Stadsbygd is a village and former municipality in Sør-Trøndelag county, Norway. The former municipality was located in the municipalities of Rissa. The village is located along the side of the Trondheimsfjord. The main church for the area is Stadsbygd Church, the municipality of Stadsbygd was established on 1 January 1838. In 1860, the district of Rissa was separated from Stadsbygd to form a municipality of its own. The split left Stadsbygd with a population of 1,828, on 1 January 1964, the Ingdalen district south of the Trondheimsfjord was merged into the municipality of Agdenes. The rest of Stadsbygd, north of the Trondheimsfjord, was merged into the municipality of Rissa
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning administration. When now used in a sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. This structure of governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese and it can be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese. An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese, an archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance. The archbishop may have authority over any other suffragan bishops. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the bishopric is used to describe the bishop himself. Especially in the Middle Ages, some bishops held political as well as religious authority within their dioceses, in the organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. With the adoption of Christianity as the Empires official religion in the 4th century, a formal church hierarchy was set up, parallel to the civil administration, whose areas of responsibility often coincided.
With the collapse of the Western Empire in the 5th century, a similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was largely retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division, modern usage of diocese tends to refer to the sphere of a bishops jurisdiction. As of January 2015, in the Catholic Church there are 2,851 regular dioceses,1 papal see,641 archdioceses and 2,209 dioceses in the world, in the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy. Eastern Orthodoxy calls dioceses metropoleis in the Greek tradition or eparchies in the Slavic tradition, after the Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as provinces and this usage is relatively common in the Anglican Communion.
Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics and these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory. The Lutheran Church-International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure and its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes. The Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States, in the COGIC, each state is divided up into at least three dioceses that are all led by a bishop, but some states as many as seven dioceses
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation and doctrine. Individual bodies, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs and historical ties—are sometimes known as branches of Christianity or denominational families. Individual Christian groups vary widely in the degree to which they recognize one another, several groups claim to be the direct and sole authentic successor of the church founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. Others, believe in denominationalism, where some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same regardless of their distinguishing labels, beliefs. Because of this concept, some Christian bodies reject the term denomination to describe themselves, the Catholic Church does not view itself as a denomination, but as the original pre-denominational church. This view is rejected by other Christian denominations, Protestant denominations account for approximately 37 percent of Christians worldwide.
Together and Protestantism comprise Western Christianity, Western Christian denominations prevail in Western, Northern and Southern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania. The Eastern Orthodox Church, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents, is the second-largest Christian organization in the world, unlike the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church is itself a communion of fully independent autocephalous churches that mutually recognize each other to the exclusion of others. The Eastern Orthodox Church, together with Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East, Eastern Christian denominations are represented mostly in Eastern Europe, North Asia, the Middle East and Northeast Africa. Christians have various doctrines about the Church and about how the church corresponds to Christian denominations. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox hold that their own organizations faithfully represent the One Holy catholic and Apostolic Church to the exclusion of the other, sixteenth-century Protestants separated from the Catholic Church because of theologies and practices that they considered to be in violation of their own interpretation.
But some non-denominational Christians do not follow any particular branch, though regarded as Protestants. Each group uses different terminology to discuss their beliefs and this section will discuss the definitions of several terms used throughout the article, before discussing the beliefs themselves in detail in following sections. A denomination within Christianity can be defined as an autonomous branch of the Christian Church, major synonyms include religious group, Church. Some traditional and evangelical Protestants draw a distinction between membership in the church and fellowship within the local church. Becoming a believer in Christ makes one a member of the universal church, a related concept is denominationalism, the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices. Protestant leaders differ greatly from the views of the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, each church makes mutually exclusive claims for itself to be the direct continuation of the Church founded by Jesus Christ, from whom other denominations broke away.
These churches, and a few others, reject denominationalism, Christianity can be taxonomically divided into five main groups, the Church of the East, Oriental Orthodoxy, Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, and Protestantism
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. They provide the make-up of habitats and structures including homes and these trends tend to increase the initial and long term economic, ecological and social costs of building materials. The initial economic cost of building materials is the purchase price and this is often what governs decision making about what materials to use. Sometimes people take into consideration the energy savings or durability of the materials, for example, an asphalt shingle roof costs less than a metal roof to install, but the metal roof will last longer so the lifetime cost is less per year. Some materials may require more care than others, maintaining costs specific to some materials may influence the final decision. Risks when considering lifetime cost of a material is if the building is damaged such as by fire or wind, the cost of materials should be taken into consideration to bear the risk to buy combustive materials to enlarge the lifetime.
It is said that, if it must be done, it must be done well, pollution costs can be macro and micro. An example of the aspect of pollution is the off-gassing of the building materials in the building or indoor air pollution. Red List building materials are found to be harmful. Also the carbon footprint, the set of greenhouse gas emissions produced in the life of the material. A life-cycle analysis includes the reuse, recycling, or disposal of construction waste, two concepts in building which account for the ecological economics of building materials are green building and sustainable development. Initial energy costs include the amount of energy consumed to produce, the long term energy cost is the economic and social costs of continuing to produce and deliver energy to the building for its use and eventual removal. The initial embodied energy of a structure is the energy consumed to extract, deliver, social costs are injury and health of the people producing and transporting the materials and potential health problems of the building occupants if there are problems with the building biology.
Aspects of fair trade and labor rights are social costs of building material manufacturing. These were variously named wikiups, lean-tos, and so forth, an extension on the brush building idea is the wattle and daub process in which clay soils or dung, usually cow, are used to fill in and cover a woven brush structure. This gives the more thermal mass and strength. Wattle and daub is one of the oldest building techniques, many older timber frame buildings incorporate wattle and daub as non load bearing walls between the timber frames
Hasselvika Church is a parish church in the municipality of Rissa in Sør-Trøndelag county, Norway. The church is located in the village Hasselvika along the Stjørnfjord, the red church building can hold up to 200 people. It was built in 1951 as a chapel, but it is now a church
Diocese of Nidaros
Nidaros is a diocese in the Lutheran Church of Norway. It covers Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag counties and its cathedral city is Trondheim, the diocese is divided into 12 deaneries. Finn Wagle was the bishop from 1991 to 2008, on 1 July 2008 Tor Singsaas took over the position. The diocese of Nidaros was established in 1068 and it covered the counties of Sør-Trøndelag, Nord-Trøndelag, Nordland and Finnmark, along with the regions of Nordmøre and Romsdal and Härjedalen, and the northern part of Østerdalen. The region of Sunnmøre was transferred from Diocese of Bjørgvin to the new Archdiocese of Nidaros some time after 1152 – to secure it more income, the northern part of Østerdalen was transferred to Diocese of Oslo some time after 1537. The province of Jämtland was transferred from Diocese of Uppsala to Nidaros in 1570, the region of Sunnmøre was transferred from Nidaros to the Diocese of Bjørgvin in 1622. The provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen were lost to Sweden in 1645, nord-Norge was established as a diocese of its own in 1804.
The parish of Innset was transferred from Diocese of Hamar to Nidaros in 1966, the regions of Nordmøre and Romsdal were established as a diocese of its own in 1983. The Diocese of Nidaros is divided into twelve deaneries, each one corresponds to several municipalities in the diocese. Each municipality is divided into one or more parishes which each contain one or more congregations. See each municipality below for lists of churches and parishes within them, the bishops of Nidaros since the Protestant Reformation when Norway switched from Catholicism to Lutheranism
Church of Norway
The Church of Norway, from 2017 called the Peoples Church, is a Lutheran denomination of Protestant Christianity that serves as the peoples church and the largest church in Norway. The church was established after the Lutheran reformation in Denmark–Norway in 1536–1537 broke ties with the Holy See, the church professes the Lutheran Christian faith, with its foundation on the Bible, the Apostles and Athanasian Creeds, Luthers Small Catechism and the Augsburg Confession. The church is a member of the Porvoo Communion with 12 other churches and it has signed some other ecumenical texts, including the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification with the Roman Catholic Church. Until 1969, the name for administrative purposes was simply the State Church or sometimes just the Church. While the church remains state-funded and integrated in the administration with a special constitutional role, it is largely self-governing in doctrinal matters. On 27 May,2016, Stortinget passed a new bill that establishes the Church of Norway as an independent legal entity rather than a branch of the civil service, the Church of Norway officially ceased to be the state church on January 1,2017.
Until 1845 the Church of Norway was the only religious organization in Norway. Dissenterloven was a passed by the Storting on 16 July 1845 that allowed the establishment of alternative religious bodies. This bill was in 1969 replaced by Lov om trudomssamfunn og ymist anna, until 2012 the constitutional head of the church was the King of Norway, who is obliged to profess himself a Lutheran. After the constitutional amendment of May 21,2012, the church is self-governed with regard to doctrinal issues and priests are civil servants after the 2012 constitutional reform. Each parish has an autonomous administration, the state itself does not administer church buildings and adjacent land instead belong to the parish as an independent public institution. The Minister of Church Affairs, Trond Giske, was responsible for proposing the 2012 amendments, the church itself explained that, In 2012 the Parliament changed the constitution such that Norway no longer has a public religion. The Church of Norway can accordingly no longer be labeled as state church, a bill passed in 2016 created the Church of Norway as an independent legal entity, effective from 1 January 2017.
The church has a structure, with 1,284 parishes,106 deaneries,11 dioceses and since 2 October 2011. The dioceses are – according to the rank of the five historic sees and according to age, seated in Trondheim, Presiding Bishop of Nidaros and Bishop of Nidaros Cathedral Deanery Helga Haugland Byfuglien, Bishop of Nidaros Tor Singsaas. Bjørgvin, seated in Bergen, covering the counties of Hordaland, seated in Oslo, covering Oslo and parts of the county of Akershus. Stavanger, seated in Stavanger, covering the county of Rogaland, seated in Hamar, covering the counties of Hedmark and Oppland. Nord-Hålogaland, seated in Tromsø, covering the counties of Troms and Finnmark, agder og Telemark, seated in Kristiansand, covering the counties of Vest-Agder, Aust-Agder and Telemark
Stranda Church (Leksvik)
Stranda Church is a parish church in the municipality of Leksvik in Nord-Trøndelag county, Norway. It is located in the village of Vanvikan, the church is part of the Leksvik parish in the Fosen deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The wooden church was constructed in 1897 and was consecrated on 4 May 1897, the church was built to replace an older church in Hindrem, just north of Seter
Storfosna Church is a parish church in the municipality of Ørland in Sør-Trøndelag county, Norway. The church is located on the island of Storfosna, the church was built in 1913 to hold up to 150 people. The architect Johan Kunig designed the building, the church has about 12 scheduled Sunday worship services per year. The church is part of the parish in the Fosen deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The other church in the parish is the Ørland Church on the mainland
Churches in Norway
Church building in Norway began when Christianity was established there around the year 1000. The first buildings may have been post churches erected in the 10th or 11th century, for instance under Urnes stave church and Lom Stave Church there are traces of older post churches. Post churches were replaced by the more durable stave churches. About 1,300 churches were built during the 12th and 13th centuries in what was Norways first building boom, a total of about 3,000 churches have been built in Norway, although nearly half of them have perished. From 1620 systematic records and accounts were kept although sources prior to 1620 are fragmented, evidence about early and medieval churches is partly archaeological. The long church is the most common type of church in Norway, there are about 1620 buildings recognized as churches affiliated with the Church of Norway. In addition there is a number gospel halls belonging to the lay movement affiliated with the Church of Norway as well as belonging to other Christian bodies.
Until the 20th century most churches were built from wood,220 buildings are protected by law, and an additional 765 are listed as valuable cultural heritage. From early Christian times, an administrative subdivision was established. For instance, in Hordaland there were subdivisions as one fourth or one eight of a county, for instance Sakshaug old church was the main church for one of the four districts of Inntrøndelag. Church building has influenced by the role of the State or the Crown. The Reformation in Norway was accomplished by force in 1537 when Christian III of Denmark and Norway declared Lutheranism as the religion of Norway. The Crown took over church property, while some churches were plundered and abandoned, after the reformation bishops were appointed by the king, while after the introduction of absolute monarchy in 1660 all clerics were civil servants appointed by the Danish king. When a liberal constitution was introduced after independence from Denmark in 1814, the ban on Catholicism within Norway was lifted in 1843, while the ban on monastic orders were formally lifted in 1897.
After the 1814 events, Norway was no longer under Danish rule, a civil administration and national institutions were subsequently established within present day Norway. The Church of Norway is organized in 11 dioceses plus one presiding bishop, a cathedral is the seat of a bishop, and domkirke refers to the function or status of the church, not the design, style or size of the building. Some churches in Norway are nicknamed cathedral or dom because of their size or architectural significance, the catholic church in Norway is organized in three dioceses, each with their own cathedral. The 1851 Church Act mandated that each church should accommodate at least 30% of the residents in the parish, the 623 churches from the late 1800s are thus relatively large