Duke of Sutherland
Duke of Sutherland is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, created by William IV in 1833 for George Leveson-Gower, 2nd Marquess of Stafford. A series of marriages to heiresses by members of the Leveson-Gower family made the Dukes of Sutherland one of the richest landowning families in the United Kingdom; the title remained in the Leveson-Gower family until the death of the 5th Duke of Sutherland in 1963, when it passed to John Egerton, 5th Earl of Ellesmere. The subsidiary titles of the Duke of Sutherland are: Marquess of Stafford, Earl Gower, Earl of Ellesmere, of Ellesmere in the County of Shropshire, Viscount Trentham, of Trentham in the County of Stafford, Viscount Brackley, of Brackley in the County of Northampton, Baron Gower, of Sittenham in the County of York; the marquessate of Stafford, the earldom of Gower and the viscountcy of Trentham are in the Peerage of Great Britain, the dukedom, the earldom of Ellesmere and the viscountcy of Brackley in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, the barony of Gower in the Peerage of England.
The Duke is a Baronet, of Sittenham in the County of York, a title created in the Baronetage of England in 1620. Between 1839 and 1963 the Dukes held the titles of Lord Strathnaver and Earl of Sutherland, both in the Peerage of Scotland; the Scottish titles came into the family through the marriage of the first Duke to Elizabeth Sutherland, 19th Countess of Sutherland. Sir Thomas Gower was created a Baronet, of Sittenham in the County of York, by James I of England in 1620; this title was in the Baronetage of England. His son Thomas, the second Baronet, married daughter of Sir John Leveson, their grandson son William, the fourth Baronet, assumed the additional surname of Leveson. Sir William married Lady Jane, daughter of John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath and sister of Grace Carteret, 1st Countess Granville, their son John, the fifth Baronet, was raised to the Peerage of England as Baron Gower, of Sittenham in the County of York, in 1706. His son, the second Baron, served three times as Lord Privy Seal.
In 1746 he was created Viscount Trentham, of Trentham in the County of Stafford, Earl Gower. Both titles are in the Peerage of Great Britain, his eldest surviving son from his first marriage, the second Earl, was a prominent politician. In 1786 he was created Marquess of Stafford in the Peerage of Great Britain. Lord Stafford married secondly Lady Louisa Egerton, daughter of Scroop Egerton, 1st Duke of Bridgewater, his son from his third marriage to Lady Susanna Stewart, Lord Granville Leveson-Gore, was created Earl Granville in 1833, a revival of the title created for his great-great-aunt in 1715. Lord Stafford was succeeded by his eldest son from George, he married 19th Countess of Sutherland. In 1803 he succeeded to the vast estates of his maternal uncle Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater. In 1833 he was created Duke of Sutherland in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; the 1st Duke and Duchess of Sutherland remain controversial for their role in the Highland Clearances, when thousands of tenants were evicted and resettled in coastal villages.
This allowed the vacated land to be used for extensive sheep farming, replacing the mixed farming carried out by the previous occupants. This was part of the Scottish Agricultural Revolution; the changes on the Sutherland estate were motivated by two major objectives. The first was to increase the rental income from the estate: sheep farmers could afford much higher rents; the second was to remove the population from the recurrent risks of famine.:157 Historical opinion differs on the relevance and severity of famine years, but most do not dispute that the Highland region remained the only part of mainland Britain, affected in this way at this time.:48The future 1st Duke became the proprietor of the Sutherland Estate on his marriage to Lady Elizabeth Sutherland, the Countess of Sutherland, in 1785. Despite the conventions of the day, Lady Sutherland, retained control of the management of the estate, rather than passing this responsibility to her husband.:154-155The Sutherland Clearances did not start until the 19th century due to insufficient capital – a problem, solved when, in 1803, George Leveson-Gower, the future 1st Duke inherited a huge fortune from the Duke of Bridgewater.
The remaining delay was that many leases did not expire until 1807 or but plans were put together for the interior of the estate to be devoted to large sheep farms, with new settlements to be built for the displaced inhabitants. A tentative start was made to this with the letting of the first big sheep farm at Lairg in 1807, involving the removal of about 300 people. Many of these did not accept their new homes and emigrated, to the dissatisfaction of the estate management and Lady Sutherland.:164-165Lady Sutherland was not happy with the estate factor and, in 1811, replaced him with William Young and Patrick Sellar. Young had a proven track record of agricultural improvement in Moray and Sellar was a lawyer educated at Edinburgh University, they provided an extra level of ambition for the estate.:166 New industries were added to the plans, to employ the resettled population. A coal mine was sunk at Brora, fishing villages were built to exploit the herring shoals off the coast. Other ideas were tanning, flax and brick manufacturing.:167The next clearances were in Assynt in 1812, under the direction of Sellar, establishing large sheep farms and resettling the old tenants on the coast.
Sellar had the assistance of the local tacksmen in this and the process was
Humphrey Stafford (died 1442)
Sir Humphrey Stafford of Hooke, Dorset was a member of the fifteenth-century English gentry in the south west of England, where he was a Member of Parliament multiple times and an important royal official. Son and heir of Sir Humphrey Stafford, he had been knighted by 1397; some time before he had married Elizabeth and coheiress of Sir John Maltravers of Hooke, Dorset. Elizabeth's mother called Elizabeth, had wed Humphrey's father, the younger Elizabeth was intended to marry John, Lord Lovell, but the king, Richard II, forbade the match; the newly-weds received the manor of Perton, Staffordshire as a residence from Humphrey's father, where they lived until 1413. As his grandmother was a daughter of the first earl of Stafford, he was cousin to the current duke of Buckingham, Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham. Within a few years, Stafford the younger had become involved in an old property dispute with the Erdswick family. P. for Staffordshire. At some point – Professor J. S. Roskell has suggested due to "a bellicose engagement" – Stafford lost a hand and used a prosthesis.
Although the date of this occurrence is unknown, he was an active soldier at the turn of the fifteenth century. He served as a Lancer for the Earl of Stafford, in January 1400 he joined his uncle Ralph Stafford in suppressing the Epiphany Rising against the new king, King Henry IV, he took part in the English invasion of Scotland that summer, by 1403 had been retained by the Prince of Wales. Present at the Battle of Shrewsbury, he fought with the Prince in a party of'four esquires and 100 archers.' As a result of this service, he was granted an annuity by Henry in 1406, Humphrey continued serving Henry in Wales in the long campaign against Owain Glyndŵr's rebellion, for instance taking part in the siege of Aberystwyth in 1407. Most it has been suggested that it was in Henry's Welsh service – at this siege – that he lost his hand, replaced it "with an artificial one made out of silver". Stafford received further favour from the Crown soon after, being granted the wardship of the son and heir of John Tuchet, 4th Baron Audley, when, taken back in 1409, he received estates in Shropshire and Cambridgeshire in compensation.
Unusually he was not a retainer of the crown or the Duchy of Lancaster, in Staffordshire, but rather of Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, for whom Humphrey represented the interests of the main Stafford family. When his parents died in 1413 Stafford became a wealthy man. B. McFarlane assessed him as "wealthier and more worshipful" than many of the lower-ranking barons of the period, he inherited both the Stafford estates and those from the Maltravers family, which were centred around Hooke. The Stafford inheritance, was scattered over ten English counties and worth about £570 a year, while those in Dorset were assessed in the 1412 tax as around £660, his new wealth enabled him to improve the marriage prospects of his daughters, one of whom soon married James, a nephew of Thomas, Lord Berkeley. This marriage gave the Staffords an interest when Berkeley inheritance dispute broke out and the whole Berkeley inheritance was claimed by the earl of Warwick; this was refuted by James, whose claim was backed by Humphrey, and, nominated heir by Thomas, Lord Berkeley.
Stafford attended the coronation of Queen Catherine of Valois in 1421, in his role of King's knight, in the same period, spent time defending his estates. In doing so, he appears to have taken full advantage of the influential position of his brother, John, on the King's Council. According to Roskell and Woodger, "relations between the two were, despite John's illegitimate birth, always intimate." They were profitable: in 1431 they were jointly granted custody of two-thirds of the Dunster Castle, the manor of Tothill in Lincolnshire, the next year they received Chiselborough manor in Somerset. Humphrey Stafford wrote his will at the end of 1441, his only surviving son, received plate. His brother John received arras and some religious icons, was appointed executor of the will. Humphrey died on 27 May 1442. Stafford was Member of Parliament eleven times in his career: firstly in 1406 for Staffordshire, in 1414, 1417, 1419, 1420, 1421, 1422, 1426, 1427, 1432 for Dorset, he was High Sheriff of Staffordshire for 1403–4 and Somerset and Dorset for 1415–16.
He acted as a royal officer in various capacities: assessing taxes, acting as a JP, Commissioner of array and of Oyer and terminer were among the positions he held in the region
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House; the Commons is an elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved; the House of Commons of England started to evolve in 14th centuries. It became the House of Commons of Great Britain after the political union with Scotland in 1707, assumed the title of "House of Commons of Great Britain and Ireland" after the political union with Ireland at the start of the 19th century; the "United Kingdom" referred to was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1800, became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922.
Accordingly, the House of Commons assumed its current title. Under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power; the Government is responsible to the House of Commons and the Prime Minister stays in office only as long as she or he retains the confidence of a majority of the Commons. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance. By convention, the prime minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the Sovereign appoints the person who has the support of the House, or, most to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the Commons, while the leader of the second-largest party becomes the Leader of the Opposition. Since 1963, by convention, the prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords.
The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are phrased explicitly, for instance: "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government." Many other motions were until recent decades considered confidence issues though not explicitly phrased as such: in particular, important bills that were part of the Government's agenda. The annual Budget is still considered a matter of confidence; when a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the prime minister is obliged either to resign, making way for another MP who can command confidence, or to request the monarch to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. Parliament sits for a maximum term of five years. Subject to that limit, the prime minister could choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament, with the permission of the Monarch. However, since the Fixed-Term Parliaments Act 2011, terms are now a fixed five years, an early general election is brought about by a two-thirds majority in favour of a motion for a dissolution, or by a vote of no confidence, not followed within fourteen days by a vote of confidence.
By this second mechanism, the UK's government can change its political composition without an intervening general election. Only four of the eight last Prime Ministers have attained office as the immediate result of a general election; the latter four were Jim Callaghan, John Major, Gordon Brown and the current Prime Minister Theresa May. In such circumstances there may not have been an internal party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim, having no electoral rival. A prime minister will resign after party defeat at an election if unable to lead a coalition, or obtain a confidence and supply arrangement, she or he may resign after a motion of no confidence or for health reasons. In such cases, the premiership goes to, it has become the practice to write the constitution of major UK political parties to provide a set way in which to appoint a new leader. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no fixed mechanism for this, it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the consensus of cabinet ministers.
By convention, ministers are members of the House of House of Lords. A handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Exceptions include Peter Mandelson, appointed Secretary of State for Business and Regulatory Reform in October 2008 before his peerage. Since 1902, all prime ministers have been members of the Commons; the new session of Parliament was delayed to await the outcome of his by-election, which happened
Second Protectorate Parliament
The Second Protectorate Parliament in England sat for two sessions from 17 September 1656 until 4 February 1658, with Thomas Widdrington as the Speaker of the House of Commons. In its first session, the House of Commons was its only chamber. There were two sessions the first from 17 September 1656 until 26 June 1657 and a second from 20 January until 4 February 1658; the Second Protectorate Parliament was summoned reluctantly by the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell on the advice of the Major-Generals who were running the country as regions under military governors. The Major-Generals thought that a compliant parliament would be the best way to raise money to pay for the Army occupation, the Navy both of which were involved in the Anglo-Spanish War; the elections were held under the new written constitution called Instrument of Government. It included returning up to thirty members from Scotland and up to another thirty from Ireland. Royalists and Catholics were prevented from standing or voting under Articles XIV and XV.
After the election the Council of State stopped one hundred elected members from taking their seats by declaring that they were not "of known integrity, fearing God". A further fifty withdrew in protest which left about two hundred and fifty to take their seats for the first session; the first session opened in December 1656. The Protectorate government did not have much pressing legislation to present so the House occupied its time with private members bills; however over the next few months three issues would dominate the session. The first was the Militia Bill, the second was the Naylor case and the third was constitutional reform, influenced by the failure of the Militia Bill to pass and the Naylor case was to show that the members of Parliament were less religiously tolerant than was constitutionally allowed in Instrument of Government; the House voted down Major-General John Desborough's "Militia Bill" on 29 January 1657 by one hundred and twenty four votes to eighty eight. This bill would have perpetuated the Decimation Tax that funded the mounted militia, collected by Cromwell's Major-Generals.
With the rejection of the Decimation Tax, it was clear that government through the Major-Generals could not continue. In February 1657 Cromwell was offered the crown and a new constitution called the Humble Petition and Advice. On Palm Sunday 1656 James Naylor, a Quaker, reenacted the arrival of Christ in Jerusalem by riding a horse into Bristol attended by followers who sang "Holy, holy" and strewed the way with their garments. Although Naylor denied that he was impersonating Jesus, this act outraged many in Parliament in what was seen as an act of blasphemy. There was consensus in the House; however while the House of Commons could pass, had in recent times passed, acts of attainder against people, it was questioned whether the House could invoke a judicial procedure like that of the now disbanded House of Lords. After much debate and looking at old precedents, the House concluded that it had the right to act in a judicial capacity. So they tried Naylor and passed the following resolution for his blasphemy: That James Naylor shall be put in the pillory in the city of Westminster for the space of two hours, on Thursday next, be whipped by the hangman through the streets from Westminster to the Old Change, there be put in the pillory again from the hours of eleven to one on the following Saturday.
He shall have his tongue bored through with a red hot iron, be branded with the letter B, sent to Bristol, where he shall be paraded through the city on horseback, with his face backward. From Bristol he shall be brought back to London and sent to the Tower, there to be kept to hard labour by order of Parliament, be debarred the use of pen and paper, have no relief but what he can earn by his daily labour. After some thought Cromwell declined the crown as embodied in the Humble Petition; the Naylor case had showed that the members of Parliament were less religiously tolerant than the constitution allowed, the assumption of judicial powers by the House, worried many in the House, the Grandees in the Army, Cromwell. So encouraged, Cromwell with the support of the Grandees, pressed the house for a second chamber. After modifications had been made to the Humble Petition, Cromwell agreed to the new constitution and in June 1657 he was reinstated as Lord Protector under the articles of the Humble Petition and Advice.
Parliament went into recess for the summer. The Army Grandees agreed to allow the MPs, excluded under Article VII of the Instrument of Government to be allowed to take their seats, but to make sure that the House would be compliant to their wishes, Cromwell nominated 63 members to "Other House" permitted by the Humble Petition and Advice, 42 accepted and 37 came to the first meeting. This triggered a wave of republican protest in the House of Commons which spread to the rank and file of the Army. Amidst fears of a Levellers revival and Royalist plots, under the prerogative granted to the Lord Protector by the Humble Petition and Advice, Oliver Cromwell dissolved Parliament on 4 February 1658; the Second Protectorate Parliament was preceded by the First Protectorate Parliament and succeeded by the Third Protectorate Parliament. List of Parliaments of England List of MPs elected to the English parliament in 1656 Archontology.org staff, England: Parliament 1640-1660: Protectorate Parliaments, www.archontology.org, retrieved September 2013 Barrow, John Henry, The
Edmund Dudley was an English administrator and a financial agent of King Henry VII. He served as Speaker of the House of President of the King's Council. After the accession of Henry VIII, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London and executed the next year on a treason charge. While waiting for his execution he wrote The Tree of Commonwealth. Edmund Dudley was the grandfather of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, a favourite of Henry VII's granddaughter, Elizabeth I. Edmund Dudley was the son of Sir John Dudley of Atherington, West Sussex and a grandson of John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley. After studying at Oxford, at Gray's Inn, Dudley came under the notice of Henry VII, is said to have been made a Privy Councillor at the early age of 23. In 1492, he helped to negotiate the Peace of Etaples with France and soon assisted the king in checking the lawlessness of the barons, he and his colleague Sir Richard Empson were prominent councillors of the Council Learned in the Law, a special tribunal of Henry VII's reign, which collected debts owed to the king, requested bonds as surety, employed further financial instruments against high-born and wealthy subjects.
Henry VII took a strong interest in these procedures and supervised the accounts of the two men. Dudley was elected MP for Lewes, in 1491, knight of the shire for Sussex, in 1495. In 1504, he was chosen as Speaker of the House of Commons. While collecting the king's money, Dudley amassed a great amount of wealth for himself, which resulted in estates in Sussex and Lincolnshire; when Henry VII died in April 1509, Dudley was imprisoned, charged with the crime of constructive treason. Dudley's nominal crime was that during the last illness of Henry VII he had ordered his friends to assemble in arms in case the king died, but the real reason for his charge was his unpopularity stemming from his financial transactions, he was made preparations to escape from the Tower of London. He gave up his plan, when parliament did not confirm his attainder, which led him to believe that he would be pardoned; however while in prison he declared a will. Dudley and his colleague Empson were executed on 17 August 1510 on Tower Hill.
During his imprisonment, Dudley sought to gain the favour of King Henry VIII by writing a treatise in support of absolute monarchy, called The Tree of Commonwealth. It may, never have reached the king. Several manuscript editions survive: the earliest was commissioned by Dudley's son, John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. Edmund Dudley married twice: Firstly in about 1494 to Anne Windsor, sister of Andrew Windsor, 1st Baron Windsor, by whom he had a daughter: Elizabeth Dudley, who married William Stourton, 7th Baron Stourton. Secondly, between 1500 and 1503, to Elizabeth Grey, a daughter of Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Lisle. Three sons were born to this marriage: John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland Andrew Dudley Jerome Dudley, destined for the Church by his father, yet was mentally or physically incapacitated. Gunn, S. J.: "Dudley, Edmund ", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edn. May 2010 Retrieved 2010-06-11 Loades, David: John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland 1504–1553 Clarendon Press ISBN 0-19-820193-1 Löwe, J.
A.: "Sutton, Henry", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edn. Jan 2008 Retrieved 2010-06-11 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Dudley, Edmund". Encyclopædia Britannica. 8. Cambridge University Press. P. 363. The Tree of Common Wealth
1747 British general election
The 1747 British general election returned members to serve in the House of Commons of the 10th Parliament of Great Britain to be summoned, after the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707. The election saw Henry Pelham's Whig government increase its majority and the Tories continue their decline. By 1747, thirty years of Whig oligarchy and systematic corruption had weakened party ties substantially; the Tories had become an irrelevant group of country gentlemen who had resigned themselves to permanent opposition. See British general election, 1796 for details; the constituencies used were the same throughout the existence of the Parliament of Great Britain. The general election was held between 26 June 1747 and 4 August 1747. At this period elections did not take place at the same time in every constituency; the returning officer in each county or parliamentary borough fixed the precise date. List of Parliaments of Great Britain British Electoral Facts 1832–1999, compiled and edited by Colin Rallings and Michael Thrasher
Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader. He served as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and Ireland from 1653 until his death, acting as head of state and head of government of the new republic. Cromwell was born into the middle gentry to a family descended from the sister of King Henry VIII's minister Thomas Cromwell. Little is known of the first 40 years of his life, as only four of his personal letters survive along with a summary of a speech that he delivered in 1628, he became an Independent Puritan after undergoing a religious conversion in the 1630s, taking a tolerant view towards the many Protestant sects of his period. He was an intensely religious man, a self-styled Puritan Moses, he fervently believed that God was guiding his victories, he was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 and for Cambridge in the Short and Long Parliaments. He entered the English Civil Wars on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians, nicknamed "Old Ironsides".
He demonstrated his ability as a commander and was promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to being one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army, playing an important role under General Sir Thomas Fairfax in the defeat of the Royalist 11th forces. Cromwell was one of the signatories of King Charles I's death warrant in 1649, he dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England as a member of the Rump Parliament, he was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland in 1649–1650. Cromwell's forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country, bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars. During this period, a series of Penal Laws were passed against Roman Catholics, a substantial amount of their land was confiscated. Cromwell led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651. On 20 April 1653, he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as Barebone's Parliament before being invited by his fellow leaders to rule as Lord Protector of England and Ireland from 16 December 1653.
As a ruler, he executed an effective foreign policy. He was buried in Westminster Abbey; the Royalists returned to power along with King Charles II in 1660, they had his corpse dug up, hung in chains, beheaded. Cromwell is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the British Isles, considered a regicidal dictator by historians such as David Sharp, a military dictator by Winston Churchill, a hero of liberty by John Milton, Thomas Carlyle, Samuel Rawson Gardiner, a revolutionary bourgeois by Leon Trotsky, his tolerance of Protestant sects did not extend to Catholics. He was selected as one of the ten greatest Britons of all time in a 2002 BBC poll. Cromwell was born in Huntingdon on 25 April 1599 to Elizabeth Steward; the family's estate derived from Oliver's great-grandfather Morgan ap William, a brewer from Glamorgan who settled at Putney in London, married Katherine Cromwell, the sister of Thomas Cromwell, the famous chief minister to Henry VIII. The Cromwell family acquired great wealth as occasional beneficiaries of Thomas's administration of the Dissolution of the Monasteries.
Morgan ap William was a son of William ap Yevan of Wales. The family line continued through Richard Williams, Henry Williams to Oliver's father Robert Williams, alias Cromwell, who married Elizabeth Steward in 1591, they had ten children. Cromwell's paternal grandfather Sir Henry Williams was one of the two wealthiest landowners in Huntingdonshire. Cromwell's father Robert was of modest means but still a member of the landed gentry; as a younger son with many siblings, Robert inherited only a house at Huntingdon and a small amount of land. This land would have generated an income of up to £300 a year, near the bottom of the range of gentry incomes. Cromwell himself in 1654 said, "I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in considerable height, nor yet in obscurity". Cromwell was baptised on 29 April 1599 at St John's Church, attended Huntingdon Grammar School, he went on to study at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge a founded college with a strong Puritan ethos. He left in June 1617 without taking a degree after his father's death.
Early biographers claim that he attended Lincoln's Inn, but the Inn's archives retain no record of him. Antonia Fraser concludes that it was that he did train at one of the London Inns of Court during this time, his grandfather, his father, two of his uncles had attended Lincoln's Inn, Cromwell sent his son Richard there in 1647. Cromwell returned home to Huntingdon after his father's death; as his mother was widowed, his seven sisters unmarried, he would have been needed at home to help his family. On 22 August 1620 at St Giles-without-Cripplegate, Fore Street, Cromwell married Elizabeth Bourchier. Elizabeth's father, Sir James Bourchier, was a London leather merchant who owned extensive lands in Essex and had strong connections with Puritan gentry families there; the marriage brought Cromwell into contact with Oliver St John and with leading members of the London merchant community, behin