Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian, born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire. He is known for having written the book The Histories, a detailed record of his "inquiry" on the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars, he is considered to have been the first writer to have treated historical subjects using a method of systematic investigation—specifically, by collecting his materials and critically arranging them into an historiographic narrative. On account of this, he is referred to as "The Father of History", a title first conferred on him by the first-century BC Roman orator Cicero. Despite Herodotus's historical significance, little is known about his personal life, his Histories deals with the lives of Croesus, Cambyses, Smerdis and Xerxes and the battles of Marathon, Artemisium, Salamis and Mycale. Herodotus has been criticized for the fact that his book includes a large number of obvious legends and fanciful accounts. Many authors, starting with the late fifth-century BC historian Thucydides, have accused him of making up stories for entertainment.
Herodotus, states that he is reporting what he has been told. A sizable portion of the information he provides has since been confirmed by historians and archaeologists. Herodotus announced the purpose and scope of his work at the beginning of his Histories as such: Here are presented the results of the enquiry carried out by Herodotus of Halicarnassus; the purpose is to prevent the traces of human events from being erased by time, to preserve the fame of the important and remarkable achievements produced by both Greeks and non-Greeks. His record of the achievements of others was an achievement in itself, though the extent of it has been debated. Herodotus's place in history and his significance may be understood according to the traditions within which he worked, his work is the earliest Greek prose. However, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a literary critic of Augustan Rome, listed seven predecessors of Herodotus, describing their works as simple, unadorned accounts of their own and other cities and people, Greek or foreign, including popular legends, sometimes melodramatic and naïve charming – all traits that can be found in the work of Herodotus himself.
Modern historians regard the chronology as uncertain, but according to the ancient account, these predecessors included Dionysius of Miletus, Charon of Lampsacus, Hellanicus of Lesbos, Xanthus of Lydia and, the best attested of them all, Hecataeus of Miletus. Of these, only fragments of Hecataeus's works survived, the authenticity of these is debatable, but they provide a glimpse into the kind of tradition within which Herodotus wrote his own Histories. In his introduction to Hecataeus's work, Genealogies: Hecataeus the Milesian speaks thus: I write these things as they seem true to me; this points forward to the "international" outlook typical of Herodotus. However, one modern scholar has described the work of Hecataeus as "a curious false start to history", since despite his critical spirit, he failed to liberate history from myth. Herodotus mentions Hecataeus in his Histories, on one occasion mocking him for his naive genealogy and, on another occasion, quoting Athenian complaints against his handling of their national history.
It is possible that Herodotus borrowed much material from Hecataeus, as stated by Porphyry in a quote recorded by Eusebius. In particular, it is possible that he copied descriptions of the crocodile and phoenix from Hecataeus's Circumnavigation of the Known World misrepresenting the source as "Heliopolitans", but Hecataeus did not record events that had occurred in living memory, unlike Herodotus, nor did he include the oral traditions of Greek history within the larger framework of oriental history. There is no proof that Herodotus derived the ambitious scope of his own work, with its grand theme of civilizations in conflict, from any predecessor, despite much scholarly speculation about this in modern times. Herodotus claims to be better informed than his predecessors by relying on empirical observation to correct their excessive schematism. For example, he argues for continental asymmetry as opposed to the older theory of a circular earth with Europe and Asia/Africa equal in size. However, he retains idealizing tendencies, as in his symmetrical notions of the Nile.
His debt to previous authors of prose "histories" might be questionable, but there is no doubt that Herodotus owed much to the example and inspiration of poets and story-tellers. For example, Athenian tragic poets provided him with a world-view of a balance between conflicting forces, upset by the hubris of kings, they provided his narrative with a model of episodic structure, his familiarity with Athenian tragedy is demonstrated in a number of passages echoing Aeschylus's Persae, including the epigrammatic observation that the defeat of the Persian navy at Salamis caused the defeat of the land army. The debt may have been repaid by Sophocles because there appear to be echoes of The Histories in his plays a passage in Antigone that resembles Herodotus's account of the death of Intaphernes. However, this point is one of the most contentious
The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century, the direct ancestors of the majority of the modern British people. They comprise people from Germanic tribes who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, indigenous British groups who adopted many aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture and language; the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest. The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds. During this period, Christianity was established and there was a flowering of literature and language. Charters and law were established; the term Anglo-Saxon is popularly used for the language, spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons in England and eastern Scotland between at least the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century. In scholarly use, it is more called Old English.
The history of the Anglo-Saxons is the history of a cultural identity. It developed from divergent groups in association with the people's adoption of Christianity, was integral to the establishment of various kingdoms. Threatened by extended Danish invasions and military occupation of eastern England, this identity was re-established; the visible Anglo-Saxon culture can be seen in the material culture of buildings, dress styles, illuminated texts and grave goods. Behind the symbolic nature of these cultural emblems, there are strong elements of tribal and lordship ties; the elite declared themselves as kings who developed burhs, identified their roles and peoples in Biblical terms. Above all, as Helena Hamerow has observed, "local and extended kin groups remained...the essential unit of production throughout the Anglo-Saxon period." The effects persist in the 21st century as, according to a study published in March 2015, the genetic makeup of British populations today shows divisions of the tribal political units of the early Anglo-Saxon period.
Use of the term Anglo-Saxon assumes that the words Angles, Saxons or Anglo-Saxon have the same meaning in all the sources. This term began to be used only in the 8th century to distinguish "Germanic" groups in Britain from those on the continent. Catherine Hills summarised the views of many modern scholars in her observation that attitudes towards Anglo-Saxons, hence the interpretation of their culture and history, have been "more contingent on contemporary political and religious theology as on any kind of evidence." The Old English ethnonym "Angul-Seaxan" comes from the Latin Angli-Saxones and became the name of the peoples Bede calls Anglorum and Gildas calls Saxones. Anglo-Saxon is a term, used by Anglo-Saxons themselves, it is they identified as ængli, Seaxe or, more a local or tribal name such as Mierce, Gewisse, Westseaxe, or Norþanhymbre. The use of Anglo-Saxon disguises the extent to which people identified as Anglo-Scandinavian after the Viking age, or as Anglo-Norman after the Norman conquest in 1066.
The earliest historical references using this term are from outside Britain, referring to piratical Germanic raiders,'Saxones' who attacked the shores of Britain and Gaul in the 3rd century AD. Procopius states that Britain was settled by three races: the Angiloi and Britons; the term Angli Saxones seems to have first been used in continental writing of the 8th century. The name therefore seemed to mean "English" Saxons; the Christian church seems to have used the word Angli. The terms ænglisc and Angelcynn were used by West Saxon King Alfred to refer to the people; the first use of the term Anglo-Saxon amongst the insular sources is in the titles for Athelstan: Angelsaxonum Denorumque gloriosissimus rex and rex Angulsexna and Norþhymbra imperator paganorum gubernator Brittanorumque propugnator. At other times he uses the term rex Anglorum, which meant both Anglo-Saxons and Danes. Alfred the Great used Anglosaxonum Rex; the term Engla cyningc is used by Æthelred. King Cnut in 1021 was the first to refer to the land and not the people with this term: ealles Englalandes cyningc.
These titles express the sense that the Anglo-Saxons were a Christian people with a king anointed by God. The indigenous Common Brittonic speakers referred to Anglo-Saxons as Saxones or Saeson. Catherine Hills suggests that it is no accident, "that the English call themselves by the name sanctified by the Church, as that of a people chosen by God, whereas their enemies use the name applied to piratical raiders"; the early Anglo-Saxon period covers the history of medieval Britain that starts from the end of Roman rul
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
The pous or Greek foot was a Greek unit of length. It had various subdivisions whose lengths varied over time. 100 podes made up 600 podes made up a stade and 5000 made up a milion. The Greek pous has long and short forms; the pous spread throughout much of Europe and the Middle East during the Hellenic period preceding and following the conquests of Alexander the Great and remained in use as a Byzantine unit until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. A pous is divided into fingers which are multiplied as shown; the sexagesimal or decimal multiples have Mesopotamian origins while the septenary multiples have Egyptian origins. Greek measures of short median and long podes can be thought of as based on body measures; the lengths may be compared to the Imperial/U. S. Foot of 304.8 mm. Stecchini and others propose the Greek podes are different sizes because they are divided into different numbers of different sized daktylos to facilitate different calculations; the most obvious place to observe the relative difference is in the Greek orders of architecture whose canon of proportions is based on column diameters.
H Arthur Klein. The World of Measurements. Simon and Schuster. R. A. Cordingley. Norman's Parallel of the Orders of Architecture. Alex Trianti Ltd. Francis H. Moffitt. Surveying. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-044554-8. Gillings. Mathematics in the time of the Pharaohs. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-07045-6. Lucas N. H. Bunt. Jones; the Historical Roots of Elementary Mathematics. Dover. ISBN 0-486-25563-8. Somers Clarke & R. Englebach. Ancient Egyptian Construction and Architecture. Dover. ISBN 0-486-26485-8. Gardiner. Egyptian Grammar. Griffith Institute. ISBN 0-900416-35-1. Anne H. Groton. From Alpha to Omega. Focus Information group. ISBN 0-941051-38-2. J. P. Mallory. In Search of the Indo Europeans. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27616-1. Vitruvius; the Ten Books on Architecture. Dover. Claudias Ptolemy; the Geography. Dover. ISBN 0-486-26896-9. Herodotus; the History. William Brown. Michael Grant; the Rise of the Greeks. Charles Scribners Sons. Lionel Casson; the ancient mariners: seafarers and sea fighters of the Mediterranean in ancient times.
Macmillan. OCLC 392365. James B. Pritchard; the Ancient Near East. OUP. Nelson Glueck. Rivers in the Desert. HUC. Jean Gimpel; the Medieval Machine. Holt Rheinhart & Winston. ISBN 0-03-014636-4. H Johnathan Riley Smith; the Atlas of the Crusades. Swanston. ISBN 0-7230-0361-0. Elizabeth Hallam; the Plantagenet Chronicles. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 1-55584-018-3. H. W. Koch. Medieval Warfare. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-573600-5
Eratosthenes of Cyrene was a Greek mathematician, poet and music theorist. He was a man of becoming the chief librarian at the Library of Alexandria, he invented the discipline of geography, including the terminology used today. He is best known for being the first person to calculate the circumference of the Earth, which he did by comparing angles of the mid-day Sun at two places a known North-South distance apart, his calculation was remarkably accurate. He was the first to calculate the tilt of the Earth's axis, again with remarkable accuracy. Additionally, he may have calculated the distance from the Earth to the Sun and invented the leap day, he created the first map of the world, incorporating parallels and meridians based on the available geographic knowledge of his era. Eratosthenes was the founder of scientific chronology. Eratosthenes dated The Sack of Troy to 1183 BC. In number theory, he introduced the sieve of Eratosthenes, an efficient method of identifying prime numbers, he was a figure of influence in many fields.
According to an entry in the Suda, his critics scorned him, calling him Beta because he always came in second in all his endeavors. Nonetheless, his devotees nicknamed him Pentathlos after the Olympians who were well rounded competitors, for he had proven himself to be knowledgeable in every area of learning. Eratosthenes yearned to understand the complexities of the entire world; the son of Aglaos, Eratosthenes was born in 276 BC in Cyrene. Now part of modern-day Libya, Cyrene had been founded by Greeks centuries earlier and became the capital of Pentapolis, a country of five cities: Cyrene, Berenice and Apollonia. Alexander the Great conquered Cyrene in 332 BC, following his death in 323 BC, its rule was given to one of his generals, Ptolemy I Soter, the founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Under Ptolemaic rule the economy prospered, based on the export of horses and silphium, a plant used for rich seasoning and medicine. Cyrene became a place of cultivation. Like any young Greek, Eratosthenes would have studied in the local gymnasium, where he would have learned physical skills and social discourse as well as reading, arithmetic and music.
Eratosthenes went to Athens to further his studies. There he was taught Stoicism by its founder, Zeno of Citium, in philosophical lectures on living a virtuous life, he studied under Aristo of Chios, who led a more cynical school of philosophy. He studied under the head of the Platonic Academy, Arcesilaus of Pitane, his interest in Plato led him to write his first work at a scholarly level, inquiring into the mathematical foundation of Plato's philosophies. Eratosthenes investigated the art of poetry under Callimachus, he was a imaginative poet. He wrote poems: one in hexameters called Hermes, illustrating the god's life history, he wrote Chronographies, a text that scientifically depicted dates of importance, beginning with the Trojan War. This work was esteemed for its accuracy. George Syncellus was able to preserve from Chronographies a list of 38 kings of the Egyptian Thebes. Eratosthenes wrote Olympic Victors, a chronology of the winners of the Olympic Games, it is not known when he wrote his works.
These works and his great poetic abilities led the pharaoh Ptolemy III Euergetes to seek to place him as a librarian at the Library of Alexandria in the year 245 BC. Eratosthenes thirty years old, accepted Ptolemy's invitation and traveled to Alexandria, where he lived for the rest of his life. Within about five years he became Chief Librarian, a position that the poet Apollonius Rhodius had held; as head of the library Eratosthenes tutored the children of Ptolemy, including Ptolemy IV Philopator who became the fourth Ptolemaic pharaoh. He expanded the library's holdings: in Alexandria all books had to be surrendered for duplication, it was said that these were copied so that it was impossible to tell if the library had returned the original or the copy. He sought to maintain the reputation of the Library of Alexandria against competition from the Library of Pergamum. Eratosthenes created a whole section devoted to the examination of Homer, acquired original works of great tragic dramas of Aeschylus and Euripides.
Eratosthenes made several important contributions to mathematics and science, was a friend of Archimedes. Around 255 BC, he invented the armillary sphere. In On the Circular Motions of the Celestial Bodies, Cleomedes credited him with having calculated the Earth's circumference around 240 BC, using knowledge of the angle of elevation of the Sun at noon on the summer solstice in Alexandria and on Elephantine Island near Syene. Eratosthenes believed there was good and bad in every nation and criticized Aristotle for arguing that humanity was divided into Greeks and barbarians, that the Greeks should keep themselves racially pure; as he aged he contracted ophthalmia, becoming blind around 195 BC. Losing the ability to read and to observe nature plagued and depressed him, leading him to voluntarily starve himself to death, he died in 194 BC at 82 in Alexandria. Eratosthenes calculated the Earth's circumference without leaving Alexandria, he knew that at local noon on the summer solstice in Syene (modern Asw
Stadion (running race)
Stadion or stade was an ancient running event, part of the Ancient Olympic Games and the other Panhellenic Games. It was one of the five major Pentathlon events, it was the premier event of the gymnikos agon. From the years 776 to 724 BC, the stadion was the only event; the victor gave his name to the entire four-year Olympiad, which has allowed scholars to know the names of nearly every ancient Olympic stadion winner. The stadion was named after the building in which it took place called the stadion; this word became stadium in Latin. The race gave its name to the unit of length, the stadion. There were other types of running events. Though a separate event, the stadion was part of the ancient Pentathlon. At the Olympic Games, the stadion was big enough for 20 competitors, the race was a 200 yd sprint, but the original stadion track in Olympia measures 210 yd; the race began with a trumpet blow, with officials at the starting blocks to make sure there were no false starts. There were officials at the end to decide on a winner and to make sure no one had cheated.
If the officials decided there was a tie, the race would be re-run. Runners started the race from a standing position with their arms stretched out in front of them, instead of starting in a crouch like modern runners, they ran naked on a packed earth track. By the fifth century, the track was marked by the balbis. Advancements in this stone starting block led to it having a set of double grooves in which the runner placed his toes; the design of these grooves were intended to give the runner leverage for his start. The winner of the stadion in the first Olympic Games was Coroebus of Elis. Running in Ancient Greece Olympic winners of the Stadion race
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history. Modern history can be further broken down into periods: The early modern period began in the early 16th century; the late modern period began in the mid-18th century. It took all of human history up to 1804 for the world's population to reach 1 billion. Contemporary history is the span of historic events from 1945 that are relevant to the present time; this article covers the 1800–1950 time period with a brief summary of 1500–1800. For a more in depth article on modern times before 1800, see Early Modern period. In the pre-modern era, many people's sense of self and purpose was expressed via a faith in some form of deity, be it that in a single God or in many gods. Pre-modern cultures have not been thought of creating a sense of distinct individuality, though. Religious officials, who held positions of power, were the spiritual intermediaries to the common person.
It was only through these intermediaries. Tradition was sacred to ancient cultures and was unchanging and the social order of ceremony and morals in a culture could be enforced; the term modern was coined in the 16th century to indicate recent times. The European Renaissance, which marked the transition between the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern times, started in Italy and was spurred in part by the rediscovery of classical art and literature, as well as the new perspectives gained from the Age of Discovery and the invention of the telescope and microscope, expanding the borders of thought and knowledge. In contrast to the pre-modern era, Western civilization made a gradual transition from pre-modernity to modernity when scientific methods were developed which led many to believe that the use of science would lead to all knowledge, thus throwing back the shroud of myth under which pre-modern peoples lived. New information about the world was discovered via empirical observation, versus the historic use of reason and innate knowledge.
The term Early Modern was introduced in the English language in the 1930s to distinguish the time between what has been called the Middle Ages and time of the late Enlightenment. It is important to note. In usage in other parts of the world, such as in Asia, in Muslim countries, the terms are applied in a different way, but in the context with their contact with European culture in the Age of Discovery. In the Contemporary era, there were various socio-technological trends. Regarding the 21st century and the late modern world, the Information Age and computers were forefront in use, not ubiquitous but present in everyday life; the development of Eastern powers was with China and India becoming more powerful. In the Eurasian theater, the European Union and Russian Federation were two forces developed. A concern for Western world, if not the whole world, was the late modern form of terrorism and the warfare that has resulted from the contemporary terrorist acts; the modern period has been a period of significant development in the fields of science, politics and technology.
It has been an age of discovery and globalization. During this time, the European powers and their colonies, began a political and cultural colonization of the rest of the world. By the late 19th and 20th centuries, modernist art, politics and culture has come to dominate not only Western Europe and North America, but every civilized area on the globe, including movements thought of as opposed to the west and globalization; the modern era is associated with the development of individualism, urbanization and a belief in the possibilities of technological and political progress. Wars and other perceived problems of this era, many of which come from the effects of rapid change, the connected loss of strength of traditional religious and ethical norms, have led to many reactions against modern development. Optimism and belief in constant progress has been most criticized by postmodernism while the dominance of Western Europe and Anglo-America over other continents has been criticized by postcolonial theory.
One common conception of modernity is the condition of Western history since the mid-15th century, or the European development of movable type and the printing press. In this context the "modern" society is said to develop over many periods, to be influenced by important events that represent breaks in the continuity; the modern era includes the early period, called the early modern period, which lasted from c. 1500 to around c. 1800. Particular facets of early modernity include: The Renaissance in Italy The Reformation and Counter Reformation The Age of Discovery The Columbian Exchange and Colonization of the Americas The rise of mercantilism and capitalism The Golden Age of PiracyImportant events in the early modern period include: The spread of the printing press The Thirty Years' War and the Peace of Westphalia in Europe The English Civil War, the Glorious Revolution, the union