The Dell, Southampton
The Dell in Milton Road, Hampshire, England was the home ground of Southampton F. C. between 1898 and 2001. Since 1896, Southampton had been tenants of Hampshire County Cricket Club at the County Ground, having vacated the Antelope Ground in the summer of 1896; the rent payable to the cricket club was putting a strain on the football club's finances and, in an attempt to reduce this burden, the club had considered a merger with the Freemantle club and a move to their ground in Shirley. The merger proposals had fallen through, but at the Extraordinary general meeting in June 1897, the members were informed that "the committee had a ground in view". At a shareholders' meeting on 11 November 1897, the chairman stated:... that all being well, by next season the company would be in possession of its own ground, at the present time in the hands of George Thomas Esq., devoting his time to its early completion. Although the minutes do not record the location of the new ground, it was common knowledge within the town that the new ground was situated... in the dell, not far from the County Ground, nearer West Station and the town, at the present time it is a narrow valley with a stone culvert running along the bottom.
It will not be a large ground, but the natural banks on all sides will be a great help in arranging for the convenience of the spectators. The site on which the ground was built was described in Philip Brannon's Picture of Southampton, published in 1850, as "a lovely dell with a gurgling stream and lofty aspens"; the land had been purchased in the 1880s by the Didcot and Southampton Railway to enable them to continue their line from Winchester via Twyford, Chandlers Ford, a tunnel at Chilworth and Shirley where it was to pass to the North East of what is now St James' Park, Southampton and St. James' Church. From here the line would have travelled south across Hill Lane to run through the dell and onto an embankment leading to a viaduct over Commercial Road and the London and South Western Railway line before terminating on the Western Esplanade North of the Royal Pier; the dell was stripped of vegetation and the stream channelled into a conduit with work started on the embankment, which survives behind property to the North of Commercial Road but was never used, the viaduct, part built but demolished.
The project was abandoned at this point and agreement reached to connected to the London and South Western Railway at Shawford Junction with running rights into Southampton. George Thomas, a fish merchant, appointed as a director of the limited company when it was formed in the summer of 1896, who lived in Shirley, saw the potential of the cleared site and purchased the land from the D. N. S. R. By the beginning of the 1898–99 season, Thomas had incurred expenditure of between £7,500 and £9,000 on acquiring and clearing the site, erecting the new stands and had agreed an initial three-year lease to the football club at a rental of £250 p.a. The dell had been drained with 13,000 ft of pipe being laid, all draining into the central culvert formed from the Rollsbrook stream; the playing field had to be levelled and the ground made up and turfed ready for the opening of the new season. On completion, the stadium was described in the Southampton Observer:... the rising staging on the north side of the ground will hold 5,500 spectators, who have of course to stand up.
This totals up to 24,500. At this stage, the new ground did not have an official name, with various names suggested including the "Fitzhugh Dell", the "Archer's Ground" and "Milton Park" but the ground became known by default as "the Dell"; the stadium was opened in September 1898, with the inaugural match on 3 September being against Brighton United. The first goal at the stadium was scored by Watty Keay, with the others from Abe Hartley, Jim McKenzie and Tom Smith, as Southampton won 4–1, it hosted an international match in 1901, as England defeated Ireland 3–0 in the 1900–01 British Home Championship. In 1927, the original West Stand was demolished and the new West Stand was built; this was designed by Archibald Leitch, one of the greatest football stand designers of the day, who had designed stands at Fratton Park, Roker Park and at Goodison Park. A year on the last day of the 1928–29 season a dropped cigarette caused a fire which destroyed the East Stand. A replacement stand was built which mirrored the West Stand, increasing the ground capacity to 30,000.
On 30 November 1940, a German bomb fell on the stadium during the Blitz, creating an 18-foot crater in the Milton Road penalty area. While the pitch was being restored, Southampton had to play their remaining fixtures in 1940–41 away, although in February 1941, they played a "home" War Cup tie with Brentford at Fratton Park, Portsmouth. In March 1941, an explosion of munitions stored at the ground caused a major fire in the West Stand although this was rebuilt soon afterwards. At the start of the 1941–42 season they played their home games at Dew Lane, before the Dell was re-opened in October 1941. In 1950, the Dell became the first ground in England to have permanent floodlighting installed; the first game played under the lights was on 31 October 1950, in a friendly against Bournemouth & Boscombe Athletic, followed a year by the first "official" match under floodlights, a Football Co
The Football Association
The Football Association is the governing body of association football in England, the Crown dependencies of Jersey and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur and professional game in its territory; the FA sanctions all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, indirectly at local level through the County Football Associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of, the FA Cup, it is responsible for appointing the management of the men's, women's, youth national football teams. The FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board, responsible for the Laws of the Game; as the first football association, it does not use the national name "English" in its title. The FA is based at London; the FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the men's and women's Great Britain Olympic football team.
All of England's professional football teams are members of the Football Association. Although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the League Chairman and Chief Executive and over any changes to league rules; the English Football League, made up of the three professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FA's sanctions. For centuries before the first meeting of the Football Association in The Freemasons' Tavern on Great Queen Street, London on 26 October 1863, there were no universally accepted rules for playing football. Six meetings near London's Covent Garden, at 81-82 Long Acre, ended in a split between the Football Association and what would have become the future rugby ten years later. Both of them had their own uniforms, rituals and formalised rules. In each public school the game was formalised according to local conditions. Another set of rules, the Sheffield Rules, was used by a number of clubs in the North of England from the 1850s.
Eleven London football clubs and schools representatives met on 26 October 1863 to agree on common rules. The founding clubs present at the first meeting were Barnes, Civil Service, Forest of Leytonstone, N. N. Club, the original Crystal Palace, Kensington School, Perceval House and Blackheath Proprietary School. F. declined the offer to join. Many of these clubs play rugby union. Civil Service FC, who now plays in the Southern Amateur League, is the only one of the original eleven football clubs still in existence and playing Association Football. Although Forest School has been a member since the fifth meeting in December 1863. Central to the creation of the Football Association and modern football was Ebenezer Cobb Morley, he was a founding member of the Football Association in 1863. In 1862, as captain of Barnes, he wrote to Bell's Life newspaper proposing a governing body for the sport that led to the first meeting at The Freemasons' Tavern that created the FA, he was the FA's first secretary and its second president and drafted the Laws of the Game called the "London Rules" at his home in Barnes, London.
As a player, he played in the first-ever match in 1863. The first version of the rules for the modern game was drawn up over a series of six meetings held in The Freemasons' Tavern from October till December. Of the clubs at the first meeting, Crusaders and Charterhouse did not attend the subsequent meetings, replaced instead by the Royal Navy School, Wimbledon School and Forest School. At the final meeting, F. M. Campbell, the first FA treasurer and the Blackheath representative, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting, the first which allowed for the running with the ball in hand and the second, obstructing such a run by hacking and holding. Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA but instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union; the term "soccer" dates back to this split to refer to football played under the "association" rules. After six clubs had withdrawn as they supported the opposing Rugby Rules, the Football Association had just nine members in January 1864: Barnes, Crystal Palace, War Office, Forest Club, Forest School, Sheffield and Royal Engineers.
An inaugural game using the new FA rules was scheduled for Battersea Park on 2 January 1864, but enthusiastic members of the FA could not wait for the new year and an experimental game was played at Mortlake on 19 December 1863 between Morley's Barnes team and their neighbours Richmond, ending in a goalless draw. The Richmond side were unimpressed by the new rules in practice because they subsequently helped form the Rugby Football Union in 1871; the Battersea Park game was the first exhibition game using FA rules, was played there on Saturday 2 January 1864. The members of the opposing teams for this game were chosen by the President of the FA and the Secretary and included many well-known footballers of the day. After the first match according to the new FA rules a toast was given "Success to football, irrespective of class or creed". Another notable match was London v Sheffield, in which a r
Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England. It is 70 miles south-west of 15 miles west north-west of Portsmouth. Southampton is the closest city to the New Forest, it lies at the northernmost point of Southampton Water at the confluence of the Rivers Test and Itchen, with the River Hamble joining to the south of the urban area. The city, a unitary authority, has an estimated population of 253,651; the city's name is sometimes abbreviated in writing to "So'ton" or "Soton", a resident of Southampton is called a Sotonian. Significant employers in the city include Southampton City Council, the University of Southampton, Solent University, Southampton Airport, Ordnance Survey, BBC South, the NHS, ABP and Carnival UK. Southampton is noted for its association with the RMS Titanic, the Spitfire and more in the World War II narrative as one of the departure points for D-Day, more as the home port of a number of the largest cruise ships in the world. Southampton has retail park, Westquay.
In 2014, the city council approved a neighbouring followup Westquay South which opened in 2016–2017. In the 2001 census Southampton and Portsmouth were recorded as being parts of separate urban areas; this built-up area is part of the metropolitan area known as South Hampshire, known as Solent City in the media when discussing local governance organisational changes. With a population of over 1.5 million this makes the region one of the United Kingdom's most populous metropolitan areas. Archaeological finds suggest. Following the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43 and the conquering of the local Britons in AD 70 the fortress settlement of Clausentum was established, it was an important trading port and defensive outpost of Winchester, at the site of modern Bitterne Manor. Clausentum is thought to have contained a bath house. Clausentum was not abandoned until around 410; the Anglo-Saxons formed a new, settlement across the Itchen centred on what is now the St Mary's area of the city. The settlement was known as Hamwic, which evolved into Hamtun and Hampton.
Archaeological excavations of this site have uncovered one of the best collections of Saxon artefacts in Europe. It is from this town. Viking raids from 840 onwards contributed to the decline of Hamwic in the 9th century, by the 10th century a fortified settlement, which became medieval Southampton, had been established. Following the Norman Conquest in 1066, Southampton became the major port of transit between the capital of England and Normandy. Southampton Castle was built in the 12th century and surviving remains of 12th-century merchants' houses such as King John's House and Canute's Palace are evidence of the wealth that existed in the town at this time. By the 13th century Southampton had become a leading port involved in the import of French wine in exchange for English cloth and wool; the Franciscan friary in Southampton was founded circa 1233. The friars constructed a water supply system in 1290, which carried water from Conduit Head some 1.1 miles to the site of the friary inside the town walls.
Further remains can be observed at Conduit House on Commercial Road. The friars granted use of the water to the town in 1310; the town was sacked in 1338 by French and Monegasque ships. On visiting Southampton in 1339, Edward III ordered that walls be built to'close the town'; the extensive rebuilding—part of the walls dates from 1175—culminated in the completion of the western walls in 1380. Half of the walls, 13 of the original towers, six gates survive. In 1348, the Black Death reached England via merchant vessels calling at Southampton. Prior to King Henry's departure for the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, the ringleaders of the "Southampton Plot"—Richard, Earl of Cambridge, Henry Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham, Sir Thomas Grey of Heton—were accused of high treason and tried at what is now the Red Lion public house in the High Street, they were summarily executed outside the Bargate. The city walls include God's House Tower, built in 1417, the first purpose-built artillery fortification in England.
Over the years it has been used as home to the city's gunner, the Town Gaol and as storage for the Southampton Harbour Board. Until September 2011, it housed the Museum of Archaeology; the walls were completed in the 15th century, but development of several new fortifications along Southampton Water and the Solent by Henry VIII meant that Southampton was no longer dependent upon its fortifications. During the Middle Ages, shipbuilding had become an important industry for the town. Henry V's famous warship HMS Grace Dieu was built in Southampton and launched in 1418; the friars passed on ownership of the water supply system itself to the town in 1420. On the other hand, many of the medieval buildings once situated within the town walls are now in ruins or have disappeared altogether. From successive incarnations of the motte and bailey castle, only a section of the bailey wall remains today, lying just off Castle Way; the friary was dissolved in 1538 but its ruins remained until they were swept away in the 1940s.
The port was the point of departure for the Pilgrim Fathers aboard Mayflower in 1620. In 1642, during the English Civil War, a Parliamentary gar
Ted Bates (footballer)
Edric Thornton "Ted" Bates MBE was a former Southampton F. C. player, manager and president which earned him the sobriquet Mr. Southampton. Bates was born in Thetford and joined Saints on his 19th birthday in 1937, transferring from Norwich City, he soon forced his way into the first team as a centre-forward. His career was interrupted by the Second World War, during which league football was suspended in England, he joined the War Reserve police force, spending his time on guard duty at the Shell-Mex oil depot at Hamble or the Pirelli-General cable works at Woolston. In the early part of the war, Bates still managed regular appearances for Saints in the wartime cups and leagues. On 8 June 1940, Bates married Mary Smith at St. James's Church in Shirley, that evening watched Saints play Charlton Athletic at The Dell. Shortly afterwards the Bates' home was bombed and they moved to West Wellow, where Mary found work with the NAAFI. Bates resigned from the War Reserve and went to work at the Folland Aircraft factory at Hamble, who had a good works football team, Folland Aircraft F.
C. which, as well as Bates, included other professional players such as Bill Dodgin, Harold Pond, Bert Tann, Dick Foss, Bill Bushby, Cliff Parker and Bill Rochford. Most of these players guested for Saints in the War leagues. Bates' finest playing days came between 1947 and 1951 when he formed a great partnership with Charlie Wayman. After some declining performances on the pitch, Bates made his last first-team appearance on 20 December 1952 at home to West Ham United. During his career he made scoring 64 times. After retiring from playing he became a coach at Southampton in May 1953. Southampton were in the Third Division South, they were promoted to the national Second Division in 1960 when they finished as champions of the Third Division with Derek Reeves scoring 39 league goals, a club record. Southampton were promoted to the First Division in 1966. Under his management, the team maintained their First Division status, developing young players such as Mick Channon and Ron Davies, qualifying for European football in 1969 and 1971.
Bates was replaced by Lawrie McMenemy. Bates acted as McMenemy's assistant for the next few years, which included Southampton's historic FA Cup victory in 1976. Bates was the first person to congratulate McMenemy and the players as the final whistle was blown at Wembley, he was manager for a record for the club. Bates joined the Saints' board, where he would serve as a director for another 20 years before being appointed the club's president, he received the freedom of the city of Southampton in 1998 and was honoured with the MBE in the 2001 New Year Honours for services to Southampton Football Club. Bates was regarded as a local hero for his dedication to the club over a period of 66 years, his death in November 2003 was commemorated by the club and supporters' community; the first game after his death was the home match against Portsmouth in the League Cup and was the first derby between the two local rivals since an FA Cup match at The Dell in 1996. A minute's silence in Bates' memory lasted 30 seconds after jeers and boos from fans in the away end.
Those who booed and jeered were criticised by the media and by fellow Portsmouth fans. In 2003 the Ted Bates Trophy was inaugurated with a match against Bayern Munich, it is an annual friendly match held in Ted's honour by the club he served so well, Southampton FC. A statue of Bates was unveiled outside the main entrance to St Mary's Stadium on 17 March 2007; the statue cost £112,000 half of, raised by fans via the Ted Bates Trust and the other half met by Southampton Football Club. The statue was criticised by supporters just hours after its uncovering, for having tiny little arms and being a closer likeness to former Portsmouth F. C chairman Milan Mandaric than Bates, so the club pledged to organise a replacement; the replacement statue, by sculptor Sean Hedges-Quinn, was unveiled on Saturday 22 March 2008. David Bull. Dell Diamond. Hagiology Publishing. ISBN 0-9534474-0-5. Jeremy Wilson. Southampton's Cult Heroes. Know The Score Books. ISBN 1-905449-01-1. Tribute on Southampton F. C. website Ted Bates management career statistics at Soccerbase Details of Ted Bates Trust
Naming rights are a financial transaction and form of advertising whereby a corporation or other entity purchases the right to name a facility or event for a defined period of time. For properties like a multi-purpose arena, performing arts venue or an athletic field, the term ranges from three to 20 years. Longer terms are more common for higher profile venues such as a professional sports facility; the distinctive characteristic for this type of naming rights is that the buyer gets a marketing property to promote products and services, promote customer retention and/or increase market share. There are several forms of corporate sponsored names. A presenting sponsor attaches the name of the corporation or brand at the end of a generic traditional, name. A title sponsor replaces the original name of the property with a corporate-sponsored one, with no reference to the previous name. In a few cases, naming rights contracts have been terminated prematurely; such terminations may be the result of sponsor bankruptcy, or scandals.
Stadium naming may have shifted in recent years to promoting corporate trade names, but in earlier decades is traced to the family names of company founders. The record for the highest amount paid for naming rights belongs to Scotiabank Arena. On August 29, 2017, a 20-year/$800 Million sponsorship deal was reached between Maple Leaf Sports and Entertainment and Canada's Bank of Nova Scotia to rename Toronto's Air Canada Centre; the home of the NHL's Toronto Maple Leafs and NBA's Toronto Raptors became known as Scotiabank Arena on July 1, 2018. Prior to the Scotiabank Arena deal, the record belonged to Citi Field and Barclays Center, both located in New York City, US; each garnered deals of $20 million per year for at least 20 years. The New Meadowlands Stadium, shared home of the New York Giants and New York Jets in East Rutherford, New Jersey, US. was expected to eclipse both deals, with experts estimating it would value $25–30 million annually. It fell short of that benchmark, with MetLife Stadium earning $17 million annually from its naming rights deal with MetLife.
The purchaser of a stadium's naming rights may choose to donate those rights to an outside organization one to which it is related. The most notable example of this is Friends Arena, a major stadium in Stockholm; the facility was known as Swedbank Arena, but in 2012 that company donated those rights to the Friends Foundation, an organization seeking to combat school bullying, sponsored by Swedbank. More the Kentucky Farm Bureau, an organization promoting the interests of Kentucky farmers, best known to the non-farming public for its insurance business, acquired the naming rights to the University of Kentucky's new baseball park in 2018; the Farm Bureau in turn donated those naming rights to the Kentucky Department of Agriculture, naming the venue Kentucky Proud Park. The sponsored name is the brand used by said state agency in its marketing campaign for agricultural products produced in that state. Naming rights in United States may have been traced back to 1912 with the opening of Fenway Park in Boston.
The stadium's owner had owned a realty company called "Fenway Realty", so the promotional value of the naming has been considered. Despite this, it is more believed to have begun in 1926 when William Wrigley, the chewing gum magnate and owner of the Chicago Cubs, named his team's stadium "Wrigley Field." In 1953, Anheuser-Busch head and St. Louis Cardinals owner August Busch, Jr. proposed renaming Sportsman's Park, occupied by the Cardinals, "Budweiser Stadium". When this idea was rejected by Ford Frick, the Commissioner of Baseball at that time, Anheuser-Busch proposed the title "Busch Stadium" after one of the company's founders; the name was approved, Anheuser-Busch subsequently released a new product called "Busch Bavarian Beer". The name would be shifted to the Busch Memorial Stadium in 1966, shortened in the 1970s to "Busch Stadium" and remained the stadium's name until it closed in 2005. By that time, Major League Baseball's policy had changed – with Coors Field in Denver and Miller Park in Milwaukee going up in that span – and Anheuser-Busch was able to use the same name for the Cardinals' new stadium which opened on April 4, 2006.
Foxboro Stadium, the home of the New England Patriots between 1970 and 2001, was an early example of a team selling naming rights to a company that did not own it, naming the stadium Schaefer Stadium after the beer company from its building until 1983. The public reaction to this practice is mixed. Naming rights sold to new venues have been accepted if the buyer is well-established and has strong local connections to the area, such as the cases of Rich Stadium in the Buffalo suburb of Orchard Park, Heinz Field in Pittsburgh, Coors Field in Denver. Selling the naming rights to an already-existing venue has been notably less successful, as in the attempt to rename Candlestick Park in San Francisco to 3Com Park; the general public continued to call the facility what it had been known as for over three decades–i.e. Candlestick Park. After the agreement with 3Com expired, the rights were resold to Monster Cable, the stadium was renamed Monster Park. San Francisco voters responded by passing an initiative in the November 2004 elections that stipulated the name must revert to Candlestick Park once the contract with Monster expired in 2008.
Friends Provident was an organisation offering life insurance based in the United Kingdom. It was founded as a mutual Friendly Society for Quakers, although it was demutualised in 2001 and became a publicly listed company, no longer linked with the Religious Society of Friends. On 29 March 2011 Friends Provident changed its trading name to Friends Life, although its registered name remains as Friends Provident; the head office was located at 100 Wood Street in London. The registered office is at Dorking in Surrey, it is a member of the Association of British Insurers and is regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority. It was listed on the London Stock Exchange and a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index until being acquired by buyout firm Resolution in November 2009. F&C Asset Management demerged from Friends Provident in 2009. In 2018, it merged into its parent company Aviva, it is now part of the Aviva group The Company was founded by Samuel Tuke and Joseph Rowntree, both Quakers, in 1832 in Bradford as the Friends Provident Institution, a friendly society for members of the Religious Society of Friends.
In 1854 it became a mutual life assurance company. In 1918 it acquired Century Insurance and in 1926 it bought Liverpool Marine & General Insurance. Policies and membership of the Friends Provident Institution were only available to Quakers until 1915; until 1983, a minimum of five members of the Board of Directors of Friends Provident had to be Quakers. Today, Friends Provident does not have any formal link with the Religious Society of Friends. In 1986 it merged with UK Provident. In 1992 it became a foundation partner in the Eureko Alliance in association with AVCB, Topdanmark and Wasa; as part of this alliance, Friends Provident passed all of its non UK subsidiaries into Eureko. In 1993 it acquired the UK operations of National Mutual of Australia and in 1998 it acquired London & Manchester Assurance. In July 2001 it went through a process of demutualisation and was first listed on the London Stock Exchange; as part of the demutualisation the Friends Provident Foundation was endowed as an independent charity.
On 21 January 2008 JC Flowers made a bid of £4bn as an informal offer for the company. Resolution resumed talks with Friends Provident in July 2009 but was rejected twice, though Friends Provident agreed to a takeover in August 2009; the £1.86 billion acquisition closed in November 2009. On 29 March 2011 Friends Provident changed its name to Friends Life; the UK Life and Pensions business markets a range of life protection, income protection and investment products for individual customers and corporate clients throughout the UK. The International Life and Pensions business operates throughout Europe and the Middle East. Trevor Matthews joined the organisation as chief executive on 30 July 2008, his annual salary for this role is £720,000. Friends Provident was the first investment house in the UK to offer a ethical investment fund called the Stewardship fund. Friends Provident Life and Pension Limited - Provides life and investment services within the UK Friends Provident Life Assurance Limited - Provides life and investment services worldwide under English and Guernsey law.
Friends Provident International Limited - Formerly Royal and Sun Alliance International but was taken over in 2003. Provides life and investment services operates under the law of the Isle of Man. Friends Provident had large offices in a number of locations including Manchester, Clyst St. Mary in Exeter and Dorking, was the second largest employer in Salisbury. There are a few smaller area offices such as those in Bristol and Preston. Internationally Friends Provident had offices in Luxembourg, Hong Kong and Dubai. In 2009 the England and Wales Cricket Board announced that Friends Provident would be the title sponsor for the new Twenty20 competition, the Friends Provident T20. In 2007 Friends Provident signed a three-year deal to sponsor the domestic one-day cricket competition, The Friends Provident Trophy. Friends Provident were the main sponsor of Southampton F. C. from 1999 to 2006 and sponsored the St Mary's Stadium, from its construction in 2001 until 2006. During this time, the venue was known as the Friends Provident St. Mary's Stadium.
Official UK site F & C official site International site Clippings about Friends Provident in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
The pound sterling known as the pound and less referred to as sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have currencies called the pound. Sterling is the third most-traded currency in the foreign exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those two currencies and the Chinese yuan, it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights. Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves; the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man produce their own local issues of sterling which are considered equivalent to UK sterling in their respective regions. The pound sterling is used in Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, Saint Helena and Ascension Island in Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha; the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Banknotes issued by other jurisdictions are not regulated by the Bank of England. The full official name pound sterling, is used in formal contexts and when it is necessary to distinguish the United Kingdom currency from other currencies with the same name. Otherwise the term pound is used; the currency name is sometimes abbreviated to just sterling in the wholesale financial markets, but not when referring to specific amounts. The abbreviations "ster." and "stg." are sometimes used. The term "British pound" is sometimes incorrectly used in less formal contexts, it is not an official name of the currency; the exchange rate of the pound sterling against the US dollar is referred to as "cable" in the wholesale foreign exchange markets. The origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the GBP/USD exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex traders of GBP/USD are sometimes referred to as "cable dealers". GBP/USD is now the only currency pair with its own name in the foreign exchange markets, after IEP/USD, known as "wire" in the forward FX markets, no longer exists after the Irish Pound was replaced by the euro in 1999.
There is apparent convergence of opinion regarding the origin of the term "pound sterling", toward its derivation from the name of a small Norman silver coin, away from its association with Easterlings or other etymologies. Hence, the Oxford English Dictionary state that the "most plausible" etymology is derivation from the Old English steorra for "star" with the added diminutive suffix "-ling", to mean "little star" and to refer to a silver penny of the English Normans; as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived: However, the perceived narrow window of the issuance of this coin, the fact that coin designs changed in the period in question, led Philip Grierson to reject this in favour of a more complex theory. Another argument that the Hanseatic League was the origin for both the origin of its definition and manufacture, in its name is that the German name for the Baltic is "Ost See", or "East Sea", from this the Baltic merchants were called "Osterlings", or "Easterlings".
In 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called "Easterlings Hall", or Esterlingeshalle. Because the League's money was not debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the "Easterlings", contracted to "'sterling". For further discussion of the etymology of "sterling", see sterling silver; the currency sign for the pound is £, written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. This symbol derives from medieval Latin documents; the ISO 4217 currency code is GBP, formed from "GB", the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the United Kingdom, the first letter of "pound". It does not stand for "Great Britain Pound" or "Great British Pound"; the abbreviation "UKP" is used but this is non-standard because the ISO 3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes: GGP, JEP and IMP. Stocks are traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices.
A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, singular and plural, except in the common phrase "quids in!". The term may have come via Italian immigrants from "scudo", the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century.