Hammersmith Hospital the Military Orthopaedic Hospital, the Special Surgical Hospital, is a major teaching hospital in west London. It is part of Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, is associated with the Imperial College Faculty of Medicine. Confusingly the hospital is not in Hammersmith but is located north of White City adjacent to Wormwood Scrubs and East Acton; the hospital's origins begin in 1902, when the Hammersmith Poor Law Guardians decided to erect a new workhouse and infirmary on a 14-acre site at the north side of Du Cane Road somewhat to the north of Shepherd's Bush. The land, adjacent to Wormwood Scrubs Prison, was purchased for £14,500 from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. A temporary corrugated iron building was erected on the site in 1902 to provide care for victims of a smallpox epidemic that had taken place in the winter of 1901–2; the buildings were designed by the firm of Giles and Trollope. In February 1916, during the First World War, the patients were moved to other establishments and the site was taken over by the War Office for use as the Military Orthopaedic Hospital, to care for wounded soldiers thanks to the efforts of the noted surgeon Robert Jones.
At that time the Joint War Committee awarded the hospital the sum of £1,000 to begin its work, soon followed in 1918 by a further grant of £10,000. The hospital was supported by donations from the public. Part of the rehabilitation process involved putting the recovering patients to work in local shops, a policy which does not appear to have been popular among the soldiers themselves, it was renamed the Special Surgical Hospital, in 1919 became the Ministry of Pensions Hospital. In April 1925 demands by the Hammersmith Guardians for return of their property succeeded and the site became Hammersmith Hospital. By 1930, the infirmary could accommodate 300 patients. During the Second World War the hospital amassed expertise on the effects of crush syndrome and renal failure as a result of treating air raid victims; the hospital refectory was destroyed during one air raid. Roger Daltrey, the singer and actor, was born at the hospital in 1944; the hospital was home to the first medical linear accelerator in the world at the MRC's Radiotherapeutic Research Unit, where the first patient was treated in 1953.
The Commonwealth Building, which included the postgraduate medical school, the Wellcome Library and some research departments, was opened by the Queen in May 1966. Until 1997 the hospital was the home of the Royal Postgraduate Medical School, which became part of Imperial College; the Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology was established by Professor Lord Winston on the site in 2001. In October 2007 Imperial College Healthcare and Imperial College formed the first academic health science centre from resources that included the academic expertise of Hammersmith Hospital and St Mary's Hospital. Hammersmith Hospital is internationally renowned for clinical research, its clinical reputation was built on the treatment of medical conditions notably of the heart and kidney. Its services now include the Heart Attack Centre for North West London, a leukaemia wing and the West London Renal and Transplant Centre; the Medical Research Council has a major presence at Hammersmith Hospital through the London Institute of Medical Sciences providing a strong foundation for clinical and scientific research, with extensive research and development of imaging techniques.
List of hospitals in England Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust's official site Aerial photo at Google Maps
Imperial College London
Imperial College London is a public research university located in London, England. In 1851, Prince Albert built his vision for a cultural area composed of the Victoria and Albert Museum, Natural History Museum, Royal Albert Hall, Royal Colleges, the Imperial Institute. In 1907, Imperial College was established by Royal Charter, bringing together the Royal College of Science, Royal School of Mines, City and Guilds College. In 1988, the Imperial College School of Medicine was formed through a merger with St Mary's Hospital Medical School. In 2004, Queen Elizabeth II opened the Imperial College Business School; the main campus is located with a new innovation campus in White City. The college has a research centre at Silwood Park, teaching hospitals throughout London. Imperial is organised through faculties of natural science, engineering and business, its emphasis is on the practical application of technology. With more than 140 countries represented on campus and 59% of students from outside the UK, the university has a international community.
In 2018–19, Imperial is ranked 8th globally in the QS World University Rankings, 9th in the THE World University Rankings, 24th in the Academic Ranking of World Universities, 8th in Reuters Top 100: World's Most Innovative Universities. Student and researcher affiliations include 14 Nobel laureates, 3 Fields Medalists, 1 Turing Award winner, 74 Fellows of the Royal Society, 87 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering, 85 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences; the college's origins can be traced back as far as the founding of the Royal College of Chemistry on Hanover Square in 1845, with the support of Prince Albert and parliament. Following some financial trouble, this was absorbed in 1853 into the newly formed Government School of Mines and Science Applied to the Arts, located on Jermyn Street; the school was renamed the Royal School of Mines a decade later. The medical school has roots in many different school across London, the oldest of which dates back to 1823, with the foundation of the teaching facilities at the West London Infirmary at Villiers Street.
Known as Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, it was designed to provide medical education for the needs of a university. This was followed in 1834 when Westminster Hospital surgeons started taking students under their care. Established on Dean Street, the school was forced to close in 1847, but was reopened in 1849 with a new specimen museum; the first teaching at St Mary's Hospital hospital in Paddington began in 1851, with St Mary's Hospital Medical School established in 1854. Proceeds from the Great Exhibition of 1851 were designated by Prince Albert to be used to develop a cultural area in South Kensington for the use and education of the public. Within the next 6 years the Victoria and Albert and Science museums had opened, joined by the Natural History Museum in 1881, in 1888 the Imperial Institute; as well as museums, new facilities for the royal colleges were constructed, with the Royal College of Chemistry and the Royal School of Mines moving to South Kensington between 1871 and 1872.
In 1881 the Normal School of Science was established in South Kensington under the leadership of Thomas Huxley, taking over responsibility for the teaching of the natural sciences and agriculture from the Royal School of Mines. The school was granted the name Royal College of Science by royal consent in 1890; as these institutions were not part of universities, they were unable to grant degrees to students, instead bestowed associateships such as the Associateship of the Royal College of Science. The Central Institution of the City and Guilds of London Institute, formed by the City of London's livery companies, was opened on Exhibition Road by the Prince of Wales, founded to focus on providing technical education, with courses starting in early 1885; the institution was renamed the Central Technical College in 1893, becoming a school of the University of London in 1900. At the start of the 20th century there was a concern that Britain was falling behind its key rivals – Germany – in scientific and technical education.
A departmental committee was set up at the Board of Education in 1904, to look into the future of the Royal College of Science. A report released in 1906 called for the establishment of an institution unifying the Royal College of Science and the Royal School of Mines, as well as – if agreement could be reached with the City and Guilds of London Institute – their Central Technical CollegeOn 8 July 1907, King Edward VII granted a Royal Charter establishing the Imperial College of Science and Technology; this incorporated the Royal College of Science. It made provisions for the Central Technical College to join once conditions regarding its governance were met, as well as for Imperial to become a college of the University of London; the college joined the University of London on 22 July 1908, with the Central Technical College joining Imperial in 1910 as the City and Guilds College. The main campus of Imperial College was constructed beside the buildings of the Imperial Institute, the new building for the Royal College of Science having opened across from it in 1906, the foundation stone for the Royal School of Mines building being laid by King Edward VII in July 1909.
As students at Imperial had to study separately for London degrees, in January 1919, students and alumni voted for a petition to make Imperial a university with its own degree awarding powers, independent of the University of London. In response, the University of London changed its regulations in 1925 so that the courses taught only at Imperial would be examined by the university, enabling students to ga
Paddington is an area within the City of Westminster, in central London. First a medieval parish a metropolitan borough, it was integrated with Westminster and Greater London in 1965. Three important landmarks of the district are Paddington station, designed by the celebrated engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel and opened in 1847. A major project called Paddington Waterside aims to regenerate former railway and canal land between 1998 and 2018, the area is seeing many new developments. Offshoot districts are Maida Vale and Bayswater including Lancaster Gate; the earliest extant references to Padington a part of Middlesex, appear in documentation of purported 10th-century land grants to the monks of Westminster by Edgar the Peaceful as confirmed by Archbishop Dunstan. However, the documents' provenance is much and to have been forged after the 1066 Norman conquest. There is no mention of the place in the Domesday Book of 1086, it has been reasonably speculated that a Saxon settlement was located around the intersection of the northern and western Roman roads, corresponding with the Edgware Road and the Harrow and Uxbridge Roads.
A more reliable 12th-century document cited by the cleric Isaac Maddox establishes that part of the land was held by brothers "Richard and William de Padinton". In the Elizabethan and early Stuart era, the rectory and associated estate houses were occupied by the Small family. Nicholas Small was a clothworker, sufficiently well connected to have Holbein paint a portrait of his wife, Jane Small. Nicholas died in 1565 and his wife married again, to Nicholas Parkinson of Paddington who became master of the Clothworker's company. Jane Small continued to live in Paddington after her second husband's death, her manor house was big enough to have been let to Sir John Popham, the attorney general, in the 1580s, they let the building. As the regional population grew in the 17th century, Paddington's ancient Hundred of Ossulstone was split into divisions. By 1773, a contemporary historian felt and wrote that "London may now be said to include two cities, one borough and forty six antient villages... Paddington and Marybone."Roman roads formed the parish's north-eastern and southern boundaries from Marble Arch: Watling Street and.
They were toll roads in much of the 18th century and after the dismantling of the permanent Tyburn gallows "tree" at their junction in 1759 a junction now known as Marble Arch. By 1801, the area saw the start-point of an improved Harrow Road and an arm of the Grand Junction Canal. In the 19th century the part of the parish most sandwiched between Edgware Road and Westbourne Terrace, Gloucester Terrace and Craven Hill, bounded to the south by Bayswater Road, was known as Tyburnia; the district formed the centrepiece of an 1824 masterplan by Samuel Pepys Cockerell to redevelop the Tyburn Estate into a residential area to rival Belgravia. The area was laid out in the mid-1800s when grand squares and cream-stuccoed terraces started to fill the acres between Paddington station and Hyde Park. Despite this, Thackeray described the residential district of Tyburnia as "the elegant, the prosperous, the polite Tyburnia, the most respectable district of the habitable globe." Derivation of the name is uncertain.
Speculative explanations include Padre-ing-tun, Pad-ing-tun, Pæding-tun the last being the cited suggestion of the Victorian Anglo-Saxon scholar John Mitchell Kemble. There is another Paddington in Surrey, recorded in the Domesday Book as "Padendene" and associated with the same ancient family. A lord named Padda is named in the Domesday Book, associated with Suffolk. An 18th-century dictionary gives "Paddington Fair Day. An execution day, Tyburn being in the parish or neighbourhood of Paddington. To dance the Paddington frisk. Public executions were abolished in England in 1868; the Paddington district is centred around Paddington railway station. The conventional recognised boundary of the district is much smaller than the longstanding pre-mid-19th century parish; that parish was equal to the borough abolished in 1965. It is divided from a northern offshoot Maida Vale by the Regent's Canal. In the east of the district around Paddington Green it remains divided from Marylebone by Edgware Road. In the south west it is bounded by western offshoot Bayswater.
A final offshoot, rises to the north west. A lagoon created in the 1810s at the convergence of the Paddington Arm of the Grand Union Canal, the Regent's Canal and the Paddington Basin, it is an important focal point of the Little Venice area. It is reputedly named after the poet. More known as the "Little Venice Lagoon" it contains a small islet known as Browning's Island. Although Browning was thought to have coined the name "Little Venice" for this spot there are strong arguments Lord Byron was responsible. Paddington station is the iconic landmark associated with the area. In the station are statues of
University of London
The University of London is a collegiate federal research university located in London, England. As of October 2018, the university contains 18 member institutions, central academic bodies and research institutes; the university has over 52,000 distance learning external students and 161,270 campus-based internal students, making it the largest university by number of students in the United Kingdom. The university was established by royal charter in 1836, as a degree-awarding examination board for students holding certificates from University College London and King's College London and "other such other Institutions, corporate or unincorporated, as shall be established for the purpose of Education, whether within the Metropolis or elsewhere within our United Kingdom", allowing it to be one of three institutions to claim the title of the third-oldest university in England, moved to a federal structure in 1900, it is now incorporated by its fourth royal charter and governed by the University of London Act 1994.
It was the first university in the United Kingdom to introduce examinations for women in 1869 and, a decade the first to admit women to degrees. In 1948 it became the first British university to appoint a woman as its vice chancellor; the university's colleges house the oldest teaching hospitals in England. For most practical purposes, ranging from admissions to funding, the constituent colleges operate on an independent basis, with many awarding their own degrees whilst remaining in the federal university; the largest colleges by enrolment as of 2016/17 are UCL, King's College London, Queen Mary, the London School of Economics, Royal Holloway, Goldsmiths, each of which has over 9,000 students. Smaller, more specialist, colleges are the School of Oriental and African Studies, St George's, the Royal Veterinary College, London Business School, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the Royal Central School of Speech and Drama, the Royal Academy of Music, the Courtauld Institute of Art, the Institute of Cancer Research.
Imperial College London was a member from 1907 before it became an independent university in 2007, Heythrop College was a member from 1970 until its closure in 2018. City is the most recent constituent college, having joined on 1 September 2016; as of 2015, there are around 2 million University of London alumni across the world, including 12 monarchs or royalty, 52 presidents or prime ministers, 84 Nobel laureates, 6 Grammy winners, 2 Oscar winners, 3 Olympic gold medalists and the "Father of the Nation" of several countries. University College London was founded under the name “London University” in 1826 as a secular alternative to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which limited their degrees to members of the established Church of England; as a result of the controversy surrounding UCL's establishment, King's College London was founded as an Anglican college by royal charter in 1829. In 1830, UCL applied for a royal charter as a university; this was rejected, but renewed in 1834. In response to this, opposition to "exclusive" rights grew among the London medical schools.
The idea of a general degree awarding body for the schools was discussed in the medical press. And in evidence taken by the Select Committee on Medical Education. However, the blocking of a bill to open up Oxford and Cambridge degrees to dissenters led to renewed pressure on the Government to grant degree awarding powers to an institution that would not apply religious tests as the degrees of the new University of Durham were to be closed to non-Anglicans. In 1835, the government announced the response to UCL's petition for a charter. Two charters would be issued, one to UCL incorporating it as a college rather than a university, without degree awarding powers, a second "establishing a Metropolitan University, with power to grant academical degrees to those who should study at the London University College, or at any similar institution which his Majesty might please hereafter to name". Following the issuing of its charter on 28 November 1836, the new University of London started drawing up regulations for degrees in March 1837.
The death of William IV in June, resulted in a problem – the charter had been granted "during our Royal will and pleasure", meaning it was annulled by the king's death. Queen Victoria issued a second charter on 5 December 1837; the university awarded its first degrees in 1839, all to King's College. The university established by the charters of 1836 and 1837 was an examining board with the right to award degrees in arts and medicine. However, the university did not have the authority to grant degrees in theology, considered the senior faculty in the other three English universities. In medicine, the university was given the right to determine which medical schools provided sufficient medical training. In arts and law, by contrast, it would examine students from UCL, King's College, or any other school or college granted a royal warrant giving the government control of which colleges could affiliate to the university. Beyond the right to submit students for examination, there was no other connection between the affiliated colleges and the university.
In 1849 the university held its first graduation ceremony at Somerset House following a petition to the senate from the graduates, who had received their degrees without any ceremony. About 250 students graduated at this ceremony; the London academic robes of this period were distinguished by their "rich velvet facings". The list of affiliated colleges g
Princess Michael of Kent
Princess Michael of Kent is a member of the British royal family of German and Hungarian descent. She is married to Prince Michael of Kent, a grandson of King George V. Princess Michael was an interior designer before becoming an author, she undertakes lecture tours as well as supporting her husband in his public duties. Marie Christine Anna Agnes Hedwig Ida von Reibnitz was born on 15 January 1945 in Karlsbad, a town in German-populated Sudetenland and now known as Karlovy Vary in the Czech Republic, she was born shortly before the defeat of Nazi Germany and end of World War II in Europe, near the family estates of her Austrian maternal grandmother, Princess Hedwig von Windisch-Graetz. Princess Michael is the younger daughter of Baron Günther Hubertus von Reibnitz by his second wife Countess Maria Anna Carolina Franziska Walburga Bernadette, daughter of Count Friedrich Szapáry von Muraszombath, Széchysziget und Szapár, the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to Saint Petersburg at the outbreak of the First World War.
Princess Michael's father was a Nazi party member serving as a Sturmbannführer in the SS during the Second World War. The parents divorced in 1946. Marie Christine and her mother established a beauty salon, while Fred von Reibnitz joined the Australian Public Service, she subsequently moved to London to study History of Fine and Decorative Art at the Victoria and Albert Museum. Her first husband was the English banker Thomas Troubridge, younger brother of Sir Peter Troubridge, 6th Baronet, they met at a boar hunt in Germany and were married on 14 September 1971 at Chelsea Old Church, London. The couple separated in 1973 and were civilly divorced in 1977. One month after the annulment, on 30 June 1978, at a civil ceremony in Vienna, she married Prince Michael of Kent, the son of Prince George, Duke of Kent and Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark. Prince Michael is a first cousin of Queen Elizabeth II. Michael presented Marie Christine with a two-stone sapphire-and-diamond ring made from stones that belonged to his mother, Princess Marina.
For the ball held after the wedding, she wore the City of London diamond fringe tiara and a 70s style dress. Upon their marriage, she was accorded the style and title of Her Royal Highness Princess Michael of Kent, the female equivalent to her husband's title: not being of royal birth, she is therefore not titled Princess Marie Christine. After receiving Pope John Paul II's permission, the couple received a blessing of their marriage in a Roman Catholic ceremony on 29 June 1983 at Archbishop's House, London. Since the Act of Settlement 1701 prohibited anyone who married a Roman Catholic from succeeding to the throne, Prince Michael of Kent forfeited his succession rights upon marrying Marie Christine. Prince Michael was reinstated to the line of succession to the British throne on 26 March 2015 with the successful passing of the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, their children are members of the Church of England and have retained their rights of succession since birth. Prince and Princess Michael of Kent have two children: Lord Frederick Windsor, born 6 April 1979 at St Mary's Hospital, London.
He married Sophie Winkleman on 12 September 2009 and they have two daughters: Maud and Isabella. Lady Gabriella Windsor, born 23 April 1981 at St Mary's Hospital, London. Prince and Princess Michael represented the Queen at the Belize independence celebrations and at the coronation of King Mswati III of Swaziland. Prince Michael supports a large number of different charities and organisations, Princess Michael supports him in his work. Since a teenager, Princess Michael has held a long and enduring passion for the conservation of cheetahs and she is international royal patron for the Cheetah Conservation Fund in Namibia. Prince Michael has never received an allowance from the Privy Purse; the couple have had the use of a five-bedroom, five-reception grace and favour apartment at Kensington Palace. The Queen had paid the rent for the apartment at a market rate of £120,000 annually from her own private funds with the couple paying the nominal amount of £70 per week; the rent goes to the Grant-in-aid, provided by the Government for the maintenance of the Occupied Royal Palaces.
The rent is based on the current rate for commercially rented properties at Kensington Palace, is recorded in the overall figures for commercial rents in the Grant-in-aid annual report. This rent payment by the Queen is "in recognition of the Royal engagements and work for various charities which Prince and Princess Michael of Kent have undertaken at their own expense, without any public funding," according to a statement released by the British Monarchy Media Centre. In 2008, it was announced Prince and Princess Michael would be required to begin paying rent of £120,000 a year. Members of Parliament on the palace's committee had demanded the change after the Kents' rent had come to light; the Kents have lived in the apartment since 1979, paying only their utility bills prior to 2002. Princess Michael of Kent observes the Roman Catholic faith and attended several events during Pope Benedict XVI's historic state visit to the United Kingdom in September 2010, she was present at Mass in Westminster Cathedral
Charles Romley Alder Wright
Charles Romley Alder Wright FCS, FRS was an English lecturer in chemistry and physics researcher at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School in London, England, he was a founder of the Royal Institute of Chemistry. Alder Wright developed hundreds of new opiate compounds and was the first person to synthesize diamorphine, in 1874, he discovered AlSb. In addition to research papers on a wide variety of topics, Wright published several books, including one to interest young readers in The Threshold of Science: a Variety of Simple and Amusing Experiments. Charles Romley Alder Wright was born in Southend, Essex on 7 September 1844, to Romley Wright and Elizabeth Alder. From boyhood he suffered from a painful disease of the hip, he received his early education from a civil engineer. Alder Wright attended Owens College, Manchester from 1861-1865, graduating with his BSc in 1865; as a student, Wright worked as an assistant to Henry Roscoe. Wright's first published paper was on the "Action of Light on Sensitive Photographic Papers".
It appeared in the Journal of the Chemical Society in February 1866. Wright was employed by the Weston works of the Runcorn Soap and Alkali Company during 1866-1867, he moved to London where he worked with Albert James Bernays at St. Thomas's Hospital, he earned his DSc in 1870. During this time he published on alkali manufacturing, on opium alkaloids and the discovery of morphine, on iron smelting. In 1871, Wright was appointed as a lecturer in chemistry and physics researcher at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School in London, England, he was a founding member of the Royal Institute of Chemistry of Great Ireland. He served as its first treasurer from 1877 to 1884 and was instrumental in the establishment of the institute. In 1881, Wright was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society, he acted as an Examiner for the University of Durham and the Royal College of Physicians and the City and Guilds of London. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy elected him as a corresponding member in 1893. Wright died from complications due to diabetes mellitus on 25 June 1894, at forty-nine years of age.
He was described in one obituary as "an ardent and thorough investigator in the field of chemical and physical science." At the Annual General Meeting of March 27, 1895, President Henry Edward Armstrong of the Chemical Society of London lamented his loss: "We must regret the decease of one of these, Dr. Alder Wright, at so early an age. Wright was versatile, having considered and trained for a profession in engineering; this allowed him to make diverse contributions to the chemical field. In quest of a non-addictive alternative to morphine, Wright experimented with combining morphine with various acids, he boiled anhydrous morphine alkaloid with acetic anhydride over a stove for several hours and produced a more potent, acetylated form of morphine, now called diamorphine known as heroin. After Wright's death, Heinrich Dreser, a chemist at Bayer Laboratories, continued to test heroin. Bayer marketed it as an analgesic and'sedative for coughs' in 1898; when its addictive potential was recognized, Bayer ceased its production in 1913.
In 1892, Wright was the first to report the existence of the stoichiometric intermetallic compound AlSb, now recognized as a compound semiconductor with potential use in high-frequency, low-power consumption microelectronics applications, as well as gamma radiation detection. In addition to his researches in organic chemistry, Wright published works on numerous topics including soap and waterproof papers, canvas goods, insulating materials, metallurgy, iron smelting, manganese dioxide, ternary alloys, chemical dynamics. Wright, C R A, Metals and their chief industrial applications. Being, with some considerable additions, the substance of a course of lectures delivered at the Royal institution of Great Britain in 1877. London, Macmillan and co. 1878. Wright, C R A, The Threshold of Science: a Variety of Simple and Amusing Experiments, Charles Griffin, London 1891. Wright, C R A, Animal and Vegetable Fixed-oils, Fats and Waxes: Their Preparation and Properties, Charles Griffin, London 1894. Wright, C R A, J. Soc.
Chem. Ind. 11, 492
City of Westminster
The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough that holds city status. It occupies much of the central area of Greater London including most of the West End. In Middlesex, it is to the west of the ancient City of London, directly to the east of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, its southern boundary is the River Thames; the London borough was created with the 1965 establishment of Greater London. Upon its creation, it inherited the city status held by the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster from 1900, first awarded to Westminster in 1540. Aside from a number of large parks and open spaces, the population density of the district is high. Many sites associated with London are in the borough, including St. James's Palace, Buckingham Palace, the Palace of Westminster and 10 Downing Street; the borough is divided into a number of localities including the ancient political district of Westminster. Much of the borough is residential, in 2008 it was estimated to have a population of 236,000.
The local government body is Westminster City Council. A study in 2017 by Trust for London and The New Policy Institute found that Westminster has the third-highest pay inequality of the 32 London boroughs, it has the second-least affordable private rent for low earners in London, behind only Kensington and Chelsea. The borough performs more positively on education, with 82% of adults and 69% of 19-year-olds having Level 3 qualifications; the current Westminster coat of arms were given to the city by an official grant on 2 September 1964. Westminster had other arms before; the symbols in the lower two thirds of the shield stand for former municipalities now merged with the city, Paddington and St. Marylebone; the original arms had a portcullis as the main charge. The origins of the City of Westminster pre-date the Norman Conquest of England. In the mid-11th century, King Edward the Confessor began the construction of an abbey at Westminster, only the foundations of which survive today. Between the abbey and the river he built a palace, thereby guaranteeing that the seat of Government would be fixed at Westminster, drawing power and wealth west out of the old City of London.
For centuries Westminster and the City of London were geographically quite distinct. It was not until the sixteenth century that houses began to be built over the adjoining fields absorbing nearby villages such as Marylebone and Kensington, creating the vast Greater London that exists today. Henry VIII's dissolution of the monasteries abolished the abbey at Westminster, although the former abbey church is still called Westminster Abbey; the church was the cathedral of the Diocese of Westminster created from part of the Diocese of London in 1540, by letters patent which granted city status to Westminster, a status retained after the diocese was abolished in 1550. The Westminster Court of Burgesses was formed in 1585 to govern the Westminster area under the Abbey's control; the City and Liberties of Westminster were further defined by Letters Patent in 1604, the court of burgesses and liberty continued in existence until 1900, the creation of the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster. The present-day City of Westminster as an administrative entity with its present boundaries dates from 1965, when the City of Westminster was created from the former area of three metropolitan boroughs: St Marylebone and the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster, which included Soho, Mayfair, St. James's, Westminster, Pimlico and Hyde Park.
This restructuring took place under the London Government Act 1963, which reduced the number of local government districts in London, resulting in local authorities responsible for larger geographical areas and greater populations. The Westminster Metropolitan Borough was itself the result of an administrative amalgamation which took place in 1900. Sir John Hunt O. B. E was the First Town Clerk of the City of Westminster, 1900–1928. Prior to 1900, the area occupied by what would become the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster had been administered by five separate local bodies: the Vestry of St George Hanover Square, the Vestry of St Martin in the Fields, Strand District Board of Works, Westminster District Board of Works and the Vestry of Westminster St James; the boundaries of the City of Westminster today, as well as those of the other London boroughs, have remained more or less unchanged since the Act of 1963. The following table shows the ethnic group of respondents in the 2001 and 2011 census in Westminster.
The city is divided into each electing three councillors. Westminster City Council is composed of 41 Conservative Party members and 19 Labour Party members. A Lord Mayor is elected annually to serve as the official representative of the city for one year. See List of Lord Mayors of Westminster for a list of former Mayors and Lord Mayors; the City of Westminster covers all or part of the following areas of London: The City of Westminster is home to a large number of companies. Many leading global corporations have chosen to establish their global or European headquarters in the City of Westminster. Mayfair and St. James's within the City of Westminster have a large concentration of hedge fund and private equity funds; the West End is known as the Theatre District and is home to many of the leading performing arts businesses. Soho and its adjoining areas house a concentration of creative companies. Oxford Street is