planting and conservation schemes to slow and reverse the negative impact on the natural environment. 190 hectares of the council area is held in reserves and parks and some 35,000 trees line the streets. A'Second Generation Tree Planting Program' has been underway since 1993. Notable parks and reserves include Langman Reserve and Hazelwood Park; the Burnside city council is divided into the following wards: Kensington Park Kensington Gardens & Magill Burnside Beaumont Eastwood & Glenunga Rose Park & Toorak Gardens Burnside library is the only public library in the city of Burnside. It is part of the civic centre.
The library is open seven days a week, from 9.30am-6pm on weekdays, except Thursday when it closes at 9pm, on the weekend from 10am-4pm on Saturday and 2pm-5pm on Sunday. For State Government Burnside is part of the Electoral Districts of Adelaide, Morialta, Heysen and Unley. Bragg takes in most of the city. Liberal strength is strongest in the wealthy hills suburbs to the south-east around Beaumont and weakest around Norwood in the north where the Labor Party dominates. Before their catastrophic collapse in recent years, the Democrats polled impressive results in the western near-city suburbs; the Greens gained much of the previous Democrats vote in recent elections. Bragg has been held by Vickie Chapman, Shadow Attorney-General of the State Liberal Party, since 2002. Burnside forms the southern part of the Federal Division of Sturt, which takes in much of Adelaide's eastern suburbs, stretchin
Burnside, South Australia
Burnside is a small, upper class suburb, part of the City of Burnside in the eastern suburbs of Adelaide. It is a residential suburb, was one of the first suburbs of Adelaide, it was named Burnside, an amalgamation of the Scottish word for creek, "burn" and "side" because of the original property's location on the side of Second Creek. Burnside is 5 km east of the Adelaide city centre. Burnside was established and named by Peter Anderson and his family who emigrated from Scotland in 1839. Anderson started a large farm on leased land near Second Creek; the farm had a large number of animals including pigs and cattle as well as barley and wheat crops. By the 1870s the area had developed into a small village. Burnside Post Office had opened on 21 July 1863. There are a number of parks but most noticeably bordering several that are shared with other suburbs; the Burnside Swimming Centre is located in nearby Hazelwood Park. Langman Reserve is part of both Burnside and Waterfall Gully and the large Newland Park has several ovals.
The Feathers Hotel, a Georgian style pub, is located within the suburb. It is home to a State government school. A number of churches in various denominations including Baptist and Anglican call the suburb home. Burnside is a upper class suburb. Owing to being one of Adelaide's first suburbs, there are many grand historic homes located within the area. A significant number of its residents own houses that are situated on the hills which offer impressive views of the city. In the 2016 Census, there were 2,930 people in Burnside. 63.3% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 6.7% and China 6.1%. 71.6% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin at 8.0%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 36.3%, Catholic 18.4% and Anglican 14.2%. George Aiston and ethnographer Dorrit Black, artist Jimmy Melrose, aviator Christopher Pyne, federal MP and Liberal frontbencher, a former student of Burnside Primary Sydney Talbot Smith, freelance journalist and civic worker List of Adelaide suburbs City of Burnside