The feral pig is a pig living in the wild, but which has descended from escaped domesticated individuals in both the Old and New Worlds. Razorback and wild hog are American colloquialisms, loosely applied to any type of feral domestic pig, wild boar, or hybrid in North America; the term "razorback" has appeared in Australia, to describe feral pigs there. A feral pig is a domestic pig that has escaped or been released into the wild, is living more or less as a wild animal. Zoologists exclude from the feral category animals that, although captive, were genuinely wild before they escaped. Accordingly, Eurasian wild boar, released or escaped into habitats where they are not native, such as in North America, are not considered feral, although they may interbreed with feral pigs. Reintroduced wild boars in Western Europe are not considered feral, despite the fact that they were raised in captivity prior to their release; the natural habitats of wild boar are woodlands. In the UK, wild boar can be farmed under licence.
However, to release them into the wild is illegal. Established populations of wild boar occur in the Forest of Gloucestershire; these are active during the daytime and are less wary of people. This is in contrast to populations in East Sussex, which are wary of people. Groups of wild boar have been reported in the Scottish Highlands including Invermoriston, near Loch Ness, between Newtonmore and Laggan. A group believed to be a mix of wild boar and domestic pig that escaped from a farm, have been seen in the Strathnairn area near Inverness. Wild boar occur elsewhere in the UK according to the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs, it said between 100 and 200 were estimated to be in Kent and East Sussex, about 20–30 in West Dorset. The practice of introducing domestic pigs into the New World persisted throughout the exploration periods of the 16th and 17th centuries; the Eurasian wild boar, which ranged from Great Britain to European Russia, may have been introduced. By the 19th century, their numbers were sufficient in some areas such as the Southern United States to become a common game animal.
Feral pigs are a growing problem in the United States. As of 2013, the estimated population of 6 million feral pigs causes billions of dollars in property and agricultural damage every year in the United States, both in wild and agricultural lands; because pigs forage by rooting for their food under the ground with their snouts and tusks, a sounder of feral pigs can damage acres of planted fields in just a few nights. Because of the feral pig's omnivorous nature, it is a danger to both plants and animals endemic to the area it is invading. Game animals such as deer and turkeys, more flora such as the Opuntia plant have been affected by the feral hog's aggressive competition for resources. Feral pigs have been determined to be potential hosts for at least 34 pathogens that can be transmitted to livestock and humans. For commercial pig farmers, great concern exists that some of the hogs could be a vector for swine fever to return to the US, extinct in America since 1978. Feral pigs could present an immediate threat to "nonbiosecure" domestic pig facilities because of their likeliness to harbor and spread pathogens the protozoan Sarcocystis.
By the early 2000s, the range of feral pigs included all of the US south of 36°N. The range begins in the mountains surrounding California and crosses over the mountains, continuing much farther east towards the Louisiana bayous and forests, terminating in the entire Florida peninsula. In the East, the range expands northward to include most of the forested areas and swamps of the Southeast, from there goes north along the Appalachian Mountains as far as upstate New York, with a growing presence in states bordering West Virginia and Kentucky. Texas has the largest estimated population of 2.6 million feral pigs existing in 253 of its 254 counties. Outside mainland US, Hawaii has feral pigs introduced to Oahu soon after Captain Cook's discovery of Hawaii in 1778, where they prey on or eat endangered birds and plants; the population of feral pigs has increased from two million pigs ranging over 20 states in 1990, to triple that number 25 years ranging over 38 states with new territories expanding north into Oregon, Pennsylvania and New Hampshire.
Some of these feral pigs have mixed with escaped Russian boar, introduced for hunters from the early 1990s. Because feral pigs are omnivorous, their feeding behaviour disrupts the entire food chain. Plants have difficulties regenerating from their wallowing, as North American flora did not evolve to withstand the destruction caused by rooting pigs, unlike Europe or Asia. Feral pigs in the US eat small animals such as wild turkey poults, toads and the eggs of reptiles and birds; this can deprive other wildlife that would feed upon these important food sources. In some case, other wildlife are outcompeted by the feral pigs' higher reproductive rate. In the autumn, other animals such as the American black bear compete directly with feral pigs as both forage for tree mast. In the US, the problems caused by feral pigs ar
Atherton is a rural town and locality on the Atherton Tablelands within the Tablelands Region, Far North Queensland, Australia. At the 2011 census, Atherton had a population of 7,287; the town was named after John Atherton, a pioneer pastoralist who settled at Mareeba in 1875. The area was known as Priors Pocket or Priors Creek. William John Bock was an early pioneer in Atherton, he made an audio recording discussing the early town, prior to his death on 19 February 1953. Atherton Pioneer Cemetery opened in 1897 and closed in 1927 when the Rockley Road Cemetery was opened. Atherton Post Office opened by 1903; the Atherton War Memorial commemorates local residents who died in World War I. It was dedicated on 1 May 1924 by Frederick Grau, it is the only war memorial in Queensland of a digger in an animated pose. The Atherton Courthouse was used as a wartime hospital for officers during World War II and has air raid bunkers beneath the building; the Atherton Public Library was opened in 1978. Atherton has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Herberton Road: Chinatown Herberton Road: Atherton Chinese Temple Kennedy Highway: Atherton War Memorial corner of Kennedy Highway and Rockley Road: Atherton War Cemetery 42 Mable Street: Atherton State School Head Teacher's Residence 53 Main Street: Barron Valley Hotel Mazlin Street: Merriland Hall 6 Silo Street: Atherton Performing Arts Theatre Atherton has a humid subtropical climate that differs from the surrounding tropical savannah climate due to the town's elevation 752 metres ASL high on the Atherton Plateau.
Temperature extremes have ranged from 36.7 °C to –0.6 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1,379.8 mm Atherton is joined by the Gillies Highway to Yungaburra, the Kennedy Highway north to Mareeba and south to Ravenshoe and Mount Garnet, the Malanda Road to Malanda and the Herberton Road to Herberton. Trans North offers a number of return services during a seven-day week between Atherton, Walkamin, Mareeba and Cairns including drop-offs to airport, railway station and bus depots. There are connections available between Ravenshoe and Herberton and along the Wheelbarrow Way to Chillagoe. There is an Atherton taxi service. Due to its moderate climate and less humid than the tropical coast, its booming agricultural industries, Atherton has a busy and prosperous community, a vibrant social and cultural life. Atherton is attractive to retirees and "tree changers" due to the cool climate, fertile garden soils, housing prices lower than the nearby coastal city of Cairns, the vibrant cultural life; the land around Atherton is used to grow a variety of crops, including sugar cane, mangoes, potatoes, blueberries, blackberries and macadamia nuts.
Dairy and beef cattle are reared in the area. Each year towards the end of August, Atherton celebrates the Maize festival, which features a parade with decorated floats, the Maize Queen pageant, children's amusement rides and activities including tug of war and wood chopping. There are shop window displays and artwork competitions, as well as a prize given to the best float; the annual Atherton Agricultural Show is held in the second week of July at Atherton Show grounds including Heritage Listed Merriland Hall. The Atherton Roosters field teams in the Cairns District Rugby League. Atherton has two primary schools, one secondary school, one independent Prep - Grade 12 school and a technical and further education campus. There are two day care centres in the town. Atherton's schools and other places of education include: Atherton State High School The School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, a virtual campus of Atherton State High School. Atherton State School Jubilee Christian College St Joseph’s Catholic Primary School Tropical North Institute of TAFEAtherton State School opened on 2 March 1891 and celebrated its centenary in 1984.
The Tablelands Regional Council operates the Atherton Library on Atherton. The library facility opened in 1978, with a major refurbishment in 2012; the Atherton branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the CWA Hall on the corner of Jack Street and Arnott Lane. Atherton Hospital is in the Tablelands Health District, it hospital provides obstetric, surgical, operating theatre and emergency services. Peter Beattie, who served as the 36th Premier of Queensland from 1998 to 2007 Ron Grainer, best known for composing the Doctor Who theme music Rod Jensen, former North Queensland Cowboys and Huddersfield Giants player Dallas Johnson, North Queensland Cowboys lock forward and former Melbourne Storm player and Queensland State of Origin representative Elizabeth O'Conner, author Ren Pedersen, children's brain cancer research advocate Alexander Prokhorov, Soviet/Russian physicist and Nobel Prize winner Historical weather of Atherton University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Atherton
, Dimbulah is a town and locality in Far North Queensland, Australia, 114 kilometres from Cairns by road, on the Atherton Tableland. It is within the local government area of Shire of Mareeba. At the 2011 census, Dimbulah had a population of 1,414; the former mining town of Wolfram is located in the north-west of the locality. There are historical ruins of early mining there as well as a present-day open cut mine; the town was established in 1876 to service the Tyrconnell Gold Mine, one of the richest mines on the Hodgkinson Gold Fields. The name "Dimbulah" is thought to have come from the local Indigenous Australian word for "long waterhole", referring to the Walsh River that runs nearby the town. Dimboola Post Office opened by 1900 and was renamed Dimbulah in 1904; the Dimbulah Public Library opened in 1995 with a minor refurbishment in 2013. The area around Dimbulah was home to the Djankun and Kuku Djungan tribe. During the 1920s the Queensland government forcibly removed most of their children, forcing the tribe to scatter.
In the early 1900s the area received an influx of Italian migrants and in 1928 tobacco was introduced, becoming the area's major industry soon after. At its peak, there were 800 growers in the area, producing over 8,000 tonnes of tobacco a year.'The Way Back In' is an Australian heritage project that documents a small selection of Australian heritage within the Italian communities in Dimbulah and Cairns. Tobacco remained the dominant crop until recent years. Recent attempts at alternative crops such as tea trees, sugar cane, lemons, avocados, papayas, soya beans, lychees and cash crops have met with mixed success. Farming is a significant employment option in Dimbulah and many travelers, including backpackers, are employed as short-term farm labourers during the busy mango harvest from November to January. Holders of a working holiday visa may be eligible for an extension to their visa after a period of work on farms in the area. Accommodation is available at the Junction Hotel. If employed on a farm, accommodation is available in small'dongas' or barracks.
Public transport from Cairns is possible, although infrequent, on Trans North's bus service which stops at Mareeba, 45 kilometres from Dimbulah. The Savannahlander tourist train does not operate year-round. Important local events include the annual Lion's Festival and the Great Wheelbarrow Race both held annually in May. On 27 September 2014, the Dimbulah P-10 State School celebrated its centenary. Local residents enjoy a tropical climate with dry, mild winters. There are many sporting clubs including swimming, horse & pony, lawn bowls, Rhee Taekwon-Do, soccer/football. Services include Police station, Queensland Health clinic, ADSL internet, 3G mobile service. In 2013, the town's retail facilities include a Bendigo Community Bank with 24-hour ATM, Australia Post office, Mareeba Discount Chemist, Funky Mango Cafe, Canzian's Restaurant, Junction Hotel, Abundant Life opp shop, Sunshine Bakery, two salons, TGT hardware store, Foodworks grocery store, One Stop convenience store and two petrol stations.
Community groups include the Dimbulah Community Centre, St Anthony's Catholic church, Men's Shed, Lions Club, QCWA, Chamber of Commerce, museum association, several other faith-based groups. The Mareeba Shire operates a public library at Shire Hall at the corner of Raleigh Street and Burke Development Road; the Dimbulah branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall at 22 Brickley Street. Chris Sheppard, former NRL player Dimbulah has a number of sites listed on the Queensland Heritage Register including: Main Street, Wolfram: La Société Française des Métaux Rares treatment plant Wolfram Road, Wolfram: Thermo Electric Ore Reduction Corporation Mill Dimbulah Limited Hours Child Care, Age range 15 months - 5 years Dimbulah Kindergarten, Age range 3–5 years Dimbulah P-10 State School, Age range: 4–16 years St Anthony's Parish School Age range: 4-12 University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Dimbulah Town map of Dimbulah, 1984
Mossman is a town and a locality in Far North Queensland, Australia, on the Mossman River. It is within the local government area of Shire of Douglas. In the 2016 census, Mossman had a population of 1,937 people. Mossman is located on the Captain Cook Highway 75 kilometres north of the regional city of Cairns, 15 kilometres east of the Mount Carbine Tableland. Mossman Gorge, a popular attraction within Daintree National Park, is located west of town. Sugar cane farming is an important aspect of the local economy, with Mossman Central Mill, the only sugar mill in the district, processing the cane before sending it to Cairns for shipping domestically and internationally; the district was known as Mossman River after the river which flows through it. The Mossman River, in turn, was named by the explorer George Dalrymple on 6 December 1873 after Hugh Mosman who discovered gold in Charters Towers. Dalrymple wrote "I named this river the Mossman River, after Mossman, an explorer and mining man, member of a prominent mining family".
The town was known for a brief time as Hartsville after Daniel Hart, an early settler. The name was simplified to Mossman. Mossman Central Sugar Mill commenced crushing on 23 August 1897. Mossman River Post Office opened by 1895 and was renamed Mossman in 1899. Mossman River State School opened on 31 January 1898 under head teacher Thomas Garland, it was renamed Mossman State School in 1910. A secondary department was opened on 1 February 1955, which operated until a separate Mossman State High School opened on 30 January 1973; the establishment and subsequent growth of Cairns and the completion of the Cairns Railway up through the Barron Gorge in 1891, gave a more direct gateway to the hinterland but, at this period, it was found that the Mossman district contained suitable land for sugar-growing. The establishment of the sugar mill at Mossman formed the nucleus of the town, which grew at the expense of Port Douglas; the district was served by two separate 2-foot gauge tramway systems. Both at one time handled general goods, as well as sugar cane.
Mossman district owes its present prosperity to these tramways which pioneered the first reasonable transport in the neighbourhood, for trafficable roads followed later. During World War II, Mossman was attacked in a Japanese air raid on 31 July 1942. A single flying boat dropped a bomb that injured a child. Mossman State High School opened on 30 January 1973. Mossman Library opened in 1977. Mossman Central Mill Company Limited started life as a grower owned co-operative sugar mill back in 1894. On 23 August 1897, the sugarcane from Bonnie Doon was the first to be crushed at the Mossman Sugar Mill. Mrs Annie Rose fed the first sugarcane into the mill, with the mill producing its first sugar after crushing 27,905 tonnes of cane for the initial season. In 1906, Mossman Mill became the first Queensland mill to crush over 100,000 tonnes of cane; that season lasted just under 8 months, extending from June 1906 to late January 1907. Sugar was shipped from Port Douglas, however road transport came to the forefront and became the preferred mode of transport for sugar to the bulk sugar terminal in Cairns.
Louis John Frederick Prince pioneered the use of computers for cane payment accounting and, in 1971, Mossman purchased the first process control computer used in the world sugar industry. Mossman State School is a government primary school for girls at 30-34 Front Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 213 students with 16 teachers and 22 non-teaching staff. Mossman State High School is a government secondary school for girls at 46-62 Front Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 611 students with 62 teachers and 41 non-teaching staff, it includes a special education program. St Augustine's School is a Catholic primary school for girls at Grogan Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 217 students with 13 non-teaching staff. Douglas Shire Council operates Mossman Library at Mossman; the Mossman branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at 28 Front Street. Prior to 2008, Mossman was the seat of the Shire of Douglas. In 2008, the Shire of Douglas was amalgamated into the Cairns Region, administered from both Cairns and Mossman.
In 2014, the Shire of Douglas was de-amalgamated from Cairns Region and reinstated as Shire of Douglas. Mossman is rich in sporting clubs such as the Mossman Sharks rugby league club, Coral Coast Judo Club, Douglas United Dragons Football Club, A Basketball League run out of the high school Indoor Sport Centre, the Port Douglas Crocs AFL club, Mossman Gymnastics, Port Douglas and Mossman Rugby Union club, Lady Dragons Indigenous Rugby League Football Club and much, much more. A young 9 year old Jermaine Ryan broke the world record for the fastest 9 year old 100m track and field in 2016. Jove Thompson an 11-year who has broken the world record for catching the worlds biggest jungle perch and the fastest time for a 100m, 200m and 800m track and field time. Jermaine's time of 100m was 14.59 seconds and Jove's time for the 100m was 12.62 seconds, 200m 21.47 seconds and 800m 1.54 minutes. Mossman has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Johnston Road: Mossman District
A woodland or wood is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade. Woodlands may support an understory of herbaceous plants including grasses. Woodland may form a transition to shrubland under drier conditions or during early stages of primary or secondary succession. Higher density areas of trees with a closed canopy that provides extensive and nearly continuous shade are referred to as forests. Extensive efforts by conservationist groups have been made to preserve woodlands from urbanization and agriculture: the woodlands of Northwest Indiana being an example, having been preserved as part of the Indiana Dunes. Woodland is used in British woodland management to mean tree-covered areas which arose and which are managed, while forest is used in the British Isles to describe plantations more extensive, or hunting Forests, which are a land use with a legal definition and may not be wooded at all; the term ancient woodland is used in British nature conservation to refer to any wooded land that has existed since 1600, for thousands of years, since the last Ice Age.
Woodlot is a related American term which refers to a stand of trees used for firewood. While woodlots technically have closed canopies, they are so small that light penetration from the edge makes them ecologically closer to woodland than forest. In Australia, a woodland is defined as an area with sparse cover of trees, an open woodland has sparse cover. Woodlands are subdivided into tall woodlands, or low woodlands, if their trees are over 30 m or under 10 m high respectively; this contrasts with forests. Sudden oak death, an oak disease, results from Phytophthora ramorum, a pathogen that thrives in moist, humid conditions; this causal agent attacks the cambium of oaks, allowing beetle and fungi infestation. It has killed millions of tanoaks. SOD does not affect white oaks and drier areas like foothill woodlands, but affects forests and more moist conditions like live oak woodlands and forests, which have been impacted. Afrotropic ecozone Angolan Miombo woodlands Angolan Mopane woodlands Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Eastern Miombo woodlands Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Zambezian and Mopane woodlands Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Neotropic ecozone Cerrado woodlands and savannas Afrotropic Ecozone Al Hajar Al Gharbi montane woodlands Palearctic ecozone Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Afrotropic ecozone Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands Drakensberg montane grasslands and forests East African montane moorlands Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Palearctic ecozone Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Australasia ecozone Coolgardie woodlands Cumberland Plain Woodland Mount Lofty woodlands Murray-Darling woodlands and mallee Naracoorte woodlands Southwest Australia woodlands Nearctic ecozone California chaparral and woodlands Palearctic ecozone Baccanico an area with a high density of all sorts of berry trees.
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Mediterranean woodlands and forests Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Afrotropic ecozone East Saharan montane xeric woodlands Madagascar succulent woodlands Somali montane xeric woodlands Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands Palearctic ecozone Baluchistan xeric woodlands Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Central Asian riparian woodlands North Saharan steppe and woodlands Paropamisus xeric woodlands South Saharan steppe and woodlands Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands West Saharan montane xeric woodlands Media related to Woodlands at Wikimedia Commons The UK Woodland Trust Woodland Bond
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli