Worcester Cathedral, is an Anglican cathedral in Worcester, situated on a bank overlooking the River Severn. It is the seat of the Bishop of Worcester, its official name is the Blessed Mary the Virgin of Worcester. The present cathedral church was built between 1084 and 1504, represents every style of English architecture from Norman to Perpendicular Gothic, it is famous for its Norman crypt and unique chapter house, its unusual Transitional Gothic bays, its fine woodwork and its "exquisite" central tower, of fine proportions. The cathedral's west facade appeared, with a portrait of Sir Edward Elgar, on the reverse of £20 note issued by the Bank of England between 1999 and 2007, remaining in circulation as legal tender until 30 June 2010; the Cathedral was founded in 680, with a Northumbrian priest, appointed as its first bishop. Tatwine died before he could be consecrated, however, so his successor Bishop Bosel may be regarded as Worcester's first serving bishop; the first cathedral church, dedicated to Ss.
Peter and Paul, was built in this period. The crypt of the present-day cathedral dates from the 10th century and the time of St Oswald, Bishop of Worcester; the community associated with the cathedral the early eighth century included members of various clerical orders. The cathedral community was regulated along formal monastic lines as a consequence of the Benedictine reforms in the second half of the tenth century. There is an important connection with Fleury Abbey in France, as Oswald, bishop of Worcester from 961 to 992, was professed at Fleury and introduced the monastic rule of Fleury to the monastery that he established at Worcester around the year 966, dedicated — as the present cathedral church is — to St. Mary; the last Anglo-Saxon bishop of Worcester, unusually remained bishop after the Norman Conquest until his death in 1095. He was made a saint, it is the burial place of King of England, who succeded his brother Richard I of England. The Priory Cathedral was economic force, both in Worcester and the county.
Its properties for instance included the priory manor of Bromsgrove. It provided schooling, it was associated with hospitals. The Church received a portion of local taxations and ecclesiastical law applied to Christian morals and could result in punishments, it had close political associations with leading aristocracy. As such, Worcester's Cathedral had a central role in the medieval life of the county; the Cathedral was one of a number of religious institutions in the city. The Diocese was notably hostile to the small Jewish community, established in Worcester. Peter of Blois was commissioned by a Bishop of Worcester John of Coutances, to write a significant anti-Judaic treatise Against the Perfidy of Jews around 1190. William de Blois, as Bishop of Worcester, imposed strict rules on Jews within the diocese in 1219; as elsewhere in England, Jews were compelled to wear rectangular white badges representing tabulae. In most places, this requirement was relinquished as long. In addition to enforcing the church laws on wearing badges, Blois tried to impose additional restrictions on usury, wrote to Pope Gregory in 1229 to ask for better enforcement and further, harsher measures.
In response, the Papacy demanded that Christians be prevented from working in Jewish homes, "lest temporal profit be preferred to the zeal of Christ", enforcement of the wearing of badges. The priory came to an end with King Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries. Shortly beforehand, in 1535, the prior William More resigned, was replaced by Henry Holbeach. More had a reputation for fine living, although his standards seem in line with other senior ecclesiasts of the time. However, there were problems with the administration of the priory, including divisions within the community; the Protestant Hugh Latimer was bishop from 1535, preached for reform and iconoclasm. He resigned as bishop in 1539, as a result of a theological turn by Henry VIII towards Roman Catholicism, in the Six Articles. John Bell, a moderate reformer, was bishop from 1539 to 1543, during the period of the priory's dissolution. In the early 16th century, Worcester had around 40 monks; this declined in the years before 1540, as recruitment seems to have halted.
There were 35 Benedictine monks plus the Prior Holbeach at the time of dissolution 16 January 1540. Holbeach was re-appointed as the first Dean. A further five former monks were pensioned from the college in July 1540; the former monastic library of Worcester contained a considerable number of manuscripts which are, among other libraries, now scattered over Cambridge, Oxford Bodleian, the Cathedral library at Worcester of today. Remains of the priory dating from the 12th and 13th centuries can still be seen. John Bell's successor as Bishop, Nicholas Heath, was religiously much more conservative and Catholic. During the Civil War, the Cathedral was used to store arms as early as September 1642. While Worcester declared itself for Parliament, it was swiftly occupied by the Royalists, who were using the building to store munitions when Essex retook the city after a skirmish on its outskirts; the Parliamentary troops ransacked the Cathedral building. Stained glass was smashed and the organ destroyed, along with library books and monuments.
The See was abolished during the Commonwealth and the
Ambulatory care or outpatient care is medical care provided on an outpatient basis, including diagnosis, consultation, treatment and rehabilitation services. This care can include advanced medical technology and procedures when provided outside of hospitals. Ambulatory care sensitive conditions are health conditions where appropriate ambulatory care prevents or reduces the need for hospital admission, such as diabetes or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Many medical investigations and treatments for acute and chronic illnesses and preventive health care can be performed on an ambulatory basis, including minor surgical and medical procedures, most types of dental services, dermatology services, many types of diagnostic procedures. Other types of ambulatory care services include emergency visits, rehabilitation visits, in some cases telephone consultations. Ambulatory care services represent the most significant contributor to increasing hospital expenditures and to the performance of the health care system in most countries, including most developing countries.
Health care organizations use different ways to define the nature of care provided as "ambulatory" versus inpatient or other types of care. Sites where ambulatory care can be delivered include: Doctor's surgeries: This is the most common site for the delivery of ambulatory care in many countries, consists of a physician's visit. Physicians of many specialties deliver ambulatory care, including specialists in family medicine, internal medicine, gynaecology, gastroenterology, endocrinology and dermatology. Clinics: Including ambulatory care clinics, ambulatory surgery centers, urgent care centers. In the United States, the Urgent Care Association of America estimates that over 15,000 urgent care centers deliver urgent care services; these centers are designed to evaluate and treat conditions that are not severe enough to require treatment in a hospital emergency department but still require treatment beyond normal physician office hours or before a physician appointment is available. In Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union, Feldsher health stations are the main site for ambulatory care in rural areas.
Hospitals: Including emergency departments and other hospital-based services such as same day surgery services and mental health services. Hospital emergency departments: Some visits to emergency departments result in hospital admission, so these would be considered emergency medicine visits rather than ambulatory care. Most visits to hospital emergency departments, however, do not require hospital admission. Non-medical institution-based settings: Including school and prison health. Non-institution settings: For example, mass childhood immunization campaigns using community health workers. Telematic: The telemedicine-based follow-up, has proven to be feasible and safe for the evaluation of early postoperative complications. Patients reported high levels of satisfaction with the procedure. Telemedicine-based follow-up could become standard practice with the development of a specific mobile application. Ambulatory care sensitive conditions are illnesses or health conditions where appropriate ambulatory care prevents or reduces the need for hospital admission.
Appropriate care for an ACSC can include one or more planned revisits to settings of ambulatory care for follow-up, such as when a patient is continuously monitored or otherwise advised to return when symptoms appear or reappear. Common ACSC include: Hospitalization for an ACSC is considered to be a measure of access to appropriate primary health care, including preventive and disease management services. While not all admissions for these conditions are avoidable, appropriate ambulatory care could help prevent their onset, control an acute episode, or manage a chronic disease or condition.: For Medicaid-covered and uninsured U. S. hospital stays in 2012, six of the top ten diagnoses were ambulatory care sensitive conditions. Primary care Reason for encounter Health care provider Ambulatory care nursing Ambulatory as a medical term National Association for Ambulatory Urgent Care Urgent Care Association of America Journal of Ambulatory Pediatrics Diagnosing and treating the ailments of outpatient facilities High use of ambulatory care as indication of problems obtaining access to appropriate primary care
Worcestershire is a county in the West Midlands of England. Between 1974 and 1998, it was merged with the neighbouring county of Herefordshire as Hereford and Worcester; the cathedral city of Worcester is county town. Other major towns in the county include Bromsgrove, Evesham, Malvern and Stourport-on-Severn; the north-east of Worcestershire includes part of the industrial West Midlands. The county is divided into six administrative districts: Worcester, Wychavon, Malvern Hills, Wyre Forest, Bromsgrove; the county borders Herefordshire to the west, Shropshire to the north-west, Staffordshire only just to the north, West Midlands to the north and north-east, Warwickshire to the east and Gloucestershire to the south. The western border with Herefordshire includes a stretch along the top of the Malvern Hills. At the southern border with Gloucestershire Worcestershire meets the northern edge of the Cotswolds. Two major rivers flow through the county: the Avon; the geographical area now known as Worcestershire was first populated at least 700,000 years ago.
The area became predominantly agricultural in the Bronze Age, leading to population growth and more evidence of settlement. By the Iron Age, hill forts dominated the landscape. Settlement of these swiftly ended with the Roman occupation of Britain; the Roman period saw establishment of the villa system in the Vale of Evesham. Droitwich was the most important settlement in the county in this period, due to its product of salt. There is evidence for Roman settlement and industrial activity around Worcester and King's Norton. Worcestershire was the heartland of the early English kingdom of the Hwicce, it was absorbed by the Kingdom of Mercia during the 7th century and became part of the unified Kingdom of England in 927. It was a separate ealdormanship in the 10th century before forming part of the Earldom of Mercia in the 11th century. In the years leading up to the Norman conquest, the Church, supported by the cathedral, Evesham Abbey, Pershore Abbey, Malvern Priory, other religious houses dominated the county.
During the Middle Ages, much of the county's economy was based on the wool trade. Many areas of its dense forests, such as Feckenham Forest, Horewell Forest and Malvern Chase, were royal hunting grounds subject to forest law; the last known Anglo-Saxon sheriff of the county was Cyneweard of Laughern, the first Norman sheriff was Urse d'Abetot who built the castle of Worcester and seized much church land. On 4 August 1265, Simon de Montfort was killed in the Battle of Evesham in Worcestershire. In 1642, the Battle of Powick Bridge was the first major skirmish of the English Civil War; the county suffered from being on the Royalist front line, as it was subject to heavy taxation and the pressing of men into the Royalist army, which reduced its productive capacity. The northern part of the county, a centre of iron production, was important for military supplies. Parliamentarian raids and Royalist requisitioning both placed a great strain on the county. There were tensions from the participation of prominent Catholic recusants in the military and civilian organisation of the county.
Combined with the opposition to requisitioning from both sides, bands of Clubmen formed to keep the war away from their localities. The Battle of Worcester in 1651 ended the third civil war. There was little enthusiasm or local participation in the Scottish Royalist army, whose defeat was welcomed. Parliamentarian forces ransacked the city of Worcester, causing heavy damage and destruction of property. Around 10,000 Scottish prisoners were sent into forced labour in the New World or fen drainage schemes; the small bands of Scots that fled into Worcestershire's countryside were attacked by local forces and killed. In the 19th century, Worcester was a centre for the manufacture of gloves. Droitwich Spa, situated on large deposits of salt, was a centre of salt production from Roman times, with one of the principal Roman roads running through the town; these old industries have since declined. The county is home to the world's oldest continually published newspaper, the Berrow's Journal, established in 1690.
Malvern was one of the centres of the 19th century rise in English spa towns due to Malvern water being believed to be pure, containing "nothing at all". The 2011 census found the population of Worcestershire to be 566,169, an increase of 4.4% from the 2001 population of 542,107. Though the total number of people in every ethnic group increased between 2001 and 2011, the White British share of Worcestershire's population decreased from 95.5% to 92.4%, as did the share of white ethnic groups as whole, which went from 97.5% to 95.7%. While this change is in line with the nationwide trend of White British people's share of the population shrinking, Worcestershire is still much more ethnically homogeneous than the national average. In 2011 England as a whole was 79.8% White British, much lower than Worcestershire's figure of 92.4%. Local government in Worcestershire has changed several times since the middle of the 19th centiry. Worcestershire had several exclaves, which were areas of land cut off from the main geographical area of Worcestershire and surrounded by the nearby counties of Warwickshire, Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire.
The most notable were Dudley, th
Tesco plc trading as Tesco, is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, England, United Kingdom. It is the third-largest retailer in the world measured by gross revenues and ninth-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues, it has shops in seven countries across Asia and Europe, is the market leader of groceries in the UK, Ireland and Thailand. Tesco was founded in 1919 by Jack Cohen as a group of market stalls; the Tesco name first appeared in 1924, after Cohen purchased a shipment of tea from T. E. Stockwell and combined those initials with the first two letters of his surname, the first Tesco shop opened in 1931 in Burnt Oak, Barnet, his business expanded and by 1939 he had over 100 Tesco shops across the country. A UK grocer, Tesco has expanded globally since the early 1990s, with operations in 11 other countries in the world; the company pulled out of the USA in 2013, but as of 2018 continues to see growth elsewhere.
Since the 1960s, Tesco has diversified into areas such as the retailing of books, electronics, toys, software, financial services and internet services. In the 1990s Tesco repositioned itself from being a down-market high-volume low-cost retailer, to one designed to attract a range of social groups by offering products ranging from low-cost "Tesco Value" items to its "Tesco Finest" range; this broadening of its appeal was successful and saw the chain grow from 500 shops in the mid-1990s to 2,500 shops fifteen years later. Tesco is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it had a market capitalization of £18.1 billion as of 22 April 2015, the 28th-largest of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. Jack Cohen, the son of Jewish migrants from Poland, founded Tesco in 1919 when he began to sell war-surplus groceries from a stall at Well Street Market, Hackney, in the East End of London; the Tesco brand first appeared in 1924. The name came about, he made new labels using the initials of the supplier's name, the first two letters of his surname, forming the word TESCO.
After experimenting with his first permanent indoor market stall at Tooting in November 1930, Jack Cohen opened the first Tesco shop in September 1931 at 54 Watling Street, Burnt Oak, Middlesex. Tesco was floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1947 as Tesco Stores Limited; the first self-service shop opened in St Albans in 1956, the first supermarket in Maldon in 1956. In 1961 Tesco Leicester made an appearance in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest shop in Europe. During the 1950s and 1960s, Tesco grew organically, through acquisitions, until it owned more than 800 shops; the company purchased 70 Williamson's shops, 200 Harrow Stores outlets, 212 Irwins shops, 97 Charles Phillips shops and the Victor Value chain. Jack Cohen's business motto was "pile it high and sell it cheap", to which he added an internal motto of "YCDBSOYA" which he used to motivate his sales force. In May 1987, Tesco completed its hostile takeover of the Hillards chain of 40 supermarkets in the North of England for £220 million.
In 1994, the company took over the supermarket chain William Low after fighting off Sainsbury's for control of the Dundee-based firm, which operated 57 shops. This paved the way for Tesco to expand its presence in Scotland, in which its presence was weaker than in England. Tesco introduced a loyalty card, branded'Clubcard' in 1995, an Internet shopping service. In 1996 the typeface of the logo was changed to the current version with stripe reflections underneath, whilst the corporate font used for shop signage was changed from the familiar "typewriter" font, used since the 1970s. Overseas operations were introduced the same year. Terry Leahy assumed the role of Chief Executive on 21 February 1997, the appointment having been announced on 21 November 1995. On 21 March 1997, Tesco announced the purchase of the retail arm of Associated British Foods, which consisted of the Quinnsworth and Crazy Prices chains in Ireland and Northern Ireland, associated businesses, for £640 million; the deal was approved by the European Commission on 6 May 1997.
The company was the subject of a letter bomb campaign lasting five months from August 2000 to February 2001 as a bomber calling himself "Sally" sent letter bombs to Tesco customers and demanded Clubcards modified to withdraw money from cash machines. The company started to expand the range of products it sold during the 1960s to include household goods and clothing under the Delamare brand, in 1974 opened its first petrol station. In July 2001, Tesco became involved in internet groceries retailing in the USA when it obtained a 35% stake in GroceryWorks. In 2002, Tesco purchased 13 HIT hypermarkets in Poland, it made a major move into the UK's convenience shop market with its purchase of T & S Stores, owner of 870 convenience shops in the One Stop and Day & Nite chains in the UK. In June 2003, Tesco purchased the C Two-Network in Japan, it acquired a majority stake in Turkish supermarket chain Kipa. In January 2004, Tesco acquired Adminstore, owner of 45 Cullens and Harts convenience shops, in and around London.
In Thailand, Tesco Lotus was a joint venture of the Charoen Pokphand Group and Tesco, but faci
Museum of Royal Worcester
The Museum of Royal Worcester is a ceramics museum located in the Royal Worcester porcelain factory's former site in Worcester, England. The museum houses the world’s largest collection of Worcester porcelain; the collections date back to 1751 and the Victorian gallery, the ceramic collections and records of factory production, form the primary resource for the study of Worcester porcelain and its history. The museum is the only part of Royal Worcester left at the Severn Street site in Worcester after the factory went into administration in 2008 and closed in 2009; the Royal Worcester Visitor Centre, the seconds shop and the cafe all closed with the factory in 2009. The Museum of Royal Worcester was known as the Museum of Worcester Porcelain and the Dyson Perrins Museum and Worcester Porcelain Museum, after Charles William Dyson Perrins of Worcestershire sauce fame; the collections includes pieces from the beginning of porcelain manufacturing in Worcester in 1751 until the closure of the Royal Worcester factory in Worcester.
The museum is owned by the Dyson Perrins Museum Trust. The Worcester Porcelain Museum collection is displayed in three permanent galleries: the Georgian Gallery, the Victorian Gallery and the Twentieth Century Gallery; the museum holds over 10,000 objects made between 1751 and 2009. The collections date back to the 18th century, when shapes and patterns were copied from the Far East for use in the homes of the rich. A display in the first gallery shows an 18th-century furnished room with a long case clock and table laid for dessert. A trio of hexagonal vases feature on the mantle piece in. In contrast, the Victorian gallery has deep colours, extravagant exhibition pieces, works of great craftsmanship. Here it can be seen how travel influenced design and how with the onslaught of the Industrial Revolution more people could afford to buy fine works; the museum tour ends in the 20th century, where as well as producing bespoke services, commissioned by some of the factory's private customers, changing lifestyles and the advent of modern appliances like freezers and microwave ovens required a new range of products.
Henry Sandon and Lars Tharp together with others worked on an audio tour for the museum. This together with the facts trail combines to set the historical backdrop and present the technical achievements, the workers who made and decorated the porcelain, the customers who bought it. Disability and Access The Museum of Royal Worcester has full wheelchair access throughout the galleries, two lifts and a disabled toilet. Wheelchairs are available for use at the museum. Three hour street parking is available in Severn Street outside the museum for those with a blue badge. Functions and Hire The museum holds a range of events each year and is available for private and corporate hire for conferences, dinner parties, wedding receptions, etc. There is a Friends society with members from around the world. List of museums in Worcestershire Museum of Royal Worcester website
A village hall is a public building in a village used for various things such as: In the United Kingdom, a village hall is a building which contains at least one large room and toilets, is owned by a local government council or independent trustees, run for the benefit of the local community. It is estimated; such a hall is used for a variety of public and private functions, such as: Parish council meetings Polling station for local and national elections Sports club functions Local drama productions Dances Jumble sales Private parties such as birthdays or wedding receptionsVillage halls are run by a committee, if this is not part of a local government body, such as a parish council they can apply for charitable status. They may have other names such as a Village Memorial Hall. In some localities a church hall or community centre provides similar functions; the word neuadd is used to refer to village halls in Welsh-speaking parts of Wales, as in Neuadd Dyfi, the village hall in Aberdyfi. In the United States, a village hall is the seat of government for villages.
It functions much as a town city hall. Church hall Community centre Function hall Local community Meeting house Moot hall Village Hall Action for village halls in England
Worcester is a city in Worcestershire, England, 31 miles southwest of Birmingham, 101 miles west-northwest of London, 27 miles north of Gloucester and 23 miles northeast of Hereford. The population is 100,000; the River Severn flanks the western side of the city centre, overlooked by Worcester Cathedral. The Battle of Worcester in 1651 was the final battle of the English Civil War, where Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army defeated King Charles II's Royalists. Worcester is known as the home of Royal Worcester Porcelain, composer Edward Elgar, Lea & Perrins, makers of traditional Worcestershire sauce, University of Worcester, Berrow's Worcester Journal, claimed to be the world's oldest newspaper; the trade route which ran past Worcester forming part of the Roman Ryknild Street, dates to Neolithic times. The position commanded a ford over the River Severn and was fortified by the Britons around 400 BC, it would have been on the northern border of the Dobunni and subject to the larger communities of the Malvern hillforts.
The Roman settlement at the site passes unmentioned by Ptolemy's Geography, the Antonine Itinerary and the Register of Dignitaries, but would have grown up on the road opened between Glevum and Viroconium in the 40s and 50s AD. The river crossing of the Severn at Worcester was the destination of the unfinished east-west Roman-dated road that ran from Magnis, until it disappeared from the historical record east of Stretton Grandison. Worcester may have been the "Vertis" mentioned in the 7th century Ravenna Cosmography. Using charcoal from the Forest of Dean, the Romans operated pottery kilns and ironworks at the site and may have built a small fort. There is no sign of municipal buildings. In the 3rd century, Roman Worcester occupied a larger area than the subsequent medieval city, but silting of the Diglis Basin caused the abandonment of Sidbury. Industrial production ceased and the settlement contracted to a defended position along the lines of the old British fort at the river terrace's southern end.
This settlement is identified with the Cair Guiragon listed among the 28 cities of Britain in the History of the Britons attributed to Nennius. This is not a British name but an adaption of its Old English name Weorgoran ceaster, "fort of the Weorgoran"; the form of the place-name varied as language and history developed over the centuries, with Early English and subsequent Norman French additions. At its settlement in 7th century by the Angles of Mercia it was known as Weogorna. After centuries of warfare against the Vikings and Danelaw it a centre for the Anglo-Saxon army or here known as Weogorna ceastre. At the time of Tenth Century Reformation to twelfth century, when scholasticism flourished it became approximated to its known linguistic origins as Wirccester; the county developed from the shire's name Wigornia from the Anglo-Norman period into the foundations of the Market Fairs during the Henrician and Edwardian parliaments. It was still known as County Wigorn in 1750; the Weorgoran were precursors of Hwicce and the West Saxons who entered the area some time after the 577 Battle of Dyrham.
In 680, their fort at Worcester was chosen—in preference to both the much larger Gloucester and the royal court at Winchcombe—to be the seat of a new bishopric, suggesting there was a well-established and powerful Christian community when the site fell into English hands. The oldest known church was St Helen's, British. Worcester appears in the historic records prior to the Viking era with reference to the church and monastic communities, showing evidence of extensive ecclesiastical ownership of lands. During King Alfred's reign, the earls of Mercia fortified Worcester "for the protection of all the people" at the request of Bishop Werfrith, it appears. A unique document detailing this and privileges granted to the church outlines the existence of Worcester's market and borough court, differentiation between church and market quarters within the city, as well as the role of the King in relation to the roads. Worcester's fortifications would most have established the line of the wall, extant until the 1600s excepting the south east area near the former castle.
It is referred to as a wall by contemporaries. Worcester was a centre of monastic church power. Oswald of Worcester was an important reformer, appointed Bishop in 961, jointly with York; the last Anglo-Saxon Bishop of Worcester, Wulfstan, or St Wulstan, was an important reformer, stayed in post until his death in 1095. Worcester became the focus of tax resistance against the Danish Harthacanute. Two huscarls were killed in May 1041 while attempting to collect taxes for the expanded navy, after being driven into the Priory, where they were murdered. A military force was sent to deal with the non-payment, while the townspeople attempted to defend themselves by moving to and occupying the island of Bevere, two miles up river, where they were besieged. After Harthacnut's men had sacked the city and set it alight, agreement was reached. Worcester was the site of a mint during the late Anglo-Saxon period, with seven moneyers in the reign of Edward the Confessor; this implies a middling role in trade for the city.
Worcester was, for tax purposes, counted within ru