An aisle is, in general, a space for walking with rows of seats on both sides or with rows of seats on one side and a wall on the other. Aisles can be seen in airplanes, certain types of buildings, such as churches, synagogues, meeting halls and legislatures, theatres, in certain types of passenger vehicles, their floors, as in theatres, stepped upwards from a stage. Aisles can be seen in shops and factories, where rather than seats, they have shelving to either side. In warehouses and factories, aisles may consist of storage pallets, in factories, aisles may separate work areas. In health clubs, exercise equipment is arranged in aisles. Aisles are distinguished from corridors, walkways, footpaths/pavements, paths and "open areas". Aisles have certain general physical characteristics: They are always straight, not curved, they are fairly long. An open space that had three rows of chairs to the right of it and three to the left would not be considered an "aisle". Theatres, meeting halls, etc. have aisles wide enough for 2-3 strangers to walk past each other without feeling uncomfortably close.
In such facilities, anything that could comfortably accommodate more than 4 people side-by-side would be considered an "open area", rather than an "aisle". Factory work area aisles are wide enough for workers to comfortably sit or stand at their work area, while allowing safe and efficient movement of persons, equipment and/or materials. Passage aisles are quite narrow—wide enough for a large person to carry a suitcase in each hand but not wide enough for two people to pass side-by-side without touching. Without luggage one person must turn sideways in order for the other one to pass. Warehouse aisles are at least 8–10 feet wide, to allow use of mechanical loading equipment. Wedding aisles are wide enough to allow two people to walk comfortably beside each other and still have space; the width of these aisles is up to those who design the layout of the wedding. Vehicle aisles are wide enough to allow a designated type of vehicle to pass two way. Width varies for vehicle type and other variables like no of parking accessibility etc.
Note that spaces between buildings, e. g. rows of storage sheds, would not be considered "aisles" if the same amount of separation would be considered an aisle in a warehouse. Aisles are common in weddings when a bride walk down it. In architecture, an aisle is more the wing of a house, or a lateral division of a large building; the earliest examples of aisles date back to the Roman times and can be found in the Basilica Ulpia, which had double aisles on either side of its central area. The church of St. Peter's in Rome has the same number. In church architecture, an aisle is more a passageway to either side of the nave, separated from the nave by colonnades or arcades, a row of pillars or columns. Aisles stop at the transepts, but aisles can be continued around the apse. Aisles are thus categorized as transept-aisles or choir-aisles. A semi-circular choir with aisles continued around it, providing access to a series of chapels, is a chevet. In Gothic architecture, the aisles' roofs are lower than that of the nave, allowing light to enter through clerestory windows.
In Romanesque architecture, the roofs are at equal heights, with those of the aisle being only lower than that of the nave. In Germany, churches where the roofs of the aisles and nave are the same height, such as St. Stephen's, the Wiesenkirche at Soest, St. Martin's, the Frauenkirche in Munich are known as Hallenkirchen; when discussing overall design, architectural historians include the centrally-positioned nave in the number of aisles. Thus the original St Peter's Basilica in Rome, Milan Cathedral, Amiens Cathedral, Notre Dame de Paris and Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia are all described as having five aisles, meaning they have two side aisles either side of the nave. Antwerp Cathedral has seven aisles. In the United Kingdom, cathedrals only have one aisle on each side, with Chichester Cathedral, Elgin Cathedral and St Mary Magdalene, Taunton being the only three exceptions. In supermarkets there are two types of aisles, food aisles and checkout aisles. Food aisles are. At the end of food aisles may be found crown end displays, where high-margin goods are displayed for impulse purchase.
In retail stores that do not sell food, aisles containing products would be referred to either generically as merchandise aisles, or by the particular products contained in the aisle, e.g. "the gardening aisle", "the sports equipment aisle". Checkout aisles contain. Regardless of the type of merchandise the establishment sells, it is common to display a range of "impulse buy" items along the checkout aisle, such as cold beverages and candy; these are called "lanes" to distinguish them from the food aisles. For customer convenience and retail stores number the aisles and have signs indicating both the aisle number and the types of products displayed in that aisle. Churches, courtrooms and meeting halls may identify individual rows, seats or sections but do not assign aisle numbers or display signs regarding aisles. Libraries are divided into several areas: Circulation desk Collections, areas where materials are grouped, e
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organization and doctrine. Individual bodies, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, such as church or sometimes fellowship. Divisions between one group and another are defined by doctrine. Groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs and historical ties—are sometimes known as "branches of Christianity"; these branches differ in many ways through differences in practices and belief. Individual denominations vary in the degree to which they recognize one another. Several groups claim to be the direct and sole authentic successor of the church founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. Others, believe in denominationalism, where some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices; because of this concept, some Christian bodies reject the term "denomination" to describe themselves, to avoid implying equivalency with other churches or denominations.
The Catholic Church which claims 1.2 billion members – over half of all Christians worldwide – does not view itself as a denomination, but as the original pre-denominational church, a view rejected by other Christians. Protestant denominations account for 37 percent of Christians worldwide. Together and Protestantism comprise Western Christianity. Western Christian denominations prevail in Western, Northern and Southern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania; the Eastern Orthodox Church, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents, is the second-largest Christian organization in the world and considers itself the original pre-denominational church. Unlike the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church is itself a communion of independent autocephalous churches that mutually recognize each other to the exclusion of others; the Eastern Orthodox Church, together with Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East, constitutes Eastern Christianity. Eastern Christian denominations are represented in Eastern Europe, North Asia, the Middle East, Northeast Africa and South India.
Christians have various doctrines about the Church and about how the divine church corresponds to Christian denominations. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox hold that their own organizations faithfully represent the One Holy catholic and Apostolic Church to the exclusion of the other. Sixteenth-century Protestants separated from the Catholic Church because of theologies and practices that they considered to be in violation of their own interpretation. Members of the various denominations acknowledge each other as Christians, at least to the extent that they have mutually recognized baptisms and acknowledge orthodox views including the Divinity of Jesus and doctrines of sin and salvation though doctrinal and ecclesiological obstacles hinder full communion between churches. Since the reforms surrounding the Second Vatican Council of 1962–1965, the Catholic Church has referred to Protestant communities as "denominations", while reserving the term "church" for apostolic churches, including the Eastern Orthodox.
But some non-denominational Christians do not follow any particular branch, though sometimes regarded as Protestants. Each group uses different terminology to discuss their beliefs; this section will discuss the definitions of several terms used throughout the article, before discussing the beliefs themselves in detail in following sections. A denomination within Christianity can be defined as a "recognized autonomous branch of the Christian Church". "Church" as a synonym, refers to a "particular Christian organization with its own clergy and distinctive doctrines". Some traditional and evangelical Protestants draw a distinction between membership in the universal church and fellowship within the local church. Becoming a believer in Christ makes one a member of the universal church; some evangelical groups describe themselves as interdenominational fellowships, partnering with local churches to strengthen evangelical efforts targeting a particular group with specialized needs, such as students or ethnic groups.
A related concept is denominationalism, the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices.. Protestant leaders differ from the views of the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, the two largest Christian denominations; each church makes mutually exclusive claims for itself to be t
Saint Nicholas of Myra known as Nicholas of Bari, was an early Christian bishop of the ancient Greek maritime city of Myra in Asia Minor during the time of the Roman Empire. He is revered by many Christians as a saint; because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession, he is known as Nicholas the Wonderworker. Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors, archers, repentant thieves, brewers and students in various cities and countries around Europe, his reputation evolved among the faithful, as was common for early Christian saints, his legendary habit of secret gift-giving gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus through Sinterklaas. Little is known about the historical Saint Nicholas; the earliest accounts of his life were written centuries after his death and contain many legendary elaborations. He is said to have been born in the Greek seaport of Patara, Lycia in Asia Minor to wealthy Christian parents. In one of the earliest attested and most famous incidents from his life, he is said to have rescued three girls from being forced into prostitution by dropping a sack of gold coins through the window of their house each night for three nights so their father could pay a dowry for each of them.
Other early stories tell of him calming a storm at sea, saving three innocent soldiers from wrongful execution, chopping down a tree possessed by a demon. In his youth, he is said to have made a pilgrimage to the Palestine area. Shortly after his return, he became Bishop of Myra, he was cast into prison during the persecution of Diocletian, but was released after the accession of Constantine. An early list makes him an attendee at the First Council of Nicaea in 325, but he is never mentioned in any writings by people who were at the council. Late, unsubstantiated legends claim that he was temporarily defrocked and imprisoned during the Council for slapping the heretic Arius. Another famous late legend tells how he resurrected three children, murdered and pickled in brine by a butcher planning to sell them as pork during a famine. Fewer than 200 years after Nicholas's death, the St. Nicholas Church was built in Myra under the orders of Theodosius II over the site of the church, where he had served as bishop and Nicholas's remains were moved to a sarcophagus in that church.
In 1087, while the Greek Christian inhabitants of the region were subjugated by the newly arrived Muslim Seljuk Turks, soon after their church was declared to be in schism by the Catholic church, a group of merchants from the Italian city of Bari removed the major bones of Nicholas's skeleton from his sarcophagus in the church without authorization and brought them to their hometown, where they are now enshrined in the Basilica di San Nicola. The remaining bone fragments from the sarcophagus were removed by Venetian sailors and taken to Venice during the First Crusade, his relics in Bari are said to exude a miraculous watery substance known as "manna" or "myrrh", which some members of the faithful regard as possessing supernatural powers. Little at all is known about Saint Nicholas's historical life. Any writings Nicholas himself may have produced have been lost and he is not mentioned by any contemporary chroniclers; this is not surprising. Furthermore, all written records were kept on papyrus or parchment, which were less durable than modern paper, texts needed to be periodically recopied by hand onto new material in order to be preserved.
The earliest mentions of Saint Nicholas indicate that, by the sixth century, his cult was well-established. Less than two hundred years after Saint Nicholas's probable death, the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II ordered the building of the Church of Saint Nicholas in Myra, which thereby preserves an early mention of his name; the Byzantine historian Procopius mentions that the Emperor Justinian I renovated churches in Constantinople dedicated to Saint Nicholas and Saint Priscus, which may have been built as early as c. 490. Nicholas's name occurs as "Nicholas of Myra of Lycia" on the tenth line of a list of attendees at the Council of Nicaea recorded by the historian Theodoret in the Historiae Ecclesiasticae Tripartitae Epitome, written sometime between 510 and 515. A single, offhand mention of Nicholas of Myra occurs in the biography of another saint, Saint Nicholas of Sion, who took the name "Nicholas" to honor him; the Life of Saint Nicholas of Sion, written around 250 years after Nicholas of Myra's death mentions Nicholas of Sion visiting Nicholas's tomb to pay homage to him.
According to Jeremy Seal, the fact that Nicholas had a tomb that could be visited serves as the solitary definitive proof that he was a real historical figure. In his treatise De statu animarum post mortem, the theologian Eustratius of Constantinople cites Saint Nicholas of Myra's miracle of the three counts as evidence that souls may work independent from the body. Eustratius credits a lost Life of Saint Nicholas as his source. Nearly all the sources Eustratius references date from the late fourth century to early fifth century, indicating the Life of Saint Nicholas to which he refers was written during this time period, shortly after Nicholas's death; the earliest complete account of Nicholas's life that has survived to the present is a Life of Saint Nicholas, written in the early ninth century by Michael the Archimandrite, nearly 500 years after Nicholas's probable death. Despite its late date, Michael the Archimandrite's Life of Saint Nicholas is believed to rely on old
The term Norman architecture is used to categorise styles of Romanesque architecture developed by the Normans in the various lands under their dominion or influence in the 11th and 12th centuries. In particular the term is traditionally used for English Romanesque architecture; the Normans introduced large numbers of castles and fortifications including Norman keeps, at the same time monasteries, abbeys and cathedrals, in a style characterised by the usual Romanesque rounded arches and massive proportions compared to other regional variations of the style. These Romanesque styles originated in Normandy and became widespread in north western Europe in England, which contributed considerable development and has the largest number of surviving examples. At about the same time a Norman dynasty ruled in Sicily, producing a distinctive variation incorporating Byzantine and Saracen influences, known as Norman architecture, or alternatively as Sicilian Romanesque. Ancient Rome's invention of the arch is the basis of all Norman architecture.
The term may have originated with eighteenth-century antiquarians, but its usage in a sequence of styles has been attributed to Thomas Rickman in his 1817 work An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest to the Reformation which used the labels "Norman, Early English and Perpendicular". The more inclusive term romanesque was used of the Romance languages in English by 1715, was applied to architecture of the eleventh and twelfth centuries from 1819. Although Edward the Confessor built Westminster Abbey in Romanesque style just before the Conquest, still believed to be the earliest major Romanesque building in England, no significant remaining Romanesque architecture in Britain can be shown to predate the Conquest, although historians believe that many surviving "Norman" elements in buildings, nearly all churches, may well in fact be Anglo-Saxon; the Norman arch is a defining point of Norman architecture. Grand archways are designed to evoke feelings of awe and are commonly seen as the entrance to large religious buildings such as cathedrals.
Viking invaders arrived at the mouth of the river Seine in 911, at a time when Franks were fighting on horseback and Frankish lords were building castles. Over the next century the population of the territory ceded to the Vikings, now called Normans, adopted these customs as well as Christianity and the langue d'oïl. Norman barons built timber castles on earthen mounds, beginning the development of motte-and-bailey castles, great stone churches in the Romanesque style of the Franks. By 950, they were building stone; the Normans were among the most travelled peoples of Europe, exposing them to a wide variety of cultural influences which became incorporated in their art and architecture. They elaborated on the early Christian basilica plan. Longitudinal with side aisles and an apse they began to add in towers, as at the Church of Saint-Étienne]] at Caen, in 1067; this would form a model for the larger English cathedrals some 20 years later. In England, Norman nobles and bishops had influence before the Norman Conquest of 1066, Norman influences affected late Anglo-Saxon architecture.
Edward the Confessor was brought up in Normandy and in 1042 brought masons to work on the first Romanesque building in England, Westminster Abbey. In 1051 he brought in Norman knights. Following the invasion, Normans constructed motte-and-bailey castles along with churches and more elaborate fortifications such as Norman stone keeps; the buildings show massive proportions in simple geometries using small bands of sculpture. Paying attention to the concentrated spaces of capitals and round doorways as well as the tympanum under an arch; the "Norman arch" is the rounded with mouldings carved or incised onto it for decoration. Chevron patterns termed "zig-zag mouldings", were a frequent signature of the Normans; the cruciform churches had deep chancels and a square crossing tower which has remained a feature of English ecclesiastical architecture. Hundreds of parish churches were built and the great English cathedrals were founded from 1083. After a fire damaged Canterbury Cathedral in 1174 Norman masons introduced the new Gothic architecture.
Around 1191 Wells Cathedral and Lincoln Cathedral brought in the English Gothic style, Norman became a modest style of provincial building. Oxford Castle 1074: church tower doubles as a place of refuge St John's Chapel, Tower of London Durham Cathedral was the first to employ a ribbed vault system with pointed arches Winchester Cathedral Ely Cathedral Peterborough Cathedral Kilpeck Church, Herefordshire St Nicholas Church, Surrey Southwell Minster St Mary the Virgin, Oxfordshire St Swithun's in Nately Scures, Hampshire, an example of a Norman single-cell apsidal church. Norwich Cathedral St Edward's Church St Botolph's Priory, Colchester St John's Abbey, Colchester St Peter’s Church, Rutland – Norman chancel Dunstable PrioryBibliography Sedding, Edmund H. Norman Architecture in Cornwall: a handbook to old ecclesiastical architecture. With over 160 plates. London: Ward & Co. White Tower Rochester Castle Norwich Castle Colchester Castle, the largest Norman castle built and the first stone Keep in England Hedingham Castle, Essex Jew's House, Lincoln Boothby Pagnell Manor, Lincolnshire Oakham Castle, Rutland Moyse's Hall Museum Bury St Edmunds Suffolk Scotland came under early
Anglo-Catholicism, Anglican Catholicism, or Catholic Anglicanism comprises people and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise the Catholic heritage and identity of the various Anglican churches. The term Anglo-Catholic was coined in the early 19th century, although movements emphasising the Catholic nature of Anglicanism had existed. Influential in the history of Anglo-Catholicism were the Caroline Divines of the seventeenth century and the leaders of the Oxford Movement, which began at the University of Oxford in 1833 and ushered in a period of Anglican history known as the "Catholic Revival". A minority of Anglo-Catholics, sometimes called Anglican Papalists, consider themselves under papal supremacy though they are not in communion with the Roman Catholic Church; such Anglo-Catholics in England celebrate Mass according to the contemporary Roman Catholic rite and are concerned with seeking reunion with the Roman Catholic Church. In addition, members of the personal ordinariates for former Anglicans created by Pope Benedict XVI are sometimes unofficially referred to as "Anglican Catholics".
Following the passing of the Act of Supremacy and Henry VIII's break with the Roman Catholic Church, the Church of England continued to adhere to traditional Catholic teachings and did not make any alterations to doctrine. The Ten Articles were published in 1536 and constitute the first official Anglican articles of faith; the articles for the most part concurred with the teachings of the Church in England as they had been prior to the Protestant Reformation and defended, among other things, the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, the sacrament of Confession, the honouring and invocation of Christian saints and prayer for the dead. Belief in purgatory, was made non-essential; this was followed by the Institution of the Christian Man in 1537, a combined effort by numerous clergy and theologians which—though not Protestant in its inclinations—showed a slight move towards Reformed positions. The Bishops' Book was unpopular with conservative sections of the Church, grew to be disliked by Henry VIII as well.
The Six Articles, released two years moved away from all Reformed ideas and affirmed Catholic positions regarding matters such as transubstantiation and Mass for the dead. The King's Book, the official article of religion written by Henry in 1543 expressed Catholic sacramental theology and encouraged prayer for the dead. A major shift in Anglican doctrine came in the reign of Henry's son, Edward VI, who repealed the Six Articles and under whose rule the Church of England became more identifiably Protestant. Though the Church's practices and approach to the sacraments became influenced by those of continental reformers, it retained episcopal church structure; the Church of England was briefly reunited with the Roman Catholic Church under Mary, before separating again under Elizabeth I. The Elizabethan Religious Settlement was an attempt to end the religious divisions among Christians in England, is seen as an important event in Anglican history laying the foundations for the "via media" concept of Anglicanism.
The nature of early Anglicanism was to be of great importance to the Anglo-Catholics of the 19th century, who would argue that their beliefs and practices were common during this period and were inoffensive to the earliest members of the Church of England. The Caroline Divines were a group of influential Anglican theologians active in the 17th century who opposed Calvinism and Puritanism and stressed the importance of episcopal polity, apostolic succession and the sacraments; the Caroline Divines favoured elaborate liturgy and aesthetics. Their influence saw a revival in the use of statues in churches; the leaders of the Anglo-Catholic revival in the 19th century would draw from the works of the Caroline Divines. The modern Anglo-Catholic movement began with the Oxford Movement in the Victorian era, sometimes termed "Tractarianism". In the early 19th century, various factors caused misgivings among English church people, including the decline of church life and the spread of unconventional practices in the Church of England.
The British government's action in 1833 of beginning a reduction in the number of Church of Ireland bishoprics and archbishoprics inspired a sermon from John Keble in the University Church in Oxford on the subject of "National Apostasy". This sermon marked the inception of; the principal objective of the Oxford Movement was the defence of the Church of England as a divinely-founded institution, of the doctrine of apostolic succession and of the Book of Common Prayer as a "rule of faith". The key idea was that Anglicanism was not a Protestant denomination but a branch of the historic Catholic Church, along with the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox churches, it was argued that Anglicanism had preserved the historical apostolic succession of priests and bishops and thus the Catholic sacraments. These ideas were promoted in a series of ninety "Tracts for the Times"; the principal leaders of the Oxford Movement were John Keble, John Henry Newman and Edward Bouverie Pusey. The movement gained influential support, but it was attacked by some bishops of the Church and by the latitudinarians within the University of Oxford, who believed in conforming to official Church of England practices but who felt that matters of doctrine, liturgical practice, ecclesiastical organization were of little importance.
Within the Oxford movement, there arose a much smaller group which tended towards submission
Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II
The Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II was the international celebration held in 2002 marking the 50th anniversary of the accession of Queen Elizabeth II to the thrones of seven countries, upon the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952, was intended by the Queen to be both a commemoration of her 50 years as monarch and an opportunity for her to and thank her people for their loyalty. Despite the deaths of her sister, Princess Margaret, mother, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, in February and March 2002 and predictions in the media that the anniversary would be a non-event, the jubilee was marked with large-scale and popular events throughout London in June of the same year, bookended by events throughout the Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth attended all of the official celebrations as scheduled, along with her husband, the Duke of Edinburgh. Numerous landmarks, parks and the like, were named in honour of the golden jubilee and commemorative medals and other symbols were issued.
Queen Elizabeth was on 27 February received in Adelaide by the Governor-General, Peter Hollingworth. The royal couple undertook a five-day tour through South Australia and Queensland, which coincided with that year's Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Coolum Beach. On the Queen's Birthday holiday for 2002, services of thanksgiving were held in churches and a bonfire was lit during a party at the Governor-General's residence in Canberra. Throughout the year, events were held across Canada to mark the jubilee, such as the Jubilee Levée held by Lieutenant Governor of Alberta Lois Hole, attended by more than 4,000 Albertans and at which Hole stated: "what we want to realize is how important the monarchy is to Canada and to Alberta."For 12 days in October 2002, the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh toured Canada, making stops in Victoria, Winnipeg, Hamilton, Fredericton, Sussex and Ottawa. The trip was unique in that it was the first royal visit to the new territory of Nunavut, where the royal couple made their first Canadian stop in Iqaluit.
There, on 4 October, the Queen opened and addressed the new legislative assembly, stating in her speech: "I am proud to be the first member of the Canadian Royal Family to be greeted in Canada's newest territory." After a walk-about through Iqaluit, the Queen unveiled one of the street signs on the town's main thoroughfare, renamed in her honour. From Nunavut, the royal party flew to Victoria, where the Queen and Duke of Edinburgh were received by the province's lieutenant governor. Saturday was spent at a private retreat and, on the Sunday, the Queen attended religious services at Christ Church Cathedral, performed an unscheduled walk-about after the sermon, travelled to the provincial parliament building to unveil a stained glass window commemorating the Golden Jubilee. Once Her Majesty was outside of the legislature, the Snowbirds performed an acrobatic fly-by for the sovereign and a gathered audience of some 16,000. In Vancouver, on 6 October, the Queen, accompanied by Wayne Gretzky, in front of a crowd of 18,000 at General Motors Place, dropped the ceremonial first puck for the National Hockey League exhibition game between the Vancouver Canucks and San Jose Sharks.
The Queen and the Duke watched the first period of the game from the royal box—the first time they had done so since their first hockey game at Maple Leaf Gardens in 1951. Premier Gordon Campbell said during the visit: "Your Majesty, much as the world has changed in the last 50 years, one thing has always remained constant—the sincere affection between the people of British Columbia and their Queen."The couple was next in Saskatchewan, unveiling on the grounds of the provincial parliament the product of the Golden Jubilee Statue Project: a bronze equestrian statue of the Queen riding Burmese, a horse gifted in 1969 to the Queen by the RCMP. In Winnipeg, the Queen performed a walk-about at The Forks, re-dedicated the newly restored Golden Boy statue atop the Manitoba Legislative Building, attended an evening performance of the Royal Winnipeg Ballet, accompanied by the Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra and Loreena McKennitt, her Majesty and His Royal Highness were on 9 October welcomed to Ontario by the lieutenant governor and thousands onlookers in Toronto, that evening, appeared at a festival, mounted at Exhibition Place, highlighting the advance of the province over the previous five decades.
After a day of relaxation, the Queen ventured to Sheridan College, to view students learning computer animation, Hamilton, where at Copps Coliseum she, as their colonel-in-chief, presented the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada with their new Colours. Rejoined by her husband, Elizabeth attended at the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's Toronto headquarters an event marking the organisation's 50th anniversary; the royal couple were in the audience at Roy Thomson Hall for a gala concert of Canadian talent, including Oscar Peterson, Evelyn Hart, Rex Harrington, Cirque du Soleil, The Tragically Hip, others. At the same time, the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council named a park near Gravenhurst as the Qu
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term dioikesis meaning "administration". Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the organization of the Roman Empire, the subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. After Christianity was given legal status in 313, the Churches began to organize themselves into dioceses based on provinces, not on the larger regional imperial districts; the dioceses were smaller than the provinces since there were more bishops than governors. Christianity was declared the Empire's official religion by Theodosius I in 380. Constantine I in 318 gave litigants the right to have court cases transferred from the civil courts to the bishops; this situation must have hardly survived Julian, 361-363. Episcopal courts are not heard of again in the East until 398 and in the West in 408; the quality of these courts were low, not above suspicion as the bishop of Alexandria Troas found out that clergy were making a corrupt profit.
Nonetheless, these courts were popular. Bishops had no part in the civil administration until the town councils, in decline, lost much authority to a group of'notables' made up of the richest councilors and rich persons exempted from serving on the councils, retired military, bishops post-450 A. D; as the Western Empire collapsed in the 5th century, bishops in Western Europe assumed a larger part of the role of the former Roman governors. A similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division. For Gaul, Bruce Eagles has observed that "it has long been an academic commonplace in France that the medieval dioceses, their constituent pagi, were the direct territorial successors of the Roman civitates."Modern usage of'diocese' tends to refer to the sphere of a bishop's jurisdiction.
This became commonplace during the self-conscious "classicizing" structural evolution of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, but this usage had itself been evolving from the much earlier parochia, dating from the formalized Christian authority structure in the 4th century. Most archdioceses are metropolitan sees. A few are suffragans of a metropolitan are directly subject to the Holy See. While the terms "diocese" and "episcopal see" are applicable to the area under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of any bishop, a bishop in charge of an archdiocese thereby holds the rank of archbishop. If the title of archbishop is granted on personal grounds to a diocesan bishop, his diocese does not thereby become an archdiocese; as of January 2019, in the Catholic Church there are 2,886 regular dioceses: 1 papal see, 645 archdioceses and 2,240 dioceses in the world. In the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy; the Eastern Orthodox Church calls dioceses episkopē in the Greek tradition and eparchies in the Slavic tradition.
After the English Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as dioceses, not archdioceses: they are the metropolitan bishops of their respective provinces and bishops of their own diocese and have the position of archbishop. Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics; these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Church of Norway. From about the 13th century until the German mediatization of 1803, the majority of the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire were prince-bishops, as such exercised political authority over a principality, their so-called Hochstift, distinct, considerably smaller than their diocese, over which they only exercised the usual authority of a bishop.
Some American Lutheran church bodies such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America have a bishop acting as the head of the synod, but the synod does not have dioceses and archdioceses as the churches listed above. Rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory; the Lutheran Church - International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure, with four dioceses in North America. Its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes; the Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States. In the COGIC, most states are divided into at least three or more dioceses that are each led by a bishop; these dioceses are called "jurisdictions" within COGIC. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term "bishopric" is used to describe the bishop himself, together with his two counselors, not the ward or congregation of which a bishop has charge. In the United Methodist Church, a bishop is given oversight over a geographical area called an episcopal area; each episcopal area contains one or more an