Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P
St Mawes is a small town opposite Falmouth, on the Roseland Peninsula on the south coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom. It lies on the east bank of the Carrick Roads, a large waterway created after the Ice Age from an ancient valley which flooded as the melt waters caused the sea level to rise dramatically; the immense natural harbour created is claimed to be the third largest in the world. It was once a busy fishing port, but the trade declined during the 20th century and it now serves as a popular tourist location, with many properties in the town functioning as holiday accommodation; the town is in the civil parish of St Just in Roseland. A year-round ferry provides a service to Falmouth, less than a mile away by boat, but due to its proximity to the Fal estuary it is some 30 miles away by road; the Place Ferry operates from Good Friday to the end of October. The town takes its name from the Celtic saint Saint Maudez, who may have come from Ireland but is venerated in Brittany. A name:'Musidum' in Roman times, has subsequently been applied to St. Mawes, although the source is dubious.
St Mawes was once an important town and was made a borough in 1563, returning two members to parliament. It was disfranchised in 1832; the town was described, in 1880, by an anonymous writer... as a quiet little fishing village, consists of a long straggling street, fronting the water. St Mawes Castle is a well-preserved coastal fortress from the time of Henry VIII, built to counter the invasion threat from the Continent. Charles Henderson, writing in 1925, says of St Mawes, "an ancient fishing town which in late years has assumed the different and more sophisticated character of a watering place"; the seal of St Mawes was Az. A bend lozengy Or between a tower in the sinister chief Arg. and a ship with three masts the sail furled in the dexter base of the second, with the legend "Commune Sigillum Burgi de St. Mawes al Mauditt. Just outside the town is a closed British Leyland garage on Polvarth Road which retains the British Leyland logo on a hoarding outside. St Mawes lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
A third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status and protection as a National Park. There have been frequent private visits to St Mawes by members of the Royal Family including HM Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, HRH Princess Margaret and more the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall who ended their stay in July 2008 by naming the new St Mawes ferry The Duchess of Cornwall. HM The Queen visited St Mawes in 1977 during her Silver Jubilee Tour. In June 2002 for The Queen's Golden Jubilee and, with a brand new cast in June 2012 for the Diamond Jubilee, The Queen's Coronation was re-enacted in great detail by the young people of the village in a ceremony entitled "The Children's Coronation"; the name of the town comes from Saint Maudez, a Breton saint, there was a chapel here dedicated to him with his holy well nearby. Its existence in 1427 is mentioned in George Oliver's Monasticon and it remained in use until the reign of Elizabeth I when it was abandoned. From that time until ca 1838 there was no chapel for the townspeople until a private chapel built in 1807 by the Marquis of Buckingham was licensed by the Bishop.
This was on a different site and was rebuilt in 1881. St Mawes continued however to be in the parish of St Just in Roseland. St Mawes' Church, St Mawes was opened in 1884. There is a Methodist church, it is a Grade II listed building. The Agatha Christie film Murder Ahoy was filmed here. An episode of the TV series Hornblower was filmed here; as well as this St Mawes is considered to be home to one of the oldest small Cornish bakeries in the county of Cornwall. The St Mawes bakery is estimated to have been founded in 1912 by the Curtis family making it 100 years old in 2012. Although the bakeries premises is much older. In planning law the business exists as an eco business due to the fact that all products are made on a site less than 300 M away from the place of sale and are therefore transported by hand. In March 2012 a new limited edition of Monopoly was published, with ferries replacing railway stations and a variety of property for sale from the butcher, the harbour office, the sailing club and several hotels and guest houses, to three beaches and Lamorran gardens.
In the novels by Robert Galbraith, detective Cormoran Strike grew up in St Mawes, associates happy parts of his childhood with the town. Barry Bucknell — BBC TV presenter who popularised Do It Yourself in the United Kingdom. David Richards — former racing driver and owner of Aston Martin Frank Williams — founder and team principal of the WilliamsF1 Formula One racing team Olga Polizzi — daughter of Lord Forte, sister of Sir Rocco Forte, mother of The Hotel Inspector presenter Alex Polizzi. Lord Shawcross — former Attorney General, his son William Shawcross, writer Maurice Carbonnell, Saint Maudez - Saint Mandé, un maître du monachisme breton, 2009: ISBN 2-914996-06-3 Pollard, Chris; the Book of St Mawes. Wellington, Somerset: Halsgrove. ISBN 978-1-84114-631-7. Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for St Mawes St Mawes at Curlie
Sir Robert Killigrew was an English courtier and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1601 and 1629. He served as Ambassador to the United Provinces. Killgrew was born at Lothbury, the son of William Killigrew and his wife Margery Saunders, daughter of Thomas Saunders of Uxbridge, Middlesex. In January 1591, he matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford at the age of 11, he travelled abroad in 1596 and may have become an official of the Privy Chamber in 1601. He was elected MP for St Mawes in 1601. Killigrew was knighted by King James I in 1603. In 1604 he was elected MP for Newport, it is possible that he travelled to Jamestown in 1604. His name appears in the Second Charter of Virginia as a backer. In 1606 he was appointed ambassador to the United Provinces. In June 1612, Killigrew was noted as "one of Carr's favourites" according to John Chamberlain; the following May, he was committed to the Fleet Prison for an unknown offence. Having become famous for his concoctions of drugs and cordials, he was at first suspected of complicity in the death of Sir Thomas Overbury in September 1613, but was subsequently exonerated.
In 1614, Killigrew was elected MP for Helston. On 12 May that year, he was involved in an altercation in the House of Commons. In July, he was appointed Keeper of Pendennis Castle, a JP that same year, he is recorded as fighting a duel with Captain Burton in 1618. In October that year he was appointed an Officer of Protonotary of Chancery, in December the following year was mentioned favourably by Buckingham. In 1621 Killigrew was elected again MP for Newport. In 1622 he succeeded his father to become farmer of the profits from seals in King’s bench and common pleas, worth at least £560 a year, he was elected MP for Penryn and was appointed Deputy Lieutenant for Cornwall in 1624. In 1625 he was elected MP for Cornwall, he was appointed Ambassador to the United Provinces in September 1625, but this was not taken up by December that year. In 1626, he was elected MP for Tregony in 1626. In 1628 he was elected MP for Bodmin and sat until 1629 when King Charles decided to rule without parliament for eleven years.
He was appointed Vice-Chamberlain to Queen Henrietta Maria in 1630. Killigrew was a knight of Arwenack in Cornwall, he died a wealthy man in 1633 in Bath, with the probate of his will on 12 May. He married Mary Woodhouse of Kimberley and they had several notable children: William Killigrew Anne Killigrew Robert Killigrew Thomas Killigrew Henry Killigrew Elizabeth Killigrew Catherine Killigrew, wife of Sir Thomas Stanley Elizabeth Killigrew, wife of Francis Boyle, 1st Viscount Shannon, was a mistress of Charles II and bore him a daughter Mary Killigrew wife of Sir John James, she has been confused in other biographies with Mary Sackville --the widowed Countess of Falmouth—who was another mistressHis widow married Sir Thomas Stafford after 1633. Dictionary of National Biography
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House; the Commons is an elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved; the House of Commons of England started to evolve in 14th centuries. It became the House of Commons of Great Britain after the political union with Scotland in 1707, assumed the title of "House of Commons of Great Britain and Ireland" after the political union with Ireland at the start of the 19th century; the "United Kingdom" referred to was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1800, became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922.
Accordingly, the House of Commons assumed its current title. Under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power; the Government is responsible to the House of Commons and the Prime Minister stays in office only as long as she or he retains the confidence of a majority of the Commons. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance. By convention, the prime minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the Sovereign appoints the person who has the support of the House, or, most to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the Commons, while the leader of the second-largest party becomes the Leader of the Opposition. Since 1963, by convention, the prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords.
The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are phrased explicitly, for instance: "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government." Many other motions were until recent decades considered confidence issues though not explicitly phrased as such: in particular, important bills that were part of the Government's agenda. The annual Budget is still considered a matter of confidence; when a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the prime minister is obliged either to resign, making way for another MP who can command confidence, or to request the monarch to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. Parliament sits for a maximum term of five years. Subject to that limit, the prime minister could choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament, with the permission of the Monarch. However, since the Fixed-Term Parliaments Act 2011, terms are now a fixed five years, an early general election is brought about by a two-thirds majority in favour of a motion for a dissolution, or by a vote of no confidence, not followed within fourteen days by a vote of confidence.
By this second mechanism, the UK's government can change its political composition without an intervening general election. Only four of the eight last Prime Ministers have attained office as the immediate result of a general election; the latter four were Jim Callaghan, John Major, Gordon Brown and the current Prime Minister Theresa May. In such circumstances there may not have been an internal party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim, having no electoral rival. A prime minister will resign after party defeat at an election if unable to lead a coalition, or obtain a confidence and supply arrangement, she or he may resign after a motion of no confidence or for health reasons. In such cases, the premiership goes to, it has become the practice to write the constitution of major UK political parties to provide a set way in which to appoint a new leader. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no fixed mechanism for this, it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the consensus of cabinet ministers.
By convention, ministers are members of the House of House of Lords. A handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Exceptions include Peter Mandelson, appointed Secretary of State for Business and Regulatory Reform in October 2008 before his peerage. Since 1902, all prime ministers have been members of the Commons; the new session of Parliament was delayed to await the outcome of his by-election, which happened
Nicholas Fuller (lawyer)
Sir Nicholas Fuller was an English barrister and Member of Parliament. After studying at Christ's College, Fuller became a barrister of Gray's Inn, his legal career there began prosperously—he was employed by the Privy Council to examine witnesses—but was hampered by his representation of the Puritans, a religious tendency which did not conform with the established Church of England. Fuller was in contention with the ecclesiastical courts, including the Star Chamber and Court of High Commission, was once expelled for the zeal with which he defended his client. In 1593 he was returned as the Member of Parliament for St Mawes, where he campaigned against the extension of recusancy laws. Outside of Parliament, he brought a patents case which not only undermined the right of the Crown to issue patents but predicted the attitude taken by the Statute of Monopolies two decades later. Returned to Parliament in 1604 for the City of London, Fuller became considered the "leader of the opposition" due to his conflict with the government over policy, fighting the impositions on currants, the patent on blue starch, opposing the proposed union with Scotland on legal and economic grounds.
In 1607, in what became known as Fuller's Case, he again began challenging the Court of High Commission, got the Court of Common Pleas under Sir Edward Coke to agree that the common law courts had the power to free imprisoned ecclesiastical prisoners. These encounters with the ecclesiastical courts were described as "bruising", but by 1610 he was considered an "elder statesman", introducing bills on ecclesiastical reform and the statutory management of customs duties, he continued to sit in Parliament until his death on 23 February 1620. Fuller was born in 1543 to Nicholas Fuller of Neat's Hall on the Isle of Sheppey, a merchant from London. In December 1560 he was admitted to Christ's College and graduated in 1563, joining Gray's Inn during the same year. After an initial upset, Fuller was successful at Gray's. Fuller was a Puritan, much engaged in their legal and other activities, for example, he arranged a lecturer for St Christopher le Stocks, a church in London, in April 1577. From December 1588 he was employed by the Privy Council to examine witnesses, in 1590 was charged with interrogating Sir Thomas Fitzherbert.
Although his career had begun promisingly, Fuller soon found himself at odds with the authorities due to his religion, the religion of those he chose to represent. A favoured barrister of Puritans prosecuted based on their faith, Fuller represented John Udall at Croydon assizes, when Udall was charged with having written A Discovery of the Discipline, an seditious book; the judge instructed the jury to find Udall guilty, "leave the felony to us". In 1591, following the collapse of their case in front of the Court of High Commission, Thomas Cartwright and other Puritan ministers were tried by the Star Chamber; the case was made more complicated when several of the ministers, on 16 July 1591, "proclaimed Elizabeth deposed, William Hacket the new messiah and king of Europe". Cartwright and several other ministers were never convicted, attributed to "the professional resistance of the puritan lawyers owed much to Nicholas Fuller". Fuller was confined until 15 August. Fuller was returned for St Mawes in 1593 thanks to the influence of William Cecil, began campaigning against government attempts to extend recusancy laws to Protestant splitters from the Church of England.
The government introduced two such bills. According to records, "upon a motion of Mr Fuller's, the whole committee assented to the striking out of the title and the whole preamble. No man spake for it". While an MP, Fuller became involved in patents cases, which continued after he left Parliament in 1597. Patents were intended to provide protection to merchants of new industries, making England an attractive country to conduct business in; the granting of these patents was popular with the monarch, both before and after the statute of Monopolies, because of the potential for raising revenue. A patentee was expected to pay for the patent, unlike a tax raise any public unrest as a result of the patent was directed at the patentee, not the monarch. Over time, this became more and more problematic: instead of temporary monopolies on specific, imported industries, long-term monopolies came about over common commodities, including salt and starch; these "odious monopolies" led to a showdown between the Crown and Parliament, in which it was agreed, on 28 November 1601, to turn the power to administer patents over to the common law courts.
One of the monopolies capable of being addressed at the common law was that over playing cards, granted to Edward Darcy on 13 June 1600. Darcy, in 1602, began proceedings against a Mr Allen for infringing on this patent; the Crown was r
4th Parliament of King James I
The Happy Parliament was the fourth and last Parliament of England of the reign of James I of England, summoned in 30 December 1623, sitting from 19 February 1624 to 29 May 1624, thereafter kept out of session with repeated prorogations, it was dissolved on the death of the King on 27 March 1625. The Speaker of the House of Commons was the member for Aylesbury; the parliament was referred to as "Fælix Parliamentum" or the "Happy Parliament" by Sir Edward Coke. The three previous parliaments of James I had been a source of conflict and the King's opening address to the Commons commented on the "desire of all parties to forget past disagreements." However the parliamentary session was clouded by mutual suspicion and nearly every speech made tacit or explicit comments with reference to previous sessions. Charles, Prince of Wales and the Duke of Buckingham used the Parliament to aid their push for a war against Spain. Buckingham and Charles played a large role in ensuring the impeachment of Lord High Treasurer Lionel Cranfield, opposed to a war for financial reasons.
The Fourth Parliament sat for only one session, which ran from 19 February 1624 to 29 May 1624. Its second session was scheduled to start on 2 November 1624, but it was prorogued before opening to 16 February 1625 again to 15 March and once more to 20 April. However, before that last date arrived, King James I died, the Fourth Parliament was dissolved. Statute of Monopolies 1623 Common Informers Act 1623 Intrusions Act 1623 Forcible Entry Act 1623 Limitation Act 1623 Crown Lands Act 1623 List of MPs elected to the English parliament in 1624 Acts of the 4th Parliament of King James I List of Parliaments of England Duration of English Parliaments before 1660 Cobbett, W; the Parliamentary History of England, I, p. 1506 Coke, Sir Edward, The third part of the Institutes of the laws of England: concerning high treason, other pleas of the crown, criminal causes, 3, London: Thomas Basset, p. 2 Ruigh, Robert E. The Parliament of 1624: Politics and Foreign Policy, Harvard University Press, p. 2, ISBN 978-0-674-65225-5 Smith, David L.
A History of the Modern British Isles 1603-1707: The Double Crown, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 0631194029 Willis, Browne. Notitia Parliamentaria, Part II: A Series or Lists of the Representatives in the several Parliaments held from the Reformation 1541, to the Restoration 1660... London. P. 187. Thrush, Andrew, "The Parliament of 1624", in Thrush, Andrew; the History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1604-1629, Cambridge University Press Baker, Philip, 1624 Proceedings: The House of Commons, Blog at WordPress.com
Cavalier was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, the Restoration. It was adopted by the Royalists themselves. Although it referred to political and social attitudes and behaviour, of which clothing was a small part, it has subsequently become identified with the fashionable clothing of the court at the time. Prince Rupert, commander of much of Charles I's cavalry, is considered to be an archetypal Cavalier. Cavalier derives from the same Latin root as the French word chevalier, the Vulgar Latin word caballarius, meaning "horseman". Shakespeare used the word cavaleros to describe an overbearing swashbuckler or swaggering gallant in Henry IV, Part 2, in which Shallow says "I'll drink to Master Bardolph, to all the cavaleros about London". "Cavalier" is chiefly associated with the Royalist supporters of King Charles I in his struggle with Parliament in the English Civil War.
It first appears as a term of reproach and contempt, applied to the followers of King Charles I in June 1642: 1642 Propositions of Parlt. in Clarendon v. I. 504 Several sorts of malignant Men, who were about the King. 1642 Petition Lords & Com. 17 June in Rushw. Coll. III. I. 631 That your Majesty..would please to dismiss your extraordinary Guards, the Cavaliers and others of that Quality, who seem to have little Interest or Affection to the publick Good, their Language and Behaviour speaking nothing but Division and War. Charles, in the Answer to the Petition 13 June 1642 speaks of Cavaliers as a "word by what mistake soever it seemes much in disfavour", it was soon reappropriated by the king's party, who in return applied Roundhead to their opponents, at the Restoration the court party preserved the name, which survived until the rise of the term Tory. Cavalier was not understood at the time as a term describing a style of dress, but a whole political and social attitude. However, in modern times the word has become more associated with the court fashions of the period, which included long flowing hair in ringlets, brightly coloured clothing with elaborate trimmings and lace collars and cuffs, plumed hats.
This contrasted with the dress of at least the most extreme Roundhead supporters of Parliament, with their preference for shorter hair and plainer dress, although neither side conformed to the stereotypical images entirely. Most Parliamentarian generals wore their hair at much the same length as their Royalist counterparts, though Cromwell was something of an exception; the best patrons in the nobility of Charles I's court painter Sir Anthony van Dyck, the archetypal recorder of the Cavalier image, all took the Parliamentary side in the Civil War. The most famous image identified as of a "cavalier", Frans Hals' Laughing Cavalier, shows a gentleman from the Calvinist Dutch town of Haarlem, is dated 1624; these derogatory terms showed what the typical Parliamentarian thought of the Royalist side – capricious men who cared more for vanity than the nation at large. The chaplain to King Charles I, Edward Simmons described a Cavalier as "a Child of Honour, a Gentleman well borne and bred, that loves his king for conscience sake, of a clearer countenance, bolder look than other men, because of a more loyal Heart".
There were many men in the Royalist armies who fit this description since most of the Royalist field officers were in their early thirties, married with rural estates which had to be managed. Although they did not share the same outlook on how to worship God as the English Independents of the New Model Army, God was central to their lives; this type of Cavalier was personified by Jacob Astley, 1st Baron Astley of Reading, whose prayer at the start of the Battle of Edgehill has become famous "O Lord, Thou knowest how busy I must be this day. If I forget Thee, do not forget me". At the end of the First Civil War Astley gave his word that he would not take up arms again against Parliament and having given his word he felt duty bound to refuse to help the Royalist cause in the Second Civil War. However, the word was coined by the Roundheads as a pejorative propaganda image of a licentious, hard drinking and frivolous man, who if thought of God, it is this image which has survived and many Royalists, for example Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester, fitted this description to a tee.
Of another Cavalier, George Goring, Lord Goring, a general in the Royalist army, the principal advisor to Charles II, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, said: would, without hesitation, have broken any trust, or done any act of treachery to have satisfied an ordinary passion or appetite. Of all his qualifications dissimulation was his masterpiece; this sense has developed into the modern English use of "cavalier" to describe a recklessly nonchalant attitude, although still with a suggestion of stylishness. Cavalier remained in use as a description for members of the party that supported the monarchy up until the Exclusion Crisis of 1678–1681 w