A sundial is a device that tells the time of day by the apparent position of the Sun in the sky. In the narrowest sense of the word it consists of a flat plate, as the sun appears to move across the sky, the shadow aligns with different hour-lines which are marked on the dial to indicate the time of day. The style is the edge of the gnomon, though a single point or nodus may be used. The gnomon casts a shadow, the shadow of the style shows the time. The gnomon may be a rod, a wire or a decorated metal casting. The style must be parallel to the axis of the Earths rotation for the sundial to be throughout the year. The styles angle from horizontal is equal to the geographical latitude. In a broader sense a sundial is any device that uses the suns altitude or azimuth to show the time, in addition to their time-telling function, sundials are valued as decorative objects, as literary metaphors and as objects of mathematical study. It is common for inexpensive mass-produced decorative sundials to have incorrectly aligned gnomons and hour-lines, there are several different types of sundials.
Some sundials use a shadow or the edge of a shadow while others use a line or spot of light to indicate the time, the shadow-casting object, known as a gnomon, may be a long thin rod or other object with a sharp tip or a straight edge. Sundials employ many types of gnomon, the gnomon may be fixed or moved according to the season. It may be oriented vertically, aligned with the Earths axis, given that sundials use light to indicate time, a line of light may be formed by allowing the suns rays through a thin slit or focusing them through a cylindrical lens. A spot of light may be formed by allowing the suns rays to pass through a hole or by reflecting them from a small circular mirror. Sundials may use many types of surfaces to receive the light or shadow, planes are the most common surface, but partial spheres, cylinders and other shapes have been used for greater accuracy or beauty. Sundials differ in their portability and their need for orientation, the installation of many dials requires knowing the local latitude, the precise vertical direction, and the direction to true North.
Portable dials are self-aligning, for example, it may have two dials that operate on different principles, such as a horizontal and analemmatic dial, mounted together on one plate, in these designs, their times agree only when the plate is aligned properly. Sundials indicate the solar time, unless corrected for some other time. To obtain the clock time, three types of corrections need to be made
Tynemouth is a town and a historic borough in Tyne and Wear, England at the mouth of the River Tyne. The modern town of Tynemouth includes North Shields and Cullercoats and had a 2011 population of 67,519 and it is administered as part of the borough of North Tyneside, but until 1974 was an independent county borough, including North Shields, in its own right. It had a population of 17,056 in 2001, the population of the Tynemouth ward of North Tyneside was at the 2011 Census 10,472. Its history dates back to an Iron Age settlement and its position on a headland over-looking the mouth of the Tyne continued to be important through to the Second World War. Its historic buildings, dramatic views and award-winning beaches attract visitors from around the world, the heart of the town, known by residents as The village, has popular coffee-shops and restaurants. It is an area with comparatively expensive housing stock, ranging from Georgian terraces to Victorian ship-owners houses to 1960s executive homes.
It is represented at Westminster by the Labour MP Alan Campbell, the headland towering over the mouth of the Tyne has been settled since the Iron Age. The Romans may have occupied it as a station, though it is north of the Hadrians Wall frontier. In the 7th century a monastery was built there and fortified, three kings are reputed to have been buried within the monastery, King of Deira, Osred II, King of Northumbria, for a time, Malcolm III, King of Scots. Three crowns still adorn the North Tyneside coat of arms, the queens of Edward I and Edward II stayed in the Castle and Priory while their husbands were campaigning in Scotland. King Edward III considered it to be one of the strongest castles in the Northern Marches, after the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, Edward II fled from Tynemouth by ship. A village had long established in the shelter of the fortified Priory. This led to a dispute between Tynemouth and the more powerful Newcastle over shipping rights on the Tyne which continued for centuries, prince Rupert of the Rhine landed at Tynemouth in August 1642 on his way to fight in the English Civil War.
Tynemouth has a very moderated oceanic climate influenced by its position adjacent to the North Sea. As a result of this, summer highs are subdued and according to the Met Office 1981–2010 data around 18 °C, as a consequence of its marine influence, winter lows especially are very mild for a Northern English location. Sunshine levels of 1515 hours per annum are in the range for the coastal North East. In the late 18th century, sea-bathing became fashionable in Tynemouth from its east-facing beaches, King Edwards Bay and Tynemouth Longsands are very popular with locals and tourists alike. Priors Haven is a beach within the mouth of the Tyne
Pockley is a small village and civil parish in the Ryedale district of North Yorkshire, England. It is about 1 mile north-east of Helmsley turning north from the A170 road and its short, winding lane passes no less than six thatched cottages in a quarter mile before turning back toward the A170 and its junction at Beadlam and Nawton. The Grade II-listed church of St John the Baptist was built in 1870, the chancel screen and other furnishings were provided by Temple Moore in 1898-99 and rood beam figures by Lang of Oberammergau. The churchs very unusual heating system was based on the Roman Hypocaust, warm air came through underfloor ducts from a coke-fired stove beneath the church. Originally the fuel for the stove was carried through a 25-foot brick-lined tunnel on a railway which is still in existence. The hot air heating system was restored in 2012 and for the first time in over 60 years the Church is now warm for services, media related to Pockley at Wikimedia Commons http, //www. docbrown. info/docspics/helmsley/hspage12.
htm, accessed 22 May 2013
Local ecumenical partnership
In England and Wales, a local ecumenical partnership is a partnership between churches of different denominations. First piloted in 1964, over 850 now exist to promote unity between different Christian denominations, the missiologist David Bosch in his Transforming Mission recognised ecumenism as the most recent paradigm of mission emerging from the worldwide Church. The main thrust of ecumenism is that despite the theological and cultural differences evident between denominations, the mission of any local Church is made effective through a united witness. In some cases this has meant that a Christian presence has been retained in areas where neither denomination would be able to continue on its own, materials from organisations with a strong ecumenical emphasis, such as the Iona Community and Taizé, are evidence of this. As a result of the Anglican-Methodist Covenant and Methodists are committed to working in partnership with an end goal of achieving full visible unity. Church of England Measure 1988 When the United Reformed Church is the church in an English village United Reformed Church, ecumenical expectations Churches Together in England
The Saxon sundial at St Gregorys Minster, near Kirkbymoorside, North Yorkshire, England is an ancient canonical sundial which dates to the mid 11th century. The panel containing the actual sundial above the doors is flanked by two panels, bearing a rare inscription in Old English, the language of the Anglo-Saxons. The sundial itself is inscribed + ÞIS IS DÆGES SOLMERCA + / ÆT ILCVM TIDE þis is dæges solmerca and this is the days sun-marker, at every tide. And at the bottom of the panel is the line +7 HAǷARÐ ME ǷROHTE7 BRAND / PRS and Hawarð me wrohte. And Haward wrought me and Brand priest, the reference is to Edward the Confessor and Earl Tostig, Edwards brother-in-law, who was the son of Earl Godwin of Wessex and the brother of Harold. Tostig held the Earldom of Northumbria from 1055 to 1065, fixing the date of the reconstruction to that decade. He is known for the murder of Gamal, Orms father, the language of the inscription is late Old English, with a failing case and gender system. The compound solmerca is otherwise unattested in English, and has ascribed to Scandinavian influence.
David Scott and Mike Cowham Time Reckoning in the Medieval World – A study of Anglo – Saxon, great Britain, British Sundial Society 2010, pp. 46–46. Richard Fletcher, St. Gregorys Minster Kirkdale, The Joint Church Council,1990. James Lang, The Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Stone Sculpture and Eastern Yorkshire, How long did the Scandinavian language survive in England. The epigraphical evidence, In Clemoes and Hughes, England before the Conquest, Studies in primary sources presented to Dorothy Whitelock. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press 1971, pp. 165–181, S. A. J. Bradley, Orm Gamalsons Sundial, The Lilys Blossom and the Roses Fragrance. Kirkdale, Trustees of the Friends of St Gregorys Minster,2002, the Kirkdale Sundial Retrieved February 2012
Tynemouth Castle and Priory
Tynemouth Castle is located on a rocky headland, overlooking Tynemouth Pier. The moated castle-towers and keep are combined with the ruins of the Benedictine priory where early kings of Northumbria were buried, the coat of arms of the town of Tynemouth still includes three crowns commemorating the tradition that the Priory had been the burial place for three kings. Little is known of the history of the site. Some Roman stones have been there, but there is no definite evidence that it was occupied by the Romans. The Priory was founded early in the 7th century, perhaps by Edwin of Northumbria, in 651 Oswin, king of Deira was murdered by the soldiers of King Oswiu of Bernicia, and subsequently his body was brought to Tynemouth for burial. He became St Oswin and his burial place became a shrine visited by pilgrims and he was the first of the three kings buried at Tynemouth. In 792 Osred II, who had been king of Northumbria from 789 to 790 and he was buried at Tynemouth Priory. Osred was the second of the three buried at Tynemouth.
The third king to be buried at Tynemouth was Malcolm III, king of Scotland, the kings body was sent north for reburial, in the reign of his son Alexander I, at Dunfermline Abbey, or possibly Iona. In 800 the Danes plundered Tynemouth Priory, and afterwards the monks strengthened the fortifications sufficiently to prevent the Danes from succeeding when they attacked again in 832, however, in 865 the church and monastery were destroyed by the Danes. At the same time, the nuns of St Hilda, who had there for safety, were massacred. The priory was plundered by the Danes in 870. The priory was destroyed by the Danes in 875, the small parish church of St Mary remained. Earl Tostig made Tynemouth his fortress during the reign of Edward the Confessor, by that time, the priory had been abandoned and the burial place of St Oswin had been forgotten. According to legend, the St Oswin appeared in a vision to Edmund, a novice, the saint showed Edmund where his body lay and so the tomb was re-discovered in 1065.
Tostig was killed at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066 and so was not able to re-found the monastery as he had intended. In 1074 Waltheof II, Earl of Northumbria, last of the Anglo-Saxon earls, granted the church to the monks of Jarrow together with the body of St Oswin, monks were sent from St Albans in 1090 to colonise the new monastery. However, when the abbot of St Albans visited in 1093, Prior Thurgot of Durham met him, William Rufus held St. Oswin in great reverence
Many cultures devoted considerable resources to their sacred architecture and places of worship. Religious and sacred spaces are amongst the most impressive and permanent monolithic buildings created by humanity, sacred architecture as a locale for meta-intimacy may be non-monolithic and intensely private and non-public. Sacred and holy structures often evolved over centuries and were the largest buildings in the world, while the various styles employed in sacred architecture sometimes reflected trends in other structures, these styles remained unique from the contemporary architecture used in other structures. With the rise of Abrahamic monotheisms, religious buildings increasingly became centres of worship, the Western scholarly discipline of the history of architecture itself closely follows the history of religious architecture from ancient times until the Baroque period, at least. Sacred geometry and the use of sophisticated semiotics such as signs, Sacred and/or religious architecture is sometimes called sacred space.
Architect Norman L. Koonce has suggested that the goal of sacred architecture is to make transparent the boundary between matter and mind and the spirit, Richard Kieckhefer suggests that entering into a religious building is a metaphor for entering into spiritual relationship. Sacred architecture spans a number of ancient architectural styles including Neolithic architecture, ancient Egyptian architecture, ancient religious buildings, particularly temples, were often viewed as the dwelling place, the temenos, of the gods and were used as the site of various kinds of sacrifice. Ancient tombs and burial structures are examples of architectural structures reflecting religious beliefs of their various societies. The Temple of Karnak at Thebes, Egypt was constructed across a period of 1300 years, ancient Egyptian religious architecture has fascinated archaeologists and captured the public imagination for millennia. Around 600 BCE the wooden columns of the Temple of Hera at Olympia were replaced by stone columns, with the spread of this process to other sanctuary structures a few stone buildings have survived through the ages.
Greek architecture preceded Hellenistic and Roman periods, since temples are the only buildings which survive in numbers, most of our concept of classical architecture is based on religious structures. The Parthenon which served as a building as well as a place for veneration of deity, is widely regarded as the greatest example of classical architecture. Indian architecture is related to the history and religions of the time periods as well as to the geography, the diversity of Indian culture is represented in its architecture. Indian architecture comprises a blend of ancient and varied native traditions, with building types and technologies from West, Central Asia, buddhist architecture developed in South Asia beginning in the third century BCE. Two types of structures are associated with early Buddhism and stupas, an existing example is at Nalanda. The initial function of the stupa was the veneration and safe-guarding of the relics of the Buddha, the earliest existing example of a stupa is in Sanchi.
In accordance with changes in practice, stupas were gradually incorporated into chaitya-grihas. These reached their highpoint in the first century BCE, exemplified by the cave complexes of Ajanta, the pagoda is an evolution of the Indian stupa that is marked by a tiered tower with multiple eaves common in China, Korea and other parts of Asia
Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor, known as Saint Edward the Confessor, was among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England, and usually considered the last king of the House of Wessex, ruling from 1042 to 1066. When Edward died in 1066, he was succeeded by Harold Godwinson, Edgar the Ætheling, who was of the House of Wessex, was proclaimed king after the Battle of Hastings in 1066, but never ruled and was deposed after about eight weeks. As discussed below, historians disagree about Edwards fairly long reign and his nickname reflects the traditional image of him as unworldly and pious. Confessor reflects his reputation as a saint who did not suffer martyrdom, some portray this kings reign as leading to the disintegration of royal power in England and the advance in power of the House of Godwin, because of the infighting after his heirless death. About a century later, in 1161, Pope Alexander III canonised the late king, Saint Edward was one of Englands national saints until King Edward III adopted Saint George as the national patron saint c.
His feast day is 13 October, celebrated by both the Church of England and the Catholic Church in England and Wales, Edward was the seventh son of Æthelred the Unready, and the first by his second wife, Emma of Normandy. Edward was born between 1003 and 1005 in Islip, and is first recorded as a witness to two charters in 1005 and he had one full brother, and a sister, Godgifu. In charters he was always listed behind his older half-brothers, showing that he ranked behind them, during his childhood England was the target of Viking raids and invasions under Sweyn Forkbeard and his son, Cnut. Following Sweyns seizure of the throne in 1013, Emma fled to Normandy, followed by Edward and Alfred, Sweyn died in February 1014, and leading Englishmen invited Æthelred back on condition that he promised to rule more justly than before. Æthelred agreed, sending Edward back with his ambassadors, Æthelred died in April 1016, and he was succeeded by Edwards older half-brother Edmund Ironside, who carried on the fight against Sweyns son, Cnut.
According to Scandinavian tradition, Edward fought alongside Edmund, as Edward was at most thirteen years old at the time, Edmund died in November 1016, and Cnut became undisputed king. Edward again went into exile with his brother and sister, in the same year Cnut had Edwards last surviving elder half-brother, executed, leaving Edward as the leading Anglo-Saxon claimant to the throne. Edward spent a quarter of a century in exile, probably mainly in Normandy and he probably received support from his sister Godgifu, who married Drogo of Mantes, count of Vexin in about 1024. In the early 1030s Edward witnessed four charters in Normandy, signing two of them as king of England, Edward was said to have developed an intense personal piety during this period, but modern historians regard this as a product of the medieval campaign for his canonisation. In Frank Barlows view in his lifestyle would seem to have been that of a member of the rustic nobility. He appeared to have a slim prospect of acceding to the English throne during this period, Cnut died in 1035, and Harthacnut succeeded him as king of Denmark.
It is unclear whether he was intended to have England as well and it was therefore decided that his elder half-brother Harold Harefoot should act as regent, while Emma held Wessex on Harthacnuts behalf. In 1036 Edward and his brother Alfred separately came to England, Alfred was captured by Godwin, Earl of Wessex who turned him over to Harold Harefoot
A listed building or listed structure, in the United Kingdom, is one that has been placed on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. The statutory bodies maintaining the list are Historic England in England, Cadw in Wales, Historic Scotland in Scotland, the preferred term in Ireland is protected structure. In England and Wales, an amenity society must be notified of any work to a listed building which involves any element of demolition. Owners of listed buildings are, in circumstances, compelled to repair and maintain them. When alterations are permitted, or when listed buildings are repaired or maintained, slightly different systems operate in each area of the United Kingdom, though the basic principles of the listing remain the same. It was the damage to caused by German bombing during World War II that prompted the first listing of buildings that were deemed to be of particular architectural merit. The listings were used as a means of determining whether a building should be rebuilt if it was damaged by bombing.
Listing was first introduced into Northern Ireland under the Planning Order 1972, the listing process has since developed slightly differently in each part of the UK. In the UK, the process of protecting the historic environment is called ‘designation’. A heritage asset is a part of the environment that is valued because of its historic. Only some of these are judged to be important enough to have legal protection through designation. However, buildings that are not formally listed but still judged as being of heritage interest are still regarded as being a consideration in the planning process. Almost anything can be listed – it does not have to be a building and structures of special historic interest come in a wide variety of forms and types, ranging from telephone boxes and road signs, to castles. Historic England has created twenty broad categories of structures, and published selection guides for each one to aid with assessing buildings and these include historical overviews and describe the special considerations for listing each category.
Both Historic Scotland and Cadw produce guidance for owners, in England, to have a building considered for listing or delisting, the process is to apply to the secretary of state, this can be done by submitting an application form online to Historic England. The applicant does not need to be the owner of the building to apply for it to be listed, full information including application form guidance notes are on the Historic England website. Historic England assesses buildings put forward for listing or delisting and provides advice to the Secretary of State on the architectural, the Secretary of State, who may seek additional advice from others, decides whether or not to list or delist the building. In England and Wales the authority for listing is granted to the Secretary of State by the Planning Act 1990, Listed buildings in danger of decay are listed on the Historic England Heritage at Risk Register
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning administration. When now used in a sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. This structure of governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese and it can be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese. An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese, an archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance. The archbishop may have authority over any other suffragan bishops. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the bishopric is used to describe the bishop himself. Especially in the Middle Ages, some bishops held political as well as religious authority within their dioceses, in the organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. With the adoption of Christianity as the Empires official religion in the 4th century, a formal church hierarchy was set up, parallel to the civil administration, whose areas of responsibility often coincided.
With the collapse of the Western Empire in the 5th century, a similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was largely retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division, modern usage of diocese tends to refer to the sphere of a bishops jurisdiction. As of January 2015, in the Catholic Church there are 2,851 regular dioceses,1 papal see,641 archdioceses and 2,209 dioceses in the world, in the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy. Eastern Orthodoxy calls dioceses metropoleis in the Greek tradition or eparchies in the Slavic tradition, after the Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as provinces and this usage is relatively common in the Anglican Communion.
Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics and these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory. The Lutheran Church-International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure and its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes. The Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States, in the COGIC, each state is divided up into at least three dioceses that are all led by a bishop, but some states as many as seven dioceses
Vale of Pickering
The Vale of Pickering is a low-lying flat area of land in North Yorkshire, England. It is drained by the River Derwent, the landscape is rural with scattered villages and small market towns. It has been inhabited continuously from the Mesolithic period, the present economy is largely agricultural with light industry and tourism playing an increasing role. The Vale of Pickering is a plain, orientated in an east–west direction. The east–west-orientated main roads in the follow the shoreline of the glacial lake. The main A169 road crosses the vale in a direction, joining the market towns of Malton. At the eastern edge of the vale the A165 carries traffic along a coastal route through Scarborough. The main line crosses the eastern part of the vale from south to north west linking Malton to Scarborough and the east coast rail line links Scarborough to Filey. There is a railway from Pickering to Grosmont with connections to Whitby. Administratively, the Vale of Pickering lies largely in the Ryedale District Council area with an area to the east lying in Scarborough District.
As part of the United Kingdom, the Vale of Pickering generally has cool summers, weather conditions vary from day to day as well as from season to season. Between depressions there are often small mobile anticyclones that bring periods of fair weather, in winter anticyclones bring cold dry weather. In summer the anticyclones tend to bring dry settled conditions which can lead to drought, for its latitude this area is mild in winter and cooler in summer due to the influence of the Gulf Stream in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Air temperature varies on a daily and seasonal basis, the temperature is usually lower at night and January is the coldest time of the year with an average maximum of 5.8 degrees Celsius. July is usually the warmest month with an maximum of 19.4 degrees Celsius. Average annual rainfall is 755.0 mm with rain falling on 129 days, the underlying Jurassic sandstones and mudstones have little direct influence upon the landscape. There are springs associated with calcareous aquifers in places on the periphery of the vale, the Vale of Pickering is a drainage basin for the surrounding hills.
At the western part of the area the River Rye and its numerous tributaries flow eastwards, the Derwent flows southwards through Malton and the Kirkham gorge to eventually join the River Ouse at Barmby on the Marsh