Örebro is a city with 117,543 inhabitants, the seat of Örebro Municipality and the capital of Örebro County in Sweden. It is one of the largest inland hubs of the country, it is located near the lake of Hjälmaren, although a few kilometres inland along the small river Svartån. Örebro is home to Örebro University, a major university hospital, a medieval castle, the water park Gustavsvik as well as several large shopping malls and the Oset-Rynningeviken nature reserve at the lakefront. Örebro received its Royal Charter and city privileges not than 1404. The name Örebro refers to a bridge crossing the river Svartån; the prefix Öre- is derived from ör'gravel'. The location became a natural seat of commerce in the Scandinavian Middle Ages and is mentioned in print in the 13th century. Old buildings from the early days include the foundations of the city church, a building which has undergone several modifications; the natural center of the city is otherwise the magnificent Örebro Castle, situated on an islet in the Svartån, dividing the town into a northern and a southern part.
This castle was constructed during the stewardship of Birger Jarl during the early 13th century and modified and enlarged during the reign of King Gustav Vasa in the 1560s. The Örebro Synod was held here in 1529. Notable events in Örebro's history include the national diet meeting at Örebro in 1810, where Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte was elected crown prince of Sweden. Although a trade town, Örebro remained small until the second half of the 19th century, when it grew as a center of the national shoe-manufacturing industry. Örebro, like the rest of the area close to Mälardalen, has a humid continental climate, made milder by the proximity to water and the Gulf Stream which makes it interchangeable with oceanic climates. Summer temperatures exceed 30 °C albeit not yearly, temperatures above 5 °C are rare in winter, although frost-free nights sometimes occur. July high temperatures range from 20 °C to 26 °C depending on weather patterns, with a 2002–2014 mean high of around 23.4 °C. During cold winters, Örebro receives plenty of snowfall.
Örebro is far more prone than coastal areas to harsh frosts with temperatures approaching or below −20 °C happening every winter according to SMHI statistics. The station's setting in a rural location might skew temperatures somewhat compared to the urban area, at a lower elevation and nearer Hjälmaren; when considering overnight lows this could render a small urban heat island effect in the city centre. However, the climate is variable from year to year. For example, December 2010 was record cold with a daily mean of −9 °C, whilst December 2006 only a few years before had a mean of 4.3 °C. The warmest month on record is 21.7 °C in July 1914 and the coldest on record is −12.8 °C in January 1987. Örebro is without snow cover for large parts of the winter months when daytime temperatures hover just above freezing – an exceptional feature for an inland area north of the 59th parallel. The highest recorded temperature was set on 7 August 1975 during an intense heatwave with 36 °C, a high temperature for such northerly parallels.
During the 21st century, the record heat is 33.7 °C set on 3 August 2014 during a long summer heat wave. The lowest recorded temperature in recorded history was set in February 1966 with −30 °C. Several monthly records have been set in the 2010s according to official SMHI statistics, namely the record highs of March, July, November, December as well as the coldest December temperature and month on record, set in 2010; the November record high of 2014 was associated with unseasonal thunderstorms. Humidity is adequately lower during summer months. In spite of this summer is the time that gets the most precipitation due to clashes between hot and cool continental air systems causing heavy thunderstorm rainfall. In 2015, a 13.1 °C reading was recorded around the winter solstice, another record and a warm reading for an inland area. Örebro's old town, Wadköping, is located on the banks of the Svartån. It contains 19th century wooden houses, along with museums and exhibitions; the water tower of Örebro, named Svampen, is a popular destination as an outlook tower.
In 1971, a replica of the tower was built in Saudi Arabia. Swedish Chamber Orchestra Örebro is the hometown of the punk-rock band Millencolin, they named one of their albums Pennybridge Pioneers, where Pennybridge stands for Örebro as a colloquial translation into English. Örebro is the hometown of various Swedish rock bands, such as Smash Into Pieces, Blues Pills, Troubled Horse and others, Graveyard's Lead Singer, Joakim Nilsson was born in Örebro The influential and popular grind band Nasum were formed in Örebro. Örebro is one of the public broadcaster SVT's 12 local news districts and has television premises located in the city.Örebro has hosted a contemporary art exhibition called Open Art on four occasions: in 2008, 2009, 2011 and 2013. In 2013, the exhibition featured works by 90 artists from Sweden and many other countries throughout the world; the fifth edition of the exhibition is planned for the summer of 2015.Örebro University is one of Sweden's most recent, being upgraded from högskola in 1999.
It has around 16,000 students and a staff of 1,100. The institution is regarded as one of the top 351–400 uni
Borås is a city and the seat of Borås Municipality, Västra Götaland County, Sweden. It had 66,273 inhabitants in 2010. Borås is located at the point of two crossing railways, among them the railway between Gothenburg and Kalmar, is considered the Swedish city gaining the most from the nationwide railway system laid between 1870 and 1910; the city of Borås received its privileges in 1621 by King Gustav II Adolf. The reason was to give local pedlars a legal place for vending their merchandise; the city developed. After a century it had increased to over 2,000 inhabitants. Borås has been ravaged by fires four times: in 1681, 1727, 1822 and 1827; the Caroli church is the oldest of Borås's buildings, has withstood all fires. In its 2017 report, Police in Sweden placed the Norrby, Hässleholmen and Hulta districts in the most severe category of urban areas with high crime rates; the city arms depicts two pairs of sheep shears, a tribute to the vast number of smiths in the town in early history. It holds the Swedish record in the number of established mail-order firms.
The company Swedac is based in the city, as well as Ericsson, which has a large manufacturing plant where Mini-Link microwave radios are manufactured. Worldwide clothing retailer H&M have their worldwide Online office based in the city as well. Outside the city in the industrial park of Viared, there are many companies specializing in logistics. Industries in Borås have close collaboration with the University College of Borås as well as the SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, the largest technical research institute of Sweden, both located in Borås. Besides being the home of the official Swedish Kilogram-weight and the atomic clock that sets the national time, SP conducts various testing and research to promote consumer safety; the most successful sports team is the football team IF Elfsborg, six times Swedish champions and three times winner of the Swedish cup. Elfsborg was founded in 1904, but received its current name in 1906; the team's home arena, since 2005, is Borås Arena in Borås, with a capacity of 16000.
Elfsborg play in black. Other teams are Borås Hockey Club, M7 and Borås Rhinos, an American football team; the table tennis club, Mariedals IK has three players in the Swedish youth team: Hampus Soderlund, Mattias Översjö and Jimmy Ojakangas. Other sports that can be practiced in Borås are: archery and field, handball, table tennis, skiing, sport shooting, golf, bowling and various martial arts. Borås Judoclub has tried to create a national center for judo. Members from the club that have participated in the olympics include Lars Adolfsson. Boråshallen is the largest indoor sports hall in Borås, where the Mariedal cup, an indoor football competition, is held annually in October or November; the competition started in 1978 in its current form. Borås hosted the water polo events of the XIII FINA World Masters Championships 2010, from July 28 to August 6. Other sports clubs located in Borås include: Bergdalens IK Borås AIK Hemvärnets Musikkår Borås – a marching and sitting orchestra Borås kulturskola – School of the Arts.
Borås kulturhus – theater, museum of art Borås Tidning – the local newspaper. Textilmuseet – a museum about textile manufacturing and clothes. Borås djurpark – The local zoo, they have raised a number of different animals and exported lions to other zoos. Åhaga – A renovated building used to maintain and repair locomotives. Now used for conferences and concerts; every summer, a number of free outdoor concerts are held on the town square on Thursday evenings. The city has been recognized as a city of outdoor sculptures, such as Catafalque by Sean Henry, Carl Fredrik Reuterswärd's knotted non-violence pistol and a huge bronze version of Pinocchio called Walking to Borås by the American pop artist Jim Dine. During the holiday All Saints' Day, there is an annual gaming convention called Borås Spelkonvent, where people youths, meet to play various board games, Warhammer 40k and Magic: The Gathering among other games. Borås has a cold oceanic climate, influenced by Atlantic trade winds travelling without major obstacles over the land, with low mean temperatures, compared to coastal areas and the more urban metropolis, near to the west.
Considering it being inland and quite far south, summer temperatures are rather subdued by Swedish standards, whilst winter average highs hover just above freezing. Being inland still enables severe extremes to sometimes occur, such as a 36 °C reading from July 1901, the warmest July temperature on record in Sweden, although not a national record; the coldest extreme was set in February 1966 with −34.1 °C, a cold temperature for southern Sweden. By Swedish standards, the climate of Borås is wet, with a precipitation average of 975 millimetres; this is due to marine airflows coming from the Atlantic and being transported over lowland areas, where the precipitation falls. This renders heavy solid or wet snowfall in winter and the freeze-thaw cycle is dominant, with irregular snow cover. See University of Borås Almåsgymnasiet Bäckängsgymnasiet Sven Eriksonsgymnasiet Viskastrandsgymnasiet Tullengymnasiet Borås Praktiska Gymnasium LBS: High School of Creativity "Borås, Borås" is a song reco
History of the Riksdag
The Riksdag is the national legislature of Sweden. However, when it was founded in 1866 Sweden did not have a parliamentary system of government; the national legislatures of Estonia and Finland are called Riksdag in Swedish. The precursor to the modern Riksdag was the Riksdag of the Estates. Of ancient origin in the Viking Things, the meeting of the Swedish nobility at Arboga, in 1435 is considered as the first Riksdag; this informal representation was formalized in 1527 by King Gustav I of Sweden to include representatives of all the four estates, which reflected the lines of division in Swedish society: the nobility, the clergy, the burghers and the peasantry. Under the Instrument of Government of 1809 the Riksdag shared the powers of government with the King. On the basis of the 1863 electoral reform bill the Estates voted in 1866 to dissolve the Riksdag of the Estates and establish a new Riksdag; the new Riksdag was a political assembly with two chambers where the members were chosen in national elections.
The revolution was that citizens could participate and vote in the elections without regard to which Estate they had hitherto belonged. Despite the fundamental change in the principles of representation, the social composition of the Riksdag did not alter by much, the system of government had not changed. Under the Constitution of 1809 the Riksdag still divided the powers of government with the King. From the second half of the 19th century, when the Riksdag was founded, until the early 20th century, Swedish society underwent a number of fundamental changes that impacted on the political system. Political demands, but sheer economic progress, increased the share of citizens eligible to vote and have a direct influence on the political system; this in turn sponsored the emergence and growth of political parties. The Riksdag had been able to assert itself against the Royal authority and a de facto parliamentary system had begun to emerge; as of the general election in 1921, universal and equal franchise was introduced for men and women alike, the Riksdag achieved a system of democratic representation for all citizens who were at least 23 years old on election day.
The last time the king attempted to exercise political authority was in February 1914 when King Gustav V delivered a speech to 30,000 peasants, assembled on the yard of the Royal Castle in Stockholm, an action which precipitated the fall the incumbent liberal cabinet, headed by Prime Minister Karl Staaff. In the face of popular unrest and gains for Liberals and Socialists in general elections 1917 the King hesitantly accepted to appoint a new Cabinet in accordance with the principles of Parliamentarism; the new government's main task was to present bills on democratization. The voting franchise had been extended to all adult males in 1907 and women's suffrage gave them the same rights in 1921. By this Sweden had established a parliamentary system of government. In the 1960s debates intensified over constitutional reform in Sweden; the fundamental question was over the system of government. Though a de facto parliamentary system was established, somewhat similar to the situation in the United Kingdom, there were demands for a more democratic constitution.
One of the main issues was whether the monarchy would survive constitutional reform and this blocked the issue for a long time. Effective from 1970 a reform of the Riksdag had been agreed upon. Though not technically part of the constitution it showed that the parties in the Riksdag were able to agree upon fundamental changes of the political system, which transformed the Riksdag from a bicameral legislature into a unicameral one; this would have 350 seats. However, the second general election to the unicameral Riksdag only gave the government support from 175 members, while the opposition could mobilize an equal force of 175 members, resulting in what became known as the "lottery Riksdag", in which the Speaker had to draw lots to resolve deadlocked votes. In 1974 it was decided that the number of seats from 1977 were to be reduced to 349. In 1974 a new Instrument of Government was established as a vital part of the Constitution and for the system of government; the monarchy was retained, whereas the monarch lost all formal political influence and became only a symbolic head of state.
Several of the traditional head-of-state functions have instead been transferred to the Speaker of the Riksdag. Government of Sweden Politics of Sweden Riksdagsmusiken The history of the Riksdag
The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect the lives and possessions of citizens, to prevent crime and civil disorder. Their powers include the legitimized use of force; the term is most associated with the police forces of a sovereign state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are defined as being separate from the military and other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors. Police forces are public sector services, funded through taxes. Law enforcement is only part of policing activity. Policing has included an array of activities in different situations, but the predominant ones are concerned with the preservation of order. In some societies, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, these developed within the context of maintaining the class system and the protection of private property. Police forces have become ubiquitous in modern societies.
Their role can be controversial, as some are involved to varying degrees in corruption, police brutality and the enforcement of authoritarian rule. A police force may be referred to as a police department, police service, gendarmerie, crime prevention, protective services, law enforcement agency, civil guard or civic guard. Members may be referred to as police officers, sheriffs, rangers, peace officers or civic/civil guards. Ireland differs from other English-speaking countries by using the Irish language terms Garda and Gardaí, for both the national police force and its members; the word police is the most universal and similar terms can be seen in many non-English speaking countries. Numerous slang terms exist for the police. Many slang terms for police officers are centuries old with lost etymology. One of the oldest, "cop", has lost its slang connotations and become a common colloquial term used both by the public and police officers to refer to their profession. First attested in English in the early 15th century in a range of senses encompassing' policy.
This is derived from πόλις, "city". Law enforcement in ancient China was carried out by "prefects" for thousands of years since it developed in both the Chu and Jin kingdoms of the Spring and Autumn period. In Jin, dozens of prefects were spread across the state, each having limited authority and employment period, they were appointed by local magistrates, who reported to higher authorities such as governors, who in turn were appointed by the emperor, they oversaw the civil administration of their "prefecture", or jurisdiction. Under each prefect were "subprefects" who helped collectively with law enforcement in the area; some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives. Prefects could be women; the concept of the "prefecture system" spread to other cultures such as Japan. In ancient Greece, publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police. In Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control, assisted with dealing with criminals, handling prisoners, making arrests.
Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves. In the Roman empire, the army, rather than a dedicated police organization, provided security. Local watchmen were hired by cities to provide some extra security. Magistrates such as procurators fiscal and quaestors investigated crimes. There was no concept of public prosecution, so victims of crime or their families had to organize and manage the prosecution themselves. Under the reign of Augustus, when the capital had grown to one million inhabitants, 14 wards were created, their duties included capturing runaway slaves. The vigiles were supported by the Urban Cohorts who acted as a heavy-duty anti-riot force and the Praetorian Guard if necessary. In medieval Spain, Santa Hermandades, or "holy brotherhoods", peacekeeping associations of armed individuals, were a characteristic of municipal life in Castile; as medieval Spanish kings could not offer adequate protection, protective municipal leagues began to emerge in the twelfth century against banditry and other rural criminals, against the lawless nobility or to support one or another claimant to a crown.
These organizations became a long-standing fixture of Spain. The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, protect the pilgrims against robber knights. Throughout the Middle Ages such alliances were formed by combinations of towns to protect the roads connecting them, were extended to political purposes. Among the most powerful was the league of North Castilian and Basque ports, the Hermandad de las marismas: Toledo and Villarreal; as one of their first acts after end of the War of the Castilian Succession in 1479, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile established the centrally-organized and efficient Holy
Norrköping is a city in the province of Östergötland in eastern Sweden and the seat of Norrköping Municipality, Östergötland County, about 160 km southwest of the national capital Stockholm. The city has a population of 95,618 inhabitants in 2016, out of a municipal total of 130,050, making it Sweden's tenth largest city and eighth largest municipality; the city is situated by the mouth of the river Motala ström, at Bråviken, an inlet of the Baltic Sea. Water power from the Motala ström and the good harbour were factors that facilitated the rapid growth of this once industrial city, known for its textile industry, it has several nicknames such as: "Sweden's Manchester", "Peking" and "Surbullestan". The city has medieval foundations by settlers around the Norrköping twin city with Linköping Motala stream estuary, who used the falls and rapids to power their mills; the stream was full of fish such as salmon. Exact dates are uncertain, it was dedicated to Norway's patron. The first trace of the city's name is from 1283, when Sophia of Denmark donated her rights of salmon fishing to the Skänninge monastery.
The town is estimated to have received city status in the early 14th century, although no written documents exist prior to a document from 1384. This document, signed by Albrekt of Sweden is stored in the city archive today. Köping means there was a market there, while Nörr or Norr means "north". There is a smaller town nearby named Söderköping, or "South market"; the city was the location of several battles in the ensuing centuries. As a consequence, nothing of the medieval Norrköping remains today. During the Northern Seven Years' War, the entire southern part of Norrköping was burnt, it was rebuilt by John III of Sweden. In 1618, a weapon industry was established by supervision of Gustavus Adolphus; the harbour attracted ships due to its proximity to the industries of Finspång. In addition to the weapon industry, a large scale industry of textile was initiated. An important benefactor was the industrial man Louis De Geer. At De Geer's death, Norrköping was Sweden's second largest city; the city again burnt in 1655, again in 1719 during the Russian Pillage of 1719-21 when the Russians burnt it to the ground.
Stones from the Johannisborg castle were used to build new houses, today only a few stones remain. During the 18th century it was rebuilt and several industries soon got a stronghold: In the 1740s, Norrköping boasted three sugar refineries. From this time stems the city churches of Saint Olof and Saint Hedvig, several other old houses. In 1762, the first theater in Sweden outside of Stockholm was established in the city, the Egges Teater. Norrköping's importance again flourished. In 1769 the Swedish Riksdag assembled there. In 1800 King Gustav IV of Sweden was crowned in the Church of Saint Olof. In the 18th and early 19th Centuries, Norrköping was one of the three Swedish cities where Jews were allowed to live; the city again suffered fires in 1822 and 1826. Thereafter wooden houses were banned. In 1841 a ship industry was initiated as a branch of Motala Verkstad in Motala. In 1850 the industry had over 600 employees making it Sweden's largest ship industry at the time. During the remaining 19th century, the industries kept expanding.
The area by the Motala Stream was developed further with the construction of a cotton refinery, a paper mill was constructed in 1854, specializing in newspaper, is still today exporting to customers around the world. The industry, including textile manufacturers expanded into the 20th century. In 1950 a total of 54 factories had 6,600 employees in town. By 1956, however, 18 of them had been closed due to competition from countries abroad with lower wages, such as Italy and Japan. In 1970 only 10 factories and 1,200 employees remained. In that year, the renowned Holmen paper mill, with its 350 years long history, announced closure, another 900 people were let go. To counter the effects, several governmental authorities were relocated to Norrköping from Stockholm. See Braviken Paper Mill; as of 2002, Norrköping is now seeing a revival, as a center of education. The Norrköping symbol represents the "new" Norrköping; the Motala ström river flows through the city. In connection to the latter is the industrial landscape where the old textile industries once were situated.
In the summer, there is a cactus plantation in Carl Johans Park. 25,000 cacti planted there every summer. Kolmårdens Djurpark is a zoo located 30 km north of Norrköping. In connection to the large outdoor zoo, there is Tropicariet, an aquarium, where for example snakes and sharks can be seen; the archipelagos 50 km away from Norrköping are called St Gryt. A campus of Linköping University, its own symphonic orchestra, an airport called Kungsängen with 170,000 traveling, a high-tech industry park called Norrköping Science Park, Petroglyphs from the Nordic Bronze Age. Norrköping had a humid continental climate for the reference period of 1961–1990, but it was borderline four-season oceanic during that period and has since more resembled the latter, with somewhat warmer temperatures year-round. In spite of it being located near the Baltic Sea, Norrköping has a dry climate with precipitation levels averaging 508.2 millimetres between 1961 and 1990. That would in turn be low for a mar
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden, fifth-largest in the Nordic countries, capital of the Västra Götaland County. It is situated by Kattegat, on the west coast of Sweden, has a population of 570,000 in the city center and about 1 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area. Gothenburg was founded as a fortified Dutch, trading colony, by royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. In addition to the generous privileges given to his Dutch allies from the then-ongoing Thirty Years' War, the king attracted significant numbers of his German and Scottish allies to populate his only town on the western coast. At a key strategic location at the mouth of the Göta älv, where Scandinavia's largest drainage basin enters the sea, the Port of Gothenburg is now the largest port in the Nordic countries. Gothenburg is home to many students, as the city includes the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology. Volvo was founded in Gothenburg in 1927; the original parent Volvo Group and the now separate Volvo Car Corporation are still headquartered on the island of Hisingen in the city.
Other key companies are Astra Zeneca. Gothenburg is served by Göteborg Landvetter Airport 30 km southeast of the city center; the smaller Göteborg City Airport, 15 km from the city center, was closed to regular airline traffic in 2015. The city hosts the Gothia Cup, the world's largest youth football tournament, alongside some of the largest annual events in Scandinavia; the Gothenburg Film Festival, held in January since 1979, is the leading Scandinavian film festival with over 155,000 visitors each year. In summer, a wide variety of music festivals are held in the city, including the popular Way Out West Festival; the city was named Göteborg in the city's charter in 1621 and given the German and English name Gothenburg. The Swedish name was given after the Göta älv, called Göta River in English, other cities ending in -borg. Both the Swedish and German/English names were in use before 1621 and had been used for the previous city founded in 1604 and burned down in 1611. Gothenburg is one of few Swedish cities to still have an official and used exonym.
Another example is the province of Scania in southern Sweden. The city council of 1641 consisted of four Swedish, three Dutch, three German, two Scottish members. In Dutch, Scots and German, all languages with a long history in this trade and maritime-oriented city, the name Gothenburg is or was used for the city. Variations of the official German/English name Gothenburg in the city's 1621 charter existed or exist in many languages; the French form of the city name is Gothembourg, but in French texts, the Swedish name Göteborg is more frequent. "Gothenburg" can be seen in some older English texts. In Spanish and Portuguese the city is called Gotemburgo; these traditional forms are sometimes replaced with the use of the Swedish Göteborg, for example by The Göteborg Opera and the Göteborg Ballet. However, Göteborgs universitet designated as the Göteborg University in English, changed its name to the University of Gothenburg in 2008; the Gothenburg municipality has reverted to the use of the English name in international contexts.
In 2009, the city council launched a new logotype for Gothenburg. Since the name "Göteborg" contains the Swedish letter "ö" the idea was to make the name more international and up to date by "turning" the "ö" sideways; as of 2015, the name is spelled "Go:teborg" on a large number of signs in the city. In the early modern period, the configuration of Sweden's borders made Gothenburg strategically critical as the only Swedish gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic, situated on the west coast in a narrow strip of Swedish territory between Danish Halland in the south and Norwegian Bohuslän in the north. After several failed attempts, Gothenburg was founded in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus; the site of the first church built in Gothenburg, subsequently destroyed by Danish invaders, is marked by a stone near the north end of the Älvsborg Bridge in the Färjenäs Park. The church was built in 1603 and destroyed in 1611; the city was influenced by the Dutch and Scots, Dutch planners and engineers were contracted to construct the city as they had the skills needed to drain and build in the marshy areas chosen for the city.
The town was designed like Dutch cities such as Amsterdam and New Amsterdam. The planning of the streets and canals of Gothenburg resembled that of Jakarta, built by the Dutch around the same time; the Dutchmen won political power, it was not until 1652, when the last Dutch politician in the city's council died, that Swedes acquired political power over Gothenburg. During the Dutch period, the town followed Dutch town laws and Dutch was proposed as the official language in the town. Robust city walls were built during the 17th century. In 1807, a decision was made to tear down most of the city's wall; the work started in 1810, was carried out by 150 soldiers from the Bohus regiment. Along with the Dutch, the town was influenced by Scots who settled down in Gothenburg. Many became people of high-profile. William Chalmers, the son of a Scottish immigrant, donated his fortunes to set up what became the Chalmers University of Technology. In 1841, the Scotsman Alexander Keiller founded the Götaverken shipbuilding company, in business until 1989.
His son James Keiller donated Keiller Park to the city in 1906. The Gothenburg coat of arms was based on the lion of the coat of arms of Sweden, symbolically holding a shield w
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th