Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
A boarding school provides education for pupils who live on the premises, as opposed to a day school. The word "boarding" is used in i.e. lodging and meals. As they have existed for many centuries, now extend across many countries, their function and ethos varies greatly. Traditionally, pupils stayed at the school for the length of the term; some are for either girls while others are co-educational. In the United Kingdom, which has a rich history of such schools, many independent schools offer boarding, but so do a few dozen state schools, many of which serve children from remote areas. In the United States, most boarding schools cover grades seven or nine through grade twelve—the high school years; some American boarding schools offer a post-graduate year of study to help students prepare for college entrance. In some times and places boarding schools are the most elite educational option, whereas in other contexts, they serve as places to segregate children deemed a problem to their parents or wider society.
Notoriously and the United States tried to assimilate indigenous children in the Canadian Indian residential school system and American Indian boarding schools respectively. Some function as orphanages, e.g. the G. I. Rossolimo Boarding School Number 49 in Russia. Tens of millions of rural children are now educated at boarding schools in China. Therapeutic boarding schools offer treatment for psychological difficulties. Military academies provide strict discipline. Education for children with special needs has a long association with boarding; some boarding schools offer an immersion into democratic education, such as Summerhill School. Others are determinedly international, such as the United World Colleges; the term boarding school refers to classic British boarding schools and many boarding schools around the world are modeled on these. A typical boarding school has several separate residential houses, either within the school grounds or in the surrounding area. A number of senior teaching staff are appointed as housemasters, dorm parents, prefects, or residential advisors, each of whom takes quasi-parental responsibility for anywhere from 5 to 50 students resident in their house or dormitory at all times but outside school hours.
Each may be assisted in the domestic management of the house by a housekeeper known in U. K. or Commonwealth countries as matron, by a house tutor for academic matters providing staff of each gender. In the U. S. boarding schools have a resident family that lives in the dorm, known as dorm parents. They have janitorial staff for maintenance and housekeeping, but do not have tutors associated with an individual dorm. Older students are less supervised by staff, a system of monitors or prefects gives limited authority to senior students. Houses develop distinctive characters, a healthy rivalry between houses is encouraged in sport. Houses or dorms include study-bedrooms or dormitories, a dining room or refectory where students take meals at fixed times, a library and study carrels where students can do their homework. Houses may have common rooms for television and relaxation and kitchens for snacks, storage facilities for bicycles or other sports equipment; some facilities may be shared between several dorms.
In some schools, each house has students of all ages, in which case there is a prefect system, which gives older students some privileges and some responsibility for the welfare of the younger ones. In others, separate houses accommodate needs of different classes. In some schools, day students are assigned to a dorm or house for social activities and sports purposes. Most school dormitories have an "in your room by" and a "lights out" time, depending on their age, when the students are required to prepare for bed, after which no talking is permitted; such rules may be difficult to enforce. International students may take advantage of the time difference between countries to contact friends or family. Students sharing study rooms are less to disturb others and may be given more latitude; as well as the usual academic facilities such as classrooms, halls and laboratories, boarding schools provide a wide variety of facilities for extracurricular activities such as music rooms, sports fields and school grounds, squash courts, swimming pools and theatres.
A school chapel is found on site. Day students stay on after school to use these facilities. Many North American boarding schools are located in beautiful rural environments, have a combination of architectural styles that vary from modern to hundreds of years old. Food quality can vary from school to school, but most boarding schools offer diverse menu choices for many kinds of dietary restrictions and preferences; some boarding schools have a Dress Code for specific meals like Dinner or for specific days of the week. Students are free to eat with friends, teammates, as well as with faculty and coaches. Extra curricular activities groups, e.g. the French Club, may have meals together. The Dining Hall serves a central place where lessons and learning can continue between students and teachers or
The Parramatta River is an intermediate tide dominated, drowned valley estuary located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. With an average depth of 5.1 metres, the Parramatta River is the main tributary of Sydney Harbour, a branch of Port Jackson. Secondary tributaries include Duck rivers. Formed by the confluence of Toongabbie Creek and Darling Mills Creek at North Parramatta, the river flows in an easterly direction to a line between Yurulbin and Manns Point, Greenwich. Here it flows into about 21 kilometres from the Tasman Sea; the total catchment area of the river is 252.4 square kilometres and is tidal to Charles Street Weir in Parramatta 30 kilometres from the Sydney Heads. The land adjacent to the Parramatta River was occupied for many thousands of years by the Burramattagal, Wallumattagal and Wategora Aboriginal peoples, they used the river as an important source of a place for trade. The headwaters of the Parramatta River are formed by the confluence of Darling Mills Creek and Toongabbie Creek.
The point of the confluence lies on the northern border of the grounds of Cumberland Hospital. It lies on the boundary of the suburbs of Westmead and North Parramatta. Waterways flowing into the Parramatta River, west–to–east include: Vineyard Creek at Rydalmere, from the north Ponds Subiaco Creek at Rydalmere, from the north Duck River at Silverwater, from the south Archer Creek at Meadowbank, from the north Smalls Creek at Meadowbank, from the far north Charity Creek at Meadowbank, from the north Haslams Creek at Homebush Bay, from the south Powells Creek at Homebush Bay, from the south Iron Cove Creek at Five Dock, from the south Hawthorne Canal at Iron Cove, from the south Tarban Creek at Huntleys Point, from the north Lane Cove River at Greenwich, from the north From its headwaters at Toongabbie, the river flows in a southerly direction through the grounds of Cumberland Hospital. Entering Parramatta Park, it turns west and flows through the Parramatta CBD. Both banks are open to the public, with parkland and walkways, downstream to James Ruse Drive.
The river is fed by a number of small creeks and stormwater drains. The waters are controlled by a series of weirs: the weir at the edge of the hospital grounds, the Kiosk Weir in Parramatta Park, the Marsden Street Weir, the Charles Street Weir at the ferry wharf; the weirs have been equipped with fish ladders. Kiosk Weir and Charles Street Weir include footbridges enabling a crossing of the river; the river was dammed to provide reservoirs for the town. However, the function of the weirs is aesthetic, preventing the water from draining away during dry periods; as a consequence the river floods in heavy rain at the Charles Street Weir. The Charles Street Weir forms the boundary between fresh water and salt water, is the limit of tides; the whole of Sydney Harbour including its tributary rivers is subject to a long range Catchment Management Plan. The Government has eliminated local representation by eliminating the former local catchment management boards; the New South Wales Government has a documented policy in relation to access to the harbour and river foreshores, including public access to intertidal lands where landowners have absolute waterfronts but where the waterfront is exposed at low tide.
Moorings and jetties are the responsibility of Roads and Maritime Services, who are responsible for the management of the Harbour and river seabed. Many bays contain swing moorings privately owned, but some associated with commercial marinas. Along the Parramatta River many hands have made lighter work, in the community-wide effort to make the entire river swimmable again by 2025, starting with the opening of Lake Parramatta in 2014. Thirteen councils sit within the Parramatta River catchment group and all have committed to tackling the two major polluters: sewer overflows and stormwater. There are River Cat services along the Parramatta River to Circular Quay; the main wharves, west–to–east are: The Parramatta River, along with Sydney Harbour, is the most significant waterway in Sydney. Since settlement, the river and the harbour have presented a formidable barrier between the early–European settled southern Farm Cove precinct, to development north of the waterway. Together, Parramatta River and Port Jackson cut Sydney in half along its north–south axis.
As a result, the many crossings are important to the life of the city. From west–to–east, the crossings of the Parramatta River are located at: Until 1970 the river was an open drain for Sydney's industry and the southern central embayments are contaminated with a range of heavy metals and chemicals; the Northern Bays are less affected as the Sydney Harbour Bridge was not completed until 1932 and so industrial development was well established on the southern side of the Harbour. Dr Gavin Birch of the University of Sydney has published a number of papers which show that Sydney Harbour is as contaminated as most other harbours in industrialised cities, that the main sediment contamination is in the southern central embayments, that there are five contaminated areas of Sydney Harbour, that four of them are in the Parramatta river system; the main contaminated areas of the Parramatta River are: Homebush Bay - dioxins, phthalates, DDT, PAHs originating from nearby chemical factories of Berger Paints, CSR Chemicals, ICI/Orica, Union Carbide.
Iron Cove - various metals and chemicals with no defined point source. Pollution may enter through Iron Cove Creek and Hawthorne Canal. Adjacent to the former AGL site, now
Hunters Hill, New South Wales
Hunters Hill is a suburb on the Lower North Shore and Northern Suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Hunters Hill is located nine kilometres north-west of the Sydney central business district and is the administrative centre for the local government area of the Municipality of Hunter's Hill. Hunters Hill is situated on a small peninsula that separates the Lane Parramatta rivers, it can be reached by ferry. The area's Aboriginal name is ` Mookaboola' or ` Moocooboola'. Hunters Hill was named after John Hunter, the second Governor of New South Wales, in office between 1795 and 1800; the area, now Hunters Hill was settled in 1835. One of the earliest settlers was the first female retailer in Sydney, she built a cottage -- known as Fig Tree House -- on land. During the 1840s, bushrangers and convicts who had escaped from the penal settlement on Cockatoo Island would take refuge in Hunters Hill. Many of the suburb's early houses were built from the local sandstone. A number were built by Frenchman Didier Numa Joubert, who bought 200 acres of land from Mary Reiby from 1847 and used seventy stonemasons from Italy to construct solid artistic houses.
Hunters Hill was proclaimed as a municipality on 5 January 1861. The first Gladesville Bridge constructed in 1881 linked the area to Drummoyne and the southern side of the Parramatta River. In the early 20th century, there was an industrial area in Hunters Hill. One of the industries was a radium and uranium refinery operating from 1911 to 1915; the concentrated ore was transported over 1,200 kilometres from Radium Hill in South Australia, 100 km west of Broken Hill. At the time, uranium was considered a byproduct, but small quantities of radium were valuable; the refinery could produce about 5 milligrammes of radium bromide from a ton of ore, worth £20 per milligramme in 1912. The area is now residential, Nelson Parade, demands to remove it saw a plan developed to transport it to an old quarry area besides Badgerys Creek, licensed to receive low level radioactive waste. Hunters Hill has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 38-40 Alexandra Street: Vienna, Hunters Hill 12 Crescent Street: Milthorpe, Hunters Hill 14 Crescent Street: Hestock Ferry Street: The Garibaldi Nelson Parade: Kellys Bush Park 46 Ryde Road: Marika, Hunters Hill 2 Yerton Avenue: The ChaletIn addition, the following buildings are heritage-listed: Public School including Eulbertie, Alexandra Street Post Office, Alexandra Street Town Hall, Alexandra Street St Ives, Crescent Street Anglican Church of All Saints, corner Ferry and Ambrose Streets Kyarra, Madeline Street Fig Tree House, Reiby Road Clifton, Woolwich Road Waiwera, Woolwich Road St Claire, Wybalena Road Woolwich Dock, Franki Avenue, Woolwich Hunters Hill has an area of 5.75 square kilometres including some 650,000 square metres of parks and reserves.
Developments are residential. Hunters Hill has a number of heritage-listed buildings and is positioned near the confluence of the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, as well as the headwaters of Sydney Harbour, which provides river and harbour views. Having a number of residents of French extraction, it was known as the "French Village" and shares a friendship with a sister city near Paris, Le Vésinet. In the 2016 census of Population and Housing, the population of Hunters Hill stood at 9,528 people. 69.1% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were England 4.0%, China 2.7%, New Zealand 1.4%, South Africa 1.2% and Italy 1.2%. The most common ancestries were English 22.7%, Australian 20.3%, Irish 11.2%, Scottish 6.8% and Chinese 5.3%. 76.4% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 3.0%, Italian 1.9%, Cantonese 1.8% and Greek 1.7%. The top responses for religious affiliation were Catholic 37.4%, No Religion 23.1% and Anglican 13.7%.
The median household weekly income was high at $2,700. Monthly mortgage payments were high, with a median of $3,500 compared with the national figure of $1,755. Halse Rogers Arnott, chairman of Arnott's Henry Budden, architect Cate Blanchett, actress; the former Treasurer of Australia Joe Hockey, held this seat from the 1996 federal election to 2015. North Sydney is one of only two original divisions in New South Wales, along with Wentworth, which have never been held by the Australian Labor Party. For NSW state elections, Hunters Hill is in the Electoral district of Lane Cove; as of 2003 this seat is held by Liberal MP Anthony Roberts, last re-elected in the 2007 state election. Several bus routes run through Hunters Hill, consisting of: 252: King Street Wharf to Gladesville via Pacific Highway 505: Town Hall station to Woolwich 506: The Domain to Macquarie University via East Ryde 530: Burwood to Chatswood 536: Gladesville to Chatswood 538: Gladesville to Woolwich X06: PM peak service from The Domain to East RydeThe closest ferry wharves to Hunters Hill are Valentia Street Wharf: Woolwich and Huntleys Point.
These provide access to the Inner Harbour ferry services which run between Circular Quay and Parramatta. Hunters Hill has a few commercial
St John's College, University of Sydney
St John's College, or the College of St John the Evangelist, is a residential college within the University of Sydney. Established in 1857, the college is the oldest Roman Catholic, second-oldest overall, university college in Australia. St John's is a co-educational community of 252 postgraduate students; the rector, Adrian Diethelm, has held his position since 2013. The College of St. John the Evangelist was founded by Archbishop John Bede Polding, who named it after the author of the fourth Gospel; the symbol of St John's College is the traditional symbol of St. John. St. John's is the oldest Catholic tertiary educational institution in Australia, the first Catholic college to be established in a preexisting, non-Catholic university in the English-speaking world since the Reformation. In 1854, the first effort to establish a Catholic college within the University of Sydney was made at a meeting in old St Mary's Cathedral; the New South Wales government promised a pound-for-pound subsidy capped at a ₤20,000 limit, if at least ₤10,000 were raised by public subscription.
The amount was met within six months from July 1857. On 15 December 1857, the act to incorporate St John's College as a college within the University of Sydney passed in the Parliament of New South Wales, received the Royal Assent from Queen Victoria; the proclamation of the St John's College Council took place on 1 July 1858. In 1887, James Francis Hogan wrote in The Irish in Australia that "Saint Ignatius' College, Riverview, St. Joseph's College, Hunters Hill and St John's College, affiliated to the University of Sydney, are three educational institutions which reflect the highest credit on the Catholic population of the parent colony". St. John's was established as a Benedictine foundation by Archbishop Polding, an English Benedictine monk at Downside Abbey; the English Benedictines were prominent in the raising of public support for the founding of St John's. When Roger Bede Vaughan, a former monk of Downside Abbey, arrived in Sydney as Polding's coadjutor bishop in 1873, he was elected by the fellows as rector.
Vaughan retained the rectorship until he succeeded Polding as archbishop in his own right, but continued to live in the college and use it as his episcopal palace. Vaughan's secretary—Anselm Gillett, a monk of Ampleforth, resident at Belmont Priory during Vaughan's time as superior before his departure for Australia—acted as rector during Vaughan's time as archbishop. After Vaughan's death and Gillett's return to England, another Benedictine, Fr. David Barry, was appointed rector in 1884. In the latter part of the 19th century, the College Council was dominated by clerical fellows who were Benedictine monks, the majority of its students were affiliated with Benedictine Lyndhurst College, Glebe; the carved Gothic-style reliquary box in the chapel contains the skull of St. Bede the Lesser, a Benedictine monk who died before AD 1000; the relic had been preserved in a reliquary in the church of St. Benignus at Genoa, served by the Benedictine monks of Monte Cassino until the early 19th century; the relic was transported to Sydney by the missionary priest Martial Mary and presented to Archbishop Vaughan while he was residing in the college.
Government of the College is vested in the College Council by the 1857 Act of Incorporation The Council consists of the Rector and eighteen Fellows, six of whom must be Catholic clergy. The Catholic Archbishop of Sydney the Most Rev. Anthony Fisher, takes the role of Visitor of the College; this is a ceremonial role, but he can be called on to give guidance and resolve internal disputes. Under the direction of the Archbishop as Visitor, the College associates itself with the interests of the Church and its mission by the fostering of appropriate academic directions in education, social justice and the environment. St John's College has a number of honorary fellows; these are distinguished members of the university and wider community who have been selected to support the rector by representing the interests of the college in their own spheres and by mentoring students The student club is the body that looks after much of the day-to-day activity of the students of the college. Formed in 1891, the club is led by its house committee.
This committee is elected by the students at the end of each academic year. The activities of the club are varied, ranging across social, cultural and disciplinary areas; the house committee comprises the House President, House Secretary, House Treasurer and six committee members. In February 1859, William Wilkinson Wardell, the architect of St Mary's Cathedral, Sydney and St Patrick's Cathedral, was appointed the architect for St John's College. Working from his design for Melbourne, he drew up general plans and sent them to Sydney in May 1859. Wardell designed St. John's College as a three-story sandstone Gothic Revival building on an H-shaped plan; because of budget restrictions, with a limit of ₤30,000, in July and August there was discussion of Wardell's design and of how much of it could be built. In September and October the general plans were approved by the St John's Council and the university senate. From October 1859 to April 1860, relations between Wardell and the council deteriorated for various reasons, resulting in Wardell's resignation in June 1860.
With the main building program in progress, the council retained Wardell's plans and proceeded with the construction under the supervision of Edmund Blacket, another of Australia's best-known colonial architects, who
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Single-sex education known as single-gender education and gender-isolated education, is the practice of conducting education with male and female students attending separate classes in separate buildings or schools. The practice was common before the 20th century in secondary and higher education. Single-sex education in many cultures is advocated on the basis of tradition as well as religion, is practiced in many parts of the world. There has been a surge of interest and establishment of single-sex schools due to educational research. Single-sex education is practiced in many Muslim majority countries. In the Western world, single sex education is associated with the private sector, with the public sector being overwhelmingly mixed sex. Motivations for single sex education range from religious ideas of sex segregation to beliefs that the sexes learn and behave differently, and, as such, they thrive in a single sex environment. In the 19th century, in Western countries, single sex girls' finishing schools, women's colleges offered women a chance of education at a time when they were denied access to mainstream educational institutions.
The former were common in Switzerland, the latter in the US and the UK, which were pioneers in women's education. In 19th century Western Europe, the most common way for girls to access education was at home, through private tutoring, not at school; this was the case in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which resisted women's involvement in schools. By contrast, in the US, early feminists were successful in establishing women's educational institutions; these were different from and considered inferior to men's institutions, but they created some of the first opportunities to formalized higher education for women in the Western world. The Seven Sisters colleges offered unprecedented emancipation for women; the pioneer Salem College of Winston-Salem, North Carolina was founded in 1772 as a primary school becoming an academy and a college. The New England Female Medical College and the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania were the first medical institutions in the world established to train women in medicine and offer them the M.
D. degree. During the 19th century, ideas about education started to change: modern ideas that defined education as a right, rather than as a privilege available only to a small elite, started to gain support in North America and Europe; as such, mass elementary education was introduced, more and more coeducational schools were set up. Together with mass education, the coeducation became standard in many places. Increased secularization in the 20th century contributed to the acceptance of mixed sex education. In 1917 coeducation was mandated in the Soviet Union. According to Cornelius Riordan, "By the end of the nineteenth century, coeducation was all but universal in American elementary and secondary public schools, and by the end of the 20th century, this was true across the world. In the UK, Ireland the tradition of single sex education remained quite strong until the 1960s; the 1960s and 1970s were a period of intense social changes, during that era many anti-discrimination laws were passed, such as the 1972 Title IX.
Wiseman shows that by 2003, only a few countries across the globe have greater than one or two percent single sex schools. But there are exceptions where the percent of single sex schools exceeds 10 percent: Belgium, Singapore, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, New Zealand, South Korea, most Muslim nations. However, there has been a resurgence of interest in single sex schools in modern societies across the globe, both in the public and private sector." The topic of single-sex education is controversial. Advocates argue that it aids student outcomes such as test scores, graduation rates, solutions to behavioral difficulties. Opponents, argue that evidence for such effects is inflated or non-existent, instead argue that such segregation can increase sexism and impairs the development of interpersonal skills. Advocates of single-sex education believe that there are persistent gender differences in how boys and girls learn and behave in educational settings, that such differences merit educating them separately.
One version of this argument holds that male-female brain differences favor the implementation of gender-specific teaching methods, but such claims have not held up to rigorous scrutiny. In addition, supporters of single-sex education argue that by segregating the genders, students do not become distracted by the other gender's actions in the classrooms, but most of the social distraction in classrooms is attributable to same-gender interactions. A systematic review published in 2005 covering 2221 studies was commissioned by the US Department of Education entitled Single-sex versus coeducational schooling: A systematic review; the review, which had statistical controls for socio-economic status of the students and resources of the schools, etc. found that in the study on the effects of single-sex schooling "the results are equivocal. There is some support for the premise that single-sex schooling can be helpful for certain outcomes related to academic achievement and more positive academic aspirations.