Hertfordshire is one of the home counties in the south east of England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, Buckinghamshire to the west. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region. In 2013, the county had a population of 1,140,700 in an area of 634 square miles; the four towns that have between 50,000 and 100,000 residents are Hemel Hempstead, Watford and St Albans. Hertford, once the main market town for the medieval agricultural county, derives its name from a hart and a ford, used as the components of the county's coat of arms and flag. Elevations are high for the region in the west; these reach over 800 feet in the western projection around Tring, in the Chilterns. The county's borders are the watersheds of the Colne and Lea. Hertfordshire's undeveloped land is agricultural and much is protected by green belt; the county's landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the new town of Stevenage built by local inhabitants during the Roman period, to Leavesden Film Studios.
The volume of intact medieval and Tudor buildings surpasses London, in places in well-preserved conservation areas in St Albans which includes some remains of Verulamium, the town where in the 3rd century an early recorded British martyrdom took place. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire is well-served with railways, providing good access to London; the largest sector of the economy of the county is in services. Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder in 913. Hertford is derived from meaning deer crossing; the name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems. There is evidence of humans living in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period, it was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age.
This was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, the aboriginal Catuvellauni submitted and adapted to the Roman life. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire as the yellow field to the stag or Hart representing the county. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire. With the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 6th century the majority of the modern county was part of the East Saxon kingdom; this short lived kingdom collapsed in the 9th century, ceding the territory of Hertfordshire to the control of the West Anglians of Mercia. The region became an English shire in the 10th century, on the merger of the West Saxon and Mercian kingdoms. A century William of Normandy received the surrender of the surviving senior English Lords and Clergy at Berkhamsted, resulting in a new Anglicised title of William the Conqueror before embarking on an uncontested entry into London and his coronation at Westminster.
Hertfordshire was used for some of the new Norman castles at Bishop's Stortford, at King's Langley, a staging post between London and the royal residence of Berkhamsted. The Domesday Book recorded the county as having nine hundreds. Tring and Danais became one—Dacorum—from Danis Corum or Danish rule harking back to a Viking not Saxon past; the other seven were Braughing, Cashio, Hertford and Odsey. The first shooting-down of a zeppelin over Great Britain during WW1 happened in Cuffley; as London grew, Hertfordshire became conveniently close to the English capital. However, the greatest boost to Hertfordshire came during the Industrial Revolution, after which the population rose dramatically. In 1903, Letchworth became the world's first garden city and Stevenage became the first town to redevelop under the New Towns Act 1946. From the 1920s until the late 1980s, the town of Borehamwood was home to one of the major British film studio complexes, including the MGM-British Studios. Many well-known films were made here including the first three Star Wars movies.
The studios used the name of Elstree. American director Stanley Kubrick not only used to shoot in those studios but lived in the area until his death. Big Brother UK and Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? have been filmed there. EastEnders is filmed at Elstree. Hertfordshire has seen development at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden. On 17 October 2000, the Hatfield rail crash killed four people with over 70 injured; the crash exposed the shortcomings of Railtrack, which saw speed restrictions and major track replacement. On 10 May 2002, the second of the Potters Bar rail accidents occurred killing seven people.
Copped Hall known as Copt Hall or Copthall, is a mid-18th-century English country house close to Epping, undergoing restoration. Copped Hall is visible from the M25 motorway between junctions 26 and 27. King Richard I bestowed the lands on Richard Fitz Aucher to hold them in fee, hereditarily of the Abbey. During the reign of Edward I Copthall continued in the possession of the Fitz Aucher family till it came into the hands of the Abbot until the dissolution of the monasteries. Sir Thomas Heneage received the estate of Copthall on 13 August 1564 from Queen Elizabeth I, where he subsequently built an elaborate mansion from the designs of John Thorpe; the Queen was a frequent visitor to Essex and she is recorded as having visited Heneage at Copthall in 1575. His daughter, afterwards Countess of Winchelsea, sold it to the Earl of Middlesex in the reign of James I. From him it passed to Charles Sackville, Earl of Dorset, who sold it in 1701 to Sir Thomas Webster, Bt. Edward Conyers purchased the estate in 1739, but he only owned the house for three years before dying in 1742.
Conyers' son John inherited the property and considered repairing the original Hall as it had become dilapidated. However, in the end he decided to build a new house on a different site; this was built between 1751-58 after demolishing the old one around 1748. The Georgian house is a large structure set in landscaped parkland, described at one time as "the Premier house of Essex"; the gardens of the main house have a ha-ha, which allows animals to approach yet prevents them from entering. It was a good example of the'18th-century house in landscape'; the mansion was placed overlooking two valleys with a third valley to the north. The building was well proportioned, with the chimneys built in a tight geometric arrangement; the next member of the family to inherit Copped Hall was his son John Conyers II, who extensively altered the house. His son, Henry John Conyers, was said to be so obsessed with hunting, he was survived by three daughters. The house was sold by the family in 1869, it was bought by George Wythes, who had made his fortune in civil engineering, building railways around the world.
Country Life magazine ran two articles on Copped Hall in 1910, illustrated with many photographs. The main house was gutted in an accidental fire one Sunday morning in 1917, caused by an electrical fault; the Wythes family, who were the occupiers, moved into Wood House on the estate. Ernest Wythes died in 1949 and his wife died in 1951. Around 1950 the estate was sold, after which followed a period of total neglect, see Destruction of country houses in 20th-century Britain; the main 18th-century house was first stripped of its more desirable building materials left to deteriorate. The orangery was blown up as an army training exercise in the 1960s. All of the statues in the gardens were removed to other large estate houses. A gazebo from the garden was set up in the grounds of St Paul's Waldenbury. In 1995, the derelict shell of the main house was used as a location for the music video for I Can't Be with You by The Cranberries. In 1995 the Copped Hall Trust acquired the freehold of the house, ancillary buildings and gardens, all of which they are restoring.
The surrounding parkland is now owned by the Conservators of the City of London. On 27 April 2004 Charles, Prince of Wales, accompanied by the Lord Lieutenant of Essex, Lord Petre, visited Copped Hall and inspected the restoration work; the Prince opened an exhibition of 18th century botanical water-colours in the new temporary gallery. These water-colours were painted by Matilda Conyers, the daughter of John Conyers, who built Copped Hall. British singer Rod Stewart lives in a house on the Copped Hall estate. BooksBrimble, James A. St. Thomas's Quarters. In: London's Epping Forest. London. Country Life, 1950. Chapter 10. Cassidy, R. Copped Hall: a Short History. Waltham Abbey Historical Society, 2001. Farmer, M. J; the history of the ancient Town and once famous Abbey of Waltham. London. 1735. Newman, J. Copthall, Essex. In: H. Colvin and J. Harris The Country Seat. Studies in the history of the British country house presented to Sir John Summerson. London. Penguin, Press, 1970. 18-29. Reports West Essex Archaeological Group.
An archaeological evaluation carried out at Copped Hall by West Essex Archaeological Group in 2002. West Essex Archaeological Group, 2003. Holloway, C. Archaeological excavation at Copped Hall, Essex, in 2003. Copped Hall Trust Archaeological Project, 2005. Holloway, C. Archaeological excavation at Copped Hall, Essex, 2004-5. Copped Hall Trust Archaeological Project, 2007. West Essex Archaeological Group. Archaeology at Copped Hall 2002-2009. West Essex Archaeological Group. Accessed 5 April 2012 Madeley, Andrew & Holloway, Christina; the 2010 season at Copped Hall. West Essex Archaeological Group. Accessed 5 April 2012ArticlesAndrews, D.. "Old Copped Hall: The Site of the Tudor Mansion". Essex Archaeology and History: 96–106. Andrews, D.. "Epping, Copped Hall. Observations and discoveries 1996-97". Essex Archaeology and History: 226–228. "The Grand Estate of Epping". West Essex Life: 12–13. December 2006. "Copped Hall. Excavating an Elizabethan building boom". Current Archaeology. 19, No.2: 36–43. May 2008. Copped Hall Trust Copped Hall entry from The DiCamillo Companion to British & Irish Country Houses Epping Forest District Council West Essex Archaeological Group "Archival material relating to Conyers family".
UK National Archives. "Archival material relating to Wythes family". UK National Archives. Images of Copped Hall at the Country Life
The Eleanor crosses were a series of twelve tall and lavishly decorated stone monuments topped with crosses, of which three survive nearly intact, in a line down part of the east of England. King Edward I had the crosses erected between 1291 and 1294 in memory of his wife Eleanor of Castile, marking the nightly resting-places along the route taken when her body was transported to London. Several artists worked on the crosses, as the "Expense Rolls" of the Crown show, with some of the work being divided between the main figures, sent from London, the framework, made locally. "Alexander of Abingdon" and "William of Ireland", both of whom had worked at Westminster Abbey, were the leading sculptors of figures. Upon her death in 1290 at Harby, near the city of Lincoln, the body of Queen Eleanor was carried to Lincoln where she was embalmed either at the Gilbertine priory of St Catherine, Lincoln in the south of Lincoln, or at the priory of the Dominicans, her viscera, less her heart, were sent to the Angel Choir of Lincoln Cathedral for burial, where they still rest.
Her body was sent to London, taking 12 days to reach Westminster Abbey. The crosses were erected at the places. At Westminster she was buried at the feet of her father-in-law King Henry III, her heart travelled with the body and was buried in the abbey church at the London Dominicans' priory at Blackfriars, along with that of her young son Alphonso, Earl of Chester. A similar event had taken place in France for the body of King Louis IX in 1271, although his memorial crosses, unlike Eleanor's, were erected in part as a manifesto for canonisation, they were at least in part intended as cenotaphs to encourage prayers for her soul from passers-by and pilgrims. The only three crosses still standing are those at Geddington, just outside Northampton, Waltham Cross, although remnants of the lost ones can be seen at other sites; the only remaining piece of the Lincoln Eleanor cross is in the grounds of Lincoln Castle. The cross stood at St Catherine's, an area at the end of Lincoln's High Street. No part survives of the Grantham Cross in Lincolnshire, though the records of the 18th-century antiquary, William Stukeley, suggest that it featured Eleanor's coats of arms.
Only a small marble fragment survives of the Stamford Cross in Lincolnshire, a carved rose excavated by William Stukeley. Following the closure of Stamford Museum, the carved fragment is displayed in the Discover Stamford area at the town's library. Stukeley's sketch of the top portion of the Stamford Cross, which suggests that it stylistically resembled the Geddington Cross, is preserved in his diaries in the Bodleian Library in Oxford. See below for the modern monument erected by the Smith of Derby Group. Still standing, the Geddington Cross in Northamptonshire is the best-preserved of the three survivors, it is unique among the surviving crosses in having a triangular plan, a taller and more slender profile with a lower tier covered with rosette diapering, instead of the arch-and-gable motif with tracery which appears on both the others. The Northampton cross in Hardingstone in Northamptonshire is still standing at the edge of Delapré Abbey, on the side of the A508 leading out of Northampton, just north of the junction with the A45.
This cross was begun in 1291 by John of Battle. He worked with William of Ireland to carve the statues: William was paid £3 6s. 8d. per figure. The cross is octagonal in shape and set on steps: the present steps are replacements, it is built in three tiers and had a crowning terminal a cross. It is not known. A local anecdote says that it was knocked off by a low-flying aircraft from a nearby airfield in the Second World War. However, the cross appears to have been lost by 1460: there is mention of a "headless cross" at the site from which Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury, watched Margaret of Anjou's flight following the Battle of Northampton. A replacement cross was installed in the first restoration of 1713, but was replaced by the picturesque broken shaft, seen today by a further restoration in 1840; the Cross is referred to in Daniel Defoe's Tour thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain, in his report on the Great Fire of Northampton in 1675, "...a townsman being at Queen's Cross upon a hill on the south side of the town, about two miles off, saw the fire at one end of the town newly begun, that before he could get to the town it was burning at the remotest end, opposite where he first saw it."
Its bottom tier features open books. These included painted inscriptions of Eleanor's biography and of prayers for her soul to be said by viewers, now lost; the Stony Stratford Cross in Buckinghamshire stood at the lower end of the town, towards the River Ouse, on Watling Street, although its exact location is hotly debated. It is said to have been of a tall elegant design; the base survived for some time. This commemorative plaque on the wall of 157 High Street is all, now visible, reads: Near this spot stood the Cross erected by King Edward the I to mark the place in Stony Stratford where the body of Queen Eleanor rested on its way from Harby in Nottinghamshire to Westminster Abbey in 1290 (approximately at 51°59′20
Hertford Castle was a Norman castle situated by the River Lea in Hertford, the county town of Hertfordshire, England. Only the gatehouse survives, is a Grade I listed building. Hertford Castle was built on a site first fortified by Edward the Elder around 911. By the time of the Norman Invasion in 1066, a motte and bailey were on the site surrounded by a moat. William the Conqueror granted the castle to Peter de Valognes, the High Sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire. Henry II took a great interest in the castle and its potential and it was reconstructed between 1170 and 1174; this included the building of the flint walls and gatehouses. The castle was further strengthened during the reign of Richard I by William Longchamp. By this time the castle was governed by the Crown after Robert de Valognes had died in 1184 leaving no male heirs; however it had been claimed by Robert de Valoignes's son-in-law. He installed his own tenants and garrison. Although he was subsequently evicted by King John, he was appointed governor of the castle.
Following the death of Angelo Salvo in 1216, a French invasion besieged the castle for a month until the governor, Walter de Godarvil, surrendered. However the country supported Henry III and by 1217 the French had left. Following this the castle's military role became secondary to its use as a royal residence and in 1299 Edward I gave it to his second wife Margaret. During the reign of Edward II the castle saw its first political prisoners, some of the Knights Templar, in 1309. Edward's wife Isabella and their son, Edward III both spent much time in the castle. During the Hundred Years' War the castle was used to detain prisoners of noble rank; these included King David II of Scotland and, in 1359, King John II of France. The following year the castle was granted to Edward's third son, John of Gaunt who spent much time there, using it as his chief country home when not abroad on campaigns; the defences were strengthened again at this time. When John of Gaunt died in 1399, Richard II seized all the Lancastrian estates, including Hertford Castle, where he installed his new wife, the eight-year-old Princess Isabella.
The castle continued to remain in royal hands and in 1418 Henry V granted it to his new wife, Princess Katherine of France, they spent much time there together. Henry's son Henry VI spent much of his infancy at the castle. In 1445 he granted her the castle; however as a result of the Wars of the Roses the crown went to Edward IV who granted the castle to his wife, Elizabeth Woodville. When Richard III became king, the castle was granted to one of his greatest supporters, the Duke of Buckingham. After the downfall of Richard III, Henry VII conferred the castle to his wife in 1487. Henry himself spent little time at the castle, but he is recorded as visiting a paper mill in Hertford, his son Henry VIII spent considerable sums turning the castle into a civilian palace, including building the gatehouse, which still stands. Subsequently, Edward VI granted the castle to Princess Mary. During her eventual reign, the castle was used to imprison Protestant martyrs. Elizabeth I was a frequent visitor to Hertford.
However, from the reign of James I the castle ceased to be a royal residence and it fell into decay. After Charles I came to the throne, the castle was granted to 2nd Earl of Salisbury. Much of the castle was now in ruins; the castle was leased to Sir William Harrington of Hertingfordbury Park, who carried out work to restore the buildings. He assigned his lease to Sir William Cowper, Collector of Customs at the Port of London. From this time the castle remained in the ownership of the Cecil family, who leased it out to a succession of occupiers, many of them successors to William Cowper. Around 1790 the south wing was added to the gatehouse; the windows of the existing gatehouse were all remodelled, the parapet added with its brick battlements. Around 1800 a new gateway and lodge were built by the Marquess of Downshire. Between 1805 and 1809, the castle became the home of the East India Company College. In 1822, a general dispensary was established at the castle by the Rev. Thomas Lloyd, a prime mover in charitable work in the town.
In 1911, the Hertford Corporation leased the gatehouse of the castle from the Marquess of Salisbury to house its administration. The grounds became a public garden. In the 1930s, the north wing was added to the gatehouse and, in the late 20th century, Lord Salisbury gave what was left of the castle to the town. Hertford Museum Fry, Plantagenet Somerset; the David & Charles Book of Castles. David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-7976-3
Holy Trinity Church, Weston
Holy Trinity Church is the parish church for the village of Weston in Hertfordshire. The church building stands to the south-east of the village on high ground, is built of flint and coursed ironstone rubble, it was Grade I listed in 1968. In the churchyard is the supposed grave of the giant Jack o'Legs; the Domesday Book of 1086 says nothing of a church being there. The advowson of the church was awarded by Gilbert de Clare to the Knights Templar before 1148; this was confirmed by William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke. The Knights Templars held the advowson until 1309, when their order was suppressed, it passed to the Knights Hospitallers. In 1481 the inhabitants of Weston complained that their vicar John Hawthorn was'a common player, daily played le Penyprykke and Bowles', he was duly warned to amend his ways under penalty of a fine of 12d. Today the parish comes under the Diocese of St Albans; the current church was built in the traditional cruciform shape in the 12th century, with the south aisle, south porch, new windows, south transept being added in the 15th century.
The chancel was rebuilt to a Neo-Norman design in brick coated with stucco in 1840 by Thomas Smith for the Rev. Benjamin Donne; the church underwent a restoration in 1867 including the addition of the upper stage of the tower, while the vestry was added in 1880. The nave is rendered and the tower and north transept are of flint and coursed rubble; the nave roof dates to the 15th century, rests on original grotesque corbels. The font dates to the 15th century and is octagonal; the sides of the bowl, moulded, have quatrefoiled panels, the stem is moulded and panelled. The octagonal oak pulpit with open arcading on an octagonal moulded base was moved to the church in 1840 from the Church of St. Mary the Less in Cambridge, where it is said to have been used by Jeremy Taylor; the five bells in the belfry are: the treble by John Waylett. In the churchyard is the grave of Jack o'Legs, according to local legend, lived in a cave in a wood at Weston and who stole food from the people of nearby Baldock; the grave is unusually long and was placed there to fuel belief in the legend.
The Victoria County History: A History of the County of Hertford, London, 1912, 3:175. N. Pevsner and B. Cherry, The Buildings of England: Hertfordshire, Harmondsworth, 1953, 402. Holy Trinity, Weston on the Church of England website Photographs of Holy Trinity Church - Hertfordshire Churches in Photographs website
James Wyatt was an English architect, a rival of Robert Adam in the neoclassical style and neo-Gothic style. Wyatt spent six years in Italy, 1762–68, in company with Richard Bagot of Staffordshire, Secretary to the Earl of Northampton's embassy to the Venetian Republic. In Venice, Wyatt studied with Antonio Visentini as painter. In Rome he made measured drawings of the dome of St. Peter's Basilica, "being under the necessity of lying on his back on a ladder slung horizontally, without cradle or side-rail, over a frightful void of 300 feet". Back in England, his selection as architect of the proposed Pantheon or "Winter Ranelagh" in Oxford Street, brought him unparalleled instant success, his brother Samuel was one of the principal promoters of the scheme, it was doubtless due to him that the designs of a young and unknown architect were accepted by the Committee. When the Pantheon was opened in 1772, their choice was at once endorsed by the fashionable public: Horace Walpole pronounced it to be "the most beautiful edifice in England".
Externally it was unremarkable, but the classicising domed hall surrounded by galleried aisles and apsidal ends, was something new in assembly rooms, brought its architect immediate celebrity. The design was exhibited at the Royal Academy, private commissions followed, at the age of 26 Wyatt found himself a fashionable domestic architect and on 27 August 1770 an Associate of the Royal Academy, his polished manners secured him friends as well as patrons among the great, when it was rumoured that he was about to leave the country to become architect to Catherine II of Russia, a group of English noblemen is said to have offered him a retaining fee of £1,200 to remain in their service. His major neoclassical country houses include Heaton Hall near Manchester, Heveningham Hall in Suffolk, Castle Coole in Ireland, as well as Packington Hall in Staffordshire, the home of the Levett family for generations, Dodington Park in Gloucestershire for the Codrington family. On 15 February 1785 Wyatt was elected an Academician of the Royal Academy, his diploma work being a drawing of the Darnley Mausoleum.
In years, he carried out alterations at Frogmore for Queen Charlotte, was made Surveyor-General of the Works. In about 1800, he was commissioned to carry out alterations to Windsor Castle which would have been much more considerable had it not been for the King's illness, in 1802 he designed for the King the "strange castellated palace" at Kew, remarkable for the extensive employment of cast iron in its construction. Between 1805 and 1808 Wyatt remodelled West Dean House in West Sussex. Wyatt’s work was remarkable because it is built of flint to the door and window openings, which would be lined with stone. In 1776, Wyatt succeeded Henry Keene as Surveyor to Westminster Abbey. In 1782 he became, in addition, Architect of the Ordnance; the death of Sir William Chambers brought him the post of Surveyor General and Comptroller of the Works in 1796. Wyatt was now the principal architect of the day, the recipient of more commissions than he could well fulfil, his widespread practice and the duties of his official posts left him little time to give proper attention to the individual needs of his clients.
As early as 1790, when he was invited to submit designs for rebuilding St Chad's Church at Shrewsbury, he broke his engagements with such frequency that the committee "became at length offended, addressed themselves to Mr. George Stewart". In 1804, Jeffry Wyatt told Farington that his uncle had lost "many great commissions" by such neglect; when approached by a new client, he would at first take the keenest interest in the commission, but when the work was about to begin he would lose interest in it and "employ himself upon trifling professional matters which others could do". His conduct of official business was no better than his treatment of his private clients, there can be no doubt that it was Wyatt's irresponsible habits which led to the reorganization of the Board of Works after his death, as a result of which the Surveyor's office was placed in the hands of a political chief assisted by three "attached architects". Wyatt was a brilliant but facile designer, whose work is not characterized by any markedly individual style.
At the time he began practice the fashionable architects were the brothers Adam, whose style of interior decoration he proceeded to imitate with such success that they complained of plagiarism in the introduction to their Works in Architecture, which appeared in 1773. Many years Wyatt himself told George III that "there had been no regular architecture since Sir William Chambers – that when he came from Italy he found the public taste corrupted by the Adams, he was obliged to comply with it". Much of Wyatt's classical work is, in fact, in a chastened Adam manner with ornaments in Coade stone and "Etruscan" medallions executed in many cases by the painter Biagio Rebecca, employed by his rivals, it was not until towards the end of his life that he and his brother Samuel developed the severe and fastidious style of domestic architecture, characteristic of the Wyatt manner at its best. But among Wyatt's earlier works there are several which show a familiarity with Chambers Treatise on the Decorative Part of Civil Architecture, so permit the belief that if his artistic integrity had been greater Wyatt might have co
St Mary's Church, Ware
St Mary's Church is a grade I listed parish church in Ware, England. There has been a church on the site since the Norman Conquest; the Domesday Book mentions the presence of a priest at Ware, the existence of a church is confirmed by a reference in another document from the reign of William the Conqueror, a charter given to Hugh de Grandmesnil. The chancel, the oldest part of the present building, dates from the thirteenth century, when the church served the town and the monks of the Benedictine priory; the church was restored in the nineteenth century by George Godwin. The building is faced in flint; the tower is surmounted by a short spire of the type known as a "Hertfordshire spike". Charles Chauncy, who served as vicar of the church in the reign of Charles I, emigrated to America where he became President of Harvard. In the 16th century the Fanshawe family acquired an estate at Ware, members of the family were buried in the church: for example, Thomas Fanshawe Sir Richard Fanshawe, a politician and writer who served as Charles II´s ambassador to Spain.
1.^ Flèche or short spire rising from a church-tower, its base concealed by a parapet, common in Herts. England. Pevsner, N. Cherry. "BoE, Hertfordshire". Media related to St Mary's church, Hertfordshire at Wikimedia Commons