Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Bede known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, Bede the Venerable, was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria of the Angles. Born on lands belonging to the Monkwearmouth monastery in present-day Sunderland, Bede was sent there at the age of seven and joined Abbot Ceolfrith at the Jarrow monastery, both of whom survived a plague that struck in 686, an outbreak that killed a majority of the population there. While he spent most of his life in the monastery, Bede travelled to several abbeys and monasteries across the British Isles visiting the archbishop of York and King Ceolwulf of Northumbria, he is well known as an author and scholar, his most famous work, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, gained him the title "The Father of English History". His ecumenical writings were extensive and included a number of Biblical commentaries and other theological works of exegetical erudition. Another important area of study for Bede was the academic discipline of computus, otherwise known to his contemporaries as the science of calculating calendar dates.
One of the more important dates Bede tried to compute was Easter, an effort, mired with controversy. He helped establish the practice of dating forward from the birth of Christ, a practice which became commonplace in medieval Europe. Bede was one of the greatest teachers and writers of the Early Middle Ages and is considered by many historians to be the single most important scholar of antiquity for the period between the death of Pope Gregory I in 604 and the coronation of Charlemagne in 800. In 1899, Pope Leo XIII declared him a Doctor of the Church, he is the only native of Great Britain to achieve this designation. Bede was moreover a skilled linguist and translator, his work made the Latin and Greek writings of the early Church Fathers much more accessible to his fellow Anglo-Saxons, which contributed to English Christianity. Bede's monastery had access to an impressive library which included works by Eusebius and many others. Everything, known of Bede's life is contained in the last chapter of his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, a history of the church in England.
It was completed in about 731, Bede implies that he was in his fifty-ninth year, which would give a birth date in 672 or 673. A minor source of information is the letter by his disciple Cuthbert. Bede, in the Historia, gives his birthplace as "on the lands of this monastery", he is referring to the twinned monasteries of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow, in modern-day Wearside and Tyneside respectively. Bede says nothing of his origins, but his connections with men of noble ancestry suggest that his own family was well-to-do. Bede's first abbot was Benedict Biscop, the names "Biscop" and "Beda" both appear in a king list of the kings of Lindsey from around 800, further suggesting that Bede came from a noble family. Bede's name reflects West Saxon Bīeda, it is an Anglo-Saxon short name formed on the root of bēodan "to bid, command". The name occurs in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s.a. 501, as Bieda, one of the sons of the Saxon founder of Portsmouth. The Liber Vitae of Durham Cathedral names two priests with this name, one of whom is Bede himself.
Some manuscripts of the Life of Cuthbert, one of Bede's works, mention that Cuthbert's own priest was named Bede. At the age of seven, Bede was sent, as a puer oblatus, to the monastery of Monkwearmouth by his family to be educated by Benedict Biscop and by Ceolfrith. Bede does not say whether it was intended at that point that he would be a monk, it was common in Ireland at this time for young boys those of noble birth, to be fostered out as an oblate. Monkwearmouth's sister monastery at Jarrow was founded by Ceolfrith in 682, Bede transferred to Jarrow with Ceolfrith that year; the dedication stone for the church has survived to the present day. In 686, plague broke out at Jarrow; the Life of Ceolfrith, written in about 710, records that only two surviving monks were capable of singing the full offices. The two managed to do the entire service of the liturgy; the young boy was certainly Bede, who would have been about 14. When Bede was about 17 years old, Adomnán, the abbot of Iona Abbey, visited Monkwearmouth and Jarrow.
Bede would have met the abbot during this visit, it may be that Adomnan sparked Bede's interest in the Easter dating controversy. In about 692, in Bede's nineteenth year, Bede was ordained a deacon by his diocesan bishop, bishop of Hexham; the canonical age for the ordination of a deacon was 25.
St Peter's Metro station
St Peter's Metro Station on the Tyne and Wear Metro is the nearest one to the University of Sunderland's St Peter's Campus. The station was built for the Sunderland extension in 2002, it is located at the northern approach viaducts of the Monkwearmouth railway bridge and a short distance south of Monkwearmouth Station Museum. The station is the least-used station on the network; the southbound platform was completed early and used by National Rail services between 25 February and 16 April 2001, while Sunderland station was being rebuilt for the Metro extension. In order that a four-car DMU could fit the platform, a temporary platform extension was constructed at the northern end. On Sunday 25 October 2015, Northern Rail ran a special morning service to St. Peter's station, which departed Newcastle Central station at 10:55 and arrived at 11:17; this was due to the Newcastle v Sunderland derby game. It is a little known fact that St Peter's station is closer to the Stadium of Light, in Sunderland, than Stadium of Light station.
The station features. It consists of illuminated ovals embedded into the glass floor, which change in intensity according to the strength of the wind. National Glass Centre, nearby attraction Train times and station information for St Peter's Metro station from Nexus
Tyne and Wear Metro
The Tyne and Wear Metro, referred to locally as the Metro, is a rapid transit and light rail system in North East England, serving Newcastle upon Tyne, South Tyneside, North Tyneside and Sunderland in Tyne and Wear. It has been described as the first modern light rail system in the United Kingdom; the initial network opened between 1980 and 1984, using converted former railway lines, linked with new tunnel infrastructure. Extensions to the original network were opened in 1991 and 2002. In 2017/18 over 36 million passenger journeys were made on the network, which spans 77.5 kilometres and has two lines with a total of 60 stations, nine of which are underground. It is the second-largest of the four metro systems in the United Kingdom, after the London Underground; the system is operated by the local transport authority Nexus. Between 2010 and 2017 it was operated under contract by DB Regio Tyne & Wear Limited, a subsidiary of Arriva UK Trains. On 1 April 2017, this contract ended, Nexus took over direct operation of the system for a planned period of two years.
The present system uses much former railway infrastructure constructed between 1834 and 1882, with one of the oldest parts being the Newcastle & North Shields Railway which opened in 1839. In 1904, in response to tramway competition, taking away passengers, the North Eastern Railway started electrifying parts of their local railway network north of the River Tyne with a 600 V DC third-rail system, forming one of the earliest suburban electric networks, known as the Tyneside Electrics. In 1938, the line south of the Tyne between Newcastle and South Shields was electrified. In the 1960s under British Rail, the decision was made to de-electrify the Tyneside Electric network, convert it to diesel operation due to falling passenger numbers, the cost of renewing end of life electrical infrastructure and rolling stock; the Newcastle-South Shields line was de-electrified in 1963, the north Tyneside routes were de-electrified in 1967. This was viewed as a backward step, as the diesel trains were slower than the electric trains they replaced.
In the early 1970s, the poor local transport system was identified as one of the main factors holding back the region's economy, in 1971 a study was commissioned by the created Tyneside Passenger Transport Authority into how the transport system could be improved. This new system was intended to be the core of a new integrated transport network, with buses acting as feeders to purpose-built transport interchanges; the plans were approved by the Tyneside Metropolitan Railway Bill, passed by Parliament in July 1973. Around 70% of the funding for the scheme came from a central government grant, with the remainder coming from local sources. Three railway lines, totalling 26 miles were to be converted into Metro lines as part of the initial system; the converted railway lines were to be connected by around six miles of new infrastructure, built both to separate the Metro from the existing rail network, to create the new underground routes under Newcastle and Gateshead. Around four miles of the new infrastructure was in tunnels, while the remainder was either at ground level or elevated.
The elevated sections included the Queen Elizabeth II Bridge. Construction work began in October 1974, it was intended to be opened in stages between 1979 and 1981, however the first part of the original network opened in August 1980, the remainder opened in stages until March 1984. The final cost of the project in 1984 prices was £265 million; some extensions to the original system have since been built. A short 3.5 km extension from Bank Foot to Newcastle Airport was opened in 1991, using a further part of the former Ponteland branch. In 2002 an 18.5 km extension was opened from Pelaw to South Hylton via Sunderland. Costing £100 million, this extension used part of the existing Durham Coast Line to Sunderland, but did not take it over. Three intermediate stations on the route were rebuilt, three new ones were added. Within Sunderland, 4.5 km of a former freight line, abandoned in 1984 was reused for the route between Sunderland station and South Hylton, becoming the second Metro segment to be built on a disused line.
The opening dates of the services and stations are as follows: The Tyne and Wear Metro was the first railway in the UK to operate using the metric system
St Peter's Church, Monkwearmouth
St Peter's Church, Monkwearmouth is the parish church of Monkwearmouth in Sunderland and Wear, England. It is one of three churches in the Parish of Monkwearmouth; the others are All St Andrew's Church, Roker. St Peter's was founded in AD 674–5 as one of the two churches of the Benedictine double monastery of Monkwearmouth–Jarrow Abbey; the other church is Jarrow. The church is a Grade I listed part of a scheduled monument; the original church on the site was built at the behest of Benedict Biscop in AD 674–75, when the area was part of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria. Bede wrote that Benedict brought stonemasons and glassworkers from Gaul to build the church, as these crafts were not yet established in Anglo-Saxon England. Of Benedict's building only the west wall and porch survive; the ground floor of the porch is barrel vaulted. Its outer arch, at the west end of the porch, is of elaborate design and decorated with stone reliefs. By about AD 700 the porch had been enlarged by the addition of a second storey and north and south porticus, forming a westwork.
By the end of the 10th century further storeys had been added to the porch, raising its height to form the present west tower. The rest of the church is much later; the north aisle was first built in the 13th century. A five-light east window was inserted in the chancel in the 14th century. Early in the 19th century the arcade of the north aisle and most of the chancel arch were removed, galleries were inserted. In 1875–76 St Peter's was restored under the direction of the architects Hubert Austin and RJ Johnson, who had the north aisle rebuilt and the east window of the chancel replaced. There is an organ loft built onto the north side of the chancel; the present stained glass in the windows was made in 1969 by LC Evetts. In 1973 an octagonal extension was added east of the organ loft as an interpretation centre. In 1984 the church was damaged by fire, about 1985 the interior and roof were rebuilt. Blair, Peter Hunter. An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England. Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press.
P. 154. ISBN 0-521-29219-0. Johnson, Margot. "Monkwearmouth". Durham: Historic and University City and surrounding area. Durham: Turnstone Ventures. P. 39. ISBN 978-0946105090. Page, William, ed.. "Saxon Houses: including Wearmouth and Jarrow". A History of the County of Durham. Victoria County History. II. Westminster: Archibald Constable & Co. pp. 79–85. Pevsner, Nikolaus. County Durham; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Pp. 465–467. ISBN 0-14-071009-4. Parish of Monkwearmouth St. Peter's Wearmouth–Jarrow
Wearmouth Bridge is a through arch bridge across the River Wear in Sunderland. It is the final bridge over the river before its mouth with the North Sea; the current bridge is the third Wearmouth Bridge in its position. The first opened in 1796 and was reconstructed in the 19th century; the first Wearmouth Bridge opened in 1796, with the foundation stone having been laid in September 1793. It was sponsored and patented by Rowland Burdon, the MP, designed by Thomas Paine, built under the direction of Thomas Wilson, who designed its architectural features. According to the plaque on the current bridge, its construction "proved to be a catalyst for the growth of Sunderland," since access between Monkwearmouth and Bishopwearmouth had only been by ferry, with the nearest bridge at Chester-le-Street. There was a toll for traffic and pedestrians, although tolls for pedestrians were abolished in 1846, it was the second iron bridge built after the famous span at Ironbridge, but was over twice as long with a nominal span of 240 ft, only three-quarters the weight.
Indeed, at the time of building, it was the biggest single-span bridge in the world, matching the collapsed Trezzo Bridge. It opened to traffic on 9 August 1796, having cost a total of about £28,000. In 1805 the bridge had to be repaired after heat from the sun caused some of the cross tubes to fall out. From 1857 to 1859 it was reconstructed by Robert Stephenson, who stripped the bridge back to its six iron ribs and levelled the hump in its middle by raising the abutments; the bridge was reopened in March 1859, with the toll abolished in 1885. To accommodate the growing volume of traffic, construction began on the current bridge in 1927, it was designed by Mott and Anderson and fabricated by the famous bridge building firm of Sir William Arrol & Co. at their Dalmarnock Ironworks in Glasgow. The new bridge was built around the old one to allow the road to remain open, it was opened on 31 October 1929 by the Duke of York. The cost of the bridge amounted to £231,943 of which £12,000 was spent on dismantling the old bridge.
The adjoining railway bridge was built in 1879, extended the railway south from Monkwearmouth to the centre of Sunderland. The bridge carries the A183 road between Chester-le-Street and South Shields and the A1018, the old route of the A19 until the bypass was built leading to the Tyne Tunnel, it is a Grade II listed building. Wearmouth Bridge over River Wear Image gallery at BBC Wear
Bryan Talbot is a British comics artist and writer, best known as the creator of The Adventures of Luther Arkwright and its sequel Heart of Empire, as well as the Grandville series of books. He collaborated with his wife, Mary M. Talbot to produce Dotter of Her Father's Eyes, which won the 2012 Costa biography award. Bryan Talbot was born in Wigan, Lancashire on 24 February 1952, he attended Wigan Grammar School, the Wigan School of Art, Harris College in Preston, from which he graduated with a degree in Graphic Design. Talbot began his comics work in the underground comix scene of the late 1960s. In 1969 his first work appeared as illustrations in Mallorn, the British Tolkien Society magazine, followed in 1972 by a weekly strip in his college newspaper, he continued in the scene after leaving college, producing Brainstorm Comix, the first three of which formed The Chester P. Hackenbush Trilogy, a character reworked by Alan Moore as Chester Williams for Swamp Thing. Talbot started The Adventures of Luther Arkwright in 1978.
It was published in Near Myths and continued on over the years in other publications. It was collected into one volume by Dark Horse Comics. Along with When the Wind Blows it is one of the first British graphic novels. In the early to mid-eighties he provided art for some of 2000 AD's flagship serials, producing three series of Nemesis the Warlock, as well as occasional strips for Judge Dredd, his The Tale of One Bad Rat deals with recovery from childhood sexual abuse. Talbot moved to the U. S. market in the 1990s, principally for DC Comics, on titles such as Hellblazer, Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight, Dead Boy Detectives. Talbot collaborated with Neil Gaiman on The Sandman and provided art for the "Fables & Reflections", "A Game of You", "Worlds' End" story arcs, he drew The Nazz limited series, written by Tom Veitch and worked with Tom's brother Rick Veitch on Teknophage, one of a number of mini-series he drew for Tekno Comix. Talbot has illustrated cards for the Magic: The Gathering collectible card game.
He has illustrated Bill Willingham's Fables, as well as returning to the Luther Arkwright universe with Heart of Empire. In 2006, he announced the graphic novel Metronome, an existential, textless erotically-charged visual poem, written under the pseudonym Véronique Tanaka, he admitted that he was the author in 2009. Talbot turned down an offer to appear in character as Tanaka for an in-store signing of the work. In 2007 he released Alice in Sunderland, which documents the connections between Lewis Carroll, Alice Liddell, the Sunderland and Wearside area, he wrote and drew the layouts for Cherubs!, which he describes as "an irreverent fast-paced supernatural comedy-adventure."His upcoming work includes a sequel to 2009's Grandville, which Talbot says is "a detective steampunk thriller" and Paul Gravett calls it "an inspired reimagining of some of the first French anthropomorphic caricatures". It is planned as the first in a series of five graphic novels. 1985 Eagle Award for Favourite Character for Torquemada, from Nemesis the Warlock 1988: Eagle Award for Favourite Artist Eagle Award for Favourite New Comic, for The Adventures of Luther Arkwright Eagle Award for Favourite Character, for Luther Arkwright Eagle Award for Favourite Comic Cover, for The Adventures of Luther Arkwright 1993 a couple of Eagle Awards, for The Tale of One Bad Rat 1996 Eisner Award for Best Graphic Album: Reprint, for The Tale of One Bad Rat 1999 Haxtur Award, for Best Long Comic Strip for The Tale of One Bad Rat 2000 Inkpot Award 2007: BSFA Award nominee, Best Novel, for Alice in Sunderland Nominated for "Award for Favourite Comics Writer/Artist" Eagle Award Nominated for "Favourite Original Graphic Novel" Eagle Award, for Alice in Sunderland 2008: Nominated for "Best Painter or Multimedia Artist" Eisner Award.
2009 Talbot was given an Honorary Doctorate of Arts by University of Sunderland in July 2009, the first time this has been done for a comic book artist. 2010: Nominated for "Favourite Original Graphic Novel Published During 2009" Eagle Award for Grandville 2012: Talbot was awarded an Honorary Degree of Doctor of Letters on 17 July 2012 by Northumbria University in recognition of his lifetime's work in the graphic novel field. Winner of the Costa biography award for Dotter of Her Father's Eyes, with Mary Talbot. 2014: Guest of honor at NordicFuzzCon. Frank Fazakerly, Space Ace of the Future, one page SF spoof, in Ad Astra The Adventures of Luther Arkwright Brainstorm: The Complete Chester P. Hackenbush and Other Underground Classics Tharg's Future Shocks: "The Wages of Sin" Ro-Busters: "Old Red Eyes is Back" Nemesis the Warlock: "The Gothic Empire" "Vengeance of Thoth" "Torquemurder Part 1" "Torquemurder Part 2" Sláine: "The Time Killer" Judge Dredd: "House of Death" "Last Voyage of the Flying Dutchman" "Judge Dredd and the Seven Dwarves" "Ladies' Night" "Caterpillars" Torquemada: "The Garden of Alien Delights" One-offs: "Alien Enemy" (with scr