Potteries Museum & Art Gallery
The Potteries Museum & Art Gallery is in Hanley, one of the six towns of Stoke-on-Trent in Staffordshire. The Museum holds a collection of Staffordshire ceramics, all the collections at this Museum are categorized as Designated Collections. Galleries display fine and decorative arts, local history, there is a second world war aircraft on permanent display, a Supermarine Spitfire whose earlier Marks were designed by R. J. Mitchell who came from nearby Butt Lane. Since February 2010, The Potteries Museum & Art Gallery has been the home of a number of artefacts from the Staffordshire Hoard,52,500 visitors viewed 118 items at the Potteries Museum during a 23-day exhibition in February 2010. Since Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery and Stoke-on-Trent Museums have purchased the Hoard, over 80 pieces can be seen in The Potteries Museum & Art Gallerys archaeology gallery. On 28 February 2017, the Leekfrith torcs, believed to be the oldest Iron Age gold jewellery found in Britain, were unveiled to the public for the first time, from the following day, they were placed on public display.
Mercian Trail List of surviving Supermarine Spitfires
Ilam is a village in the Staffordshire Peak District, lying on the River Manifold. The population of the parish as taken at the 2011 census was 402. Ilam is best known as the location of the neo-Gothic Ilam Hall, a home built in the 1820s. It is set in large parklands that are open to visitors, Ilam is about 4 miles from Ashbourne at the entrance to the scenic Manifold Valley. Ilam is very picturesque, with its Swiss chalet style houses and it lies close to the popular Dovedale valley. While most of the buildings in the village are from the past two centuries, Ilam dates from Saxon times or earlier, recently the village has attracted praise for its commitment to eco- friendly policies. Ilam became the first community in the United Kingdom to phase out incandescent light bulbs, the initiative was part of the Ilam Climate Change Project, supported by the Marches Energy Agency. Ilam is situated in the Manifold Valley near the end where it joins the River Dove. The Dove forms the county boundary between Staffordshire and Derbyshire, upstream from Ilam is the famous Dovedale walk to Milldale.
At the Ilam end, the crosses the Dove on a famous line of stepping stones. A wide and picturesque curve of the Manifold provides a setting for Ilam Hall. The River Manifold flows underground from Wetton Mill, and rises again at Ilam in the grounds of the hall, at some times of the year, the river bed is completely dry apart from the occasional pool. The River Hamps is a tributary of the Manifold which flows underground leaving a dry river bed, at Ilam Hall, the Manifold rises a few yards downstream from a local spring. During certain weather conditions, when water flows upstream of Wetton Mill. A hall has been here since John Port had the first one built in 1546, both William Congreve and Dr Samuel Johnson stayed at the hall when it was owned by the Port family. Congreve wrote his first play, The Old Bachelor here and Paradise valley inspired Johnson to write his novel Rasselas, in 1820 the estate was bought by Jesse Watts-Russell, a wealthy industrialist. He built the school in 1857 and funded it, at a time when schooling was not compulsory and his son, John Charles Watts-Russell, moved to New Zealand in 1850 and built another Ilam Hall.
The farm/homestead that he created grew and became the Ilam area of Christchurch, the site of the homestead was one of the main social centres of early Christchurch society
Drumburgh is a small settlement in Cumbria, England. It is 13 kilometres northwest of the City of Carlisle and is on the course of Hadrians Wall, the village is sited on a gentle hill with a good view in all directions over the surrounding lowlands. The name means Ridge near the fort as derived from the Celtic language, coggabata is the Roman fort referred to in the placename. The fort was located opposite a ford over the Solway and the site has been both partially overlain by modern housing and additionally it has been damaged by a substantial medieval ditch. The Revd John Leland visited in 1539 that the wall had been heavily robbed to provide for buildings in Drumburgh, the village lies in the old Barony of Burgh, dating from 1092, the baron now being the Earl of Lonsdale. Licence to crenellate the tower had been granted in 1307 to Robert le Brun. It passed by marriage in the 15th century to Jacob Harington and it again needed urgent repairs in 1580 and by 1593 it was simply a fortified farmhouse, occupied by a bailiff, with a datestone over the upper doorway that was inscribed 1518.
In 1646 Cuthbert Orfeur, a tenant of the Earl of Arundel, in 1678 the Duke of Norfolk sold the building to John Aglionby and by 1696 Sir John Lowther was the owner and during his time alteration works were carried out. After a long period of neglect it was restored as a private dwelling in the 1970s. It has extremely thick walls built with stones taken from Hadrians Wall, the Carlisle Navigation Canal ran in a straight cut from Burgh by Sands to Drumburgh before turning east to avoid Drumbugh Hill and reaching the Solway at Port Carlisle. The Port Carlisle Railway Company filled in the canal and rail services commenced in 1854. Drumburgh railway station was a junction for Port Carlisle on the old line to Silloth. It had a platform and a signal box. The nature reserve of Drumburgh Moss is a bog located immediately south of the village, purchased by the Cumbria Wildlife Trust in 1981. It is a Site of Special Scientific Interest, a National Nature Reserve, in 1821 Thomas Clark, a blacksmith from Drumburgh, was arrested on a charge of stabbing a labourer on the new canal.
Listed buildings in Bowness Notes Sources Media related to Drumburgh at Wikimedia Commons
A metal detector is an electronic instrument which detects the presence of metal nearby. Metal detectors are useful for finding metal inclusions hidden within objects and they often consist of a handheld unit with a sensor probe which can be swept over the ground or other objects. If the sensor comes near a piece of metal this is indicated by a tone in earphones. Usually the device gives some indication of distance, the closer the metal is, another common type are stationary walk through metal detectors used for security screening at access points in prisons and airports to detect concealed metal weapons on a persons body. The simplest form of a metal detector consists of a producing a alternating current that passes through a coil producing an alternating magnetic field. If a piece of electrically conductive metal is close to the coil, eddy currents will be induced in the metal, if another coil is used to measure the magnetic field, the change in the magnetic field due to the metallic object can be detected.
The first industrial metal detectors were developed in the 1960s and were used extensively for mineral prospecting, uses include detecting land mines, the detection of weapons such as knives and guns, geophysical prospecting and treasure hunting. Metal detectors are used to detect foreign bodies in food. Towards the end of the 19th century, many scientists and engineers used their knowledge of electrical theory in an attempt to devise a machine which would pinpoint metal. The use of such a device to find ore-bearing rocks would give an advantage to any miner who employed it. Early machines were crude, used a lot of battery power, in 1874, Parisian inventor Gustave Trouvé developed a hand-held device for locating and extracting metal objects such as bullets from human patients. The modern development of the detector began in the 1920s. Gerhard Fischer had developed a system of radio direction-finding, which was to be used for accurate navigation, the system worked extremely well, but Fischer noticed there were anomalies in areas where the terrain contained ore-bearing rocks.
He reasoned that if a radio beam could be distorted by metal, in 1925 he applied for, and was granted, the first patent for a metal detector. Although Gerhard Fischer was the first person granted a patent for a detector, the first to apply was Shirl Herr. His application for a hand-held Hidden-Metal Detector was filed in February 1924, Herr assisted Italian leader Benito Mussolini in recovering items remaining from the Emperor Caligulas galleys at the bottom of Lake Nemi, Italy in August 1929. Herrs invention was used by Admiral Richard Byrds Second Antarctic Expedition in 1933 and it was effective up to a depth of eight feet. These units were still heavy, as they ran on vacuum tubes
Vitreous enamel, called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between 750 and 850 °C. The powder melts and hardens to a smooth, durable vitreous coating on metal, so in technical terms fired enamelware is an integrated layered composite of glass and metal. Enamelling is an old and widely adopted technology, for most of its history mainly used in jewelry and enamelling are the preferred spellings in British English, while enameled and enameling are preferred in American English. The term enamel is most often restricted to work on metal, enamelled glass is called painted, and overglaze decoration to pottery is often called enamelling. The word enamel comes from the Old High German word smelzan via the Old French esmail, or from a Latin word smaltum, used as a noun, an enamel is usually a small decorative object coated with enamel. Since the 19th century the term to industrial materials and many metal consumer objects, such as some cooking vessels, laundry machines, sinks.
The ancient Egyptians applied enamels to stone objects and sometimes jewellery, the ancient Greeks, Celts and Chinese used enamel on metal objects. Enamel powder could be produced in two ways, either by powdering coloured glass, or by mixing colourless glass powder with pigments such as a metallic oxide, designs were either painted freehand or over the top of outline incisions, and the technique probably originated in metalworking. Once painted, enamelled glass vessels needed to be fired at a high enough to melt the applied powder. Ancient Persians used this method for colouring and ornamenting the surface of metals by fusing over it brilliant colours that are decorated in an intricate design and called it Meenakari. Gold has been used traditionally for Meenakari Jewellery as it holds the enamel better, lasts longer, the work of Meenakari often went unnoticed as this art was traditionally used as a backing for the famous kundan or stone-studded jewellery. This allowed the wearer to reverse the jewellery as promised a special joy in the secret of the hidden design, the Byzantine enamel style was widely adopted by the barbarian peoples of Migration Period northern Europe.
The Byzantines began to use cloisonné more freely to create images, the champlevé technique was considerably easier and very widely practiced in the Romanesque period. In Gothic art the finest work is in basse-taille and ronde-bosse techniques, from either Byzantium or the Islamic world, the cloisonné technique reached China in the 13-14th centuries. The first written reference to cloisonné is in a book from 1388, cloisonné remained very popular in China until the 19th century and is still produced today. Starting from the century, the Japanese produced large quantities of very high technical quality. A resurgence in enamel-based art took place near the end of the 20th century in the Soviet Union, led by artists like Alexei Maximov, in Australia, abstract artist Bernard Hesling brought the style into prominence with his variously sized steel plates. Enamel was first applied commercially to sheet iron and steel in Austria, industrialization increased as the purity of raw materials increased and costs decreased
Bowness-on-Solway is a village of fewer than 100 houses on the Solway Firth separating England and Scotland. The civil parish had a population of 1,126 at the 2011 census and it is in North-West Cumbria to the west of Carlisle on the English side. The western end of Hadrians Wall is a notable tourist attraction, along with beaches, the village is part of the Solway Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Bowness means rounded, or bow-shaped headland, from either the Old English boga, and næss, or, more probably, the village is situated on the site of the Roman fort called Maia, the second largest on Hadrians Wall. There was a civilian settlement outside the south gate of this fort. Built atop what may be the granary for the Roman fort in the 12th century, in retaliation, the villagers raided Dornock and Middlebie, making off with a new pair of bells. Traditionally, on inception, the vicar of Annan petitions the villages neighbours for the return of his bells, the viaduct suffered minor frost damage in 1875, in 1881 large sections of it were destroyed by ice floes, but the viaduct was rebuilt.
The railway never lived up to its promoters expectations, and the closed in 1921 and was demolished in 1934. In 1914 the railway was restricted to carrying goods only, in 1921 it was closed entirely, and in 1934 the viaduct was demolished. Listed buildings in Bowness Cumbria County History Trust, Bowness-on-Solway VisitCumbria TheCumbriaDirectory
Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He is known for building Hadrians Wall, which marked the limit of Britannia. He rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus, philhellene in most of his tastes, he is considered by some to have been a humanist, and he is regarded as the third of the Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus into a Hispano-Roman family, although Italica near Santiponce is often considered his birthplace, his actual place of birth remains uncertain. It is generally accepted that he came from a family with roots in Hispania. His predecessor, was a cousin of Hadrians father. Trajan did not designate an heir officially, but according to his wife Pompeia Plotina, Trajans wife and his friend Licinius Sura were well disposed towards Hadrian, and he may well have owed his succession to them. During his reign, Hadrian travelled to every province of the Empire. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and he used his relationship with his Greek lover Antinous to underline his philhellenism, and this led to the establishment of one of the most popular cults of ancient times.
Hadrian spent a deal of time with the military, he usually wore military attire and even dined. He ordered rigorous military training and drilling and made use of reports of attacks to keep the army on alert. On his accession to the throne, Hadrian withdrew from Trajans conquests in Mesopotamia and Armenia, late in his reign he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming the province Syria Palaestina. In 138 Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on the condition that he adopt Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as his own heirs and they would eventually succeed Antoninus as co-emperors. Hadrian died the year at Baiae. In Hadrians time, there was already an established convention that one could not write a contemporary Roman imperial history for fear of competing with the emperors themselves. Information on the history of Hadrians reign comes mostly from later. A general account of his reign is Book 69 of the early 3rd century Roman History by Cassius Dio and his original Greek text of this book is lost, what survives is a brief, much later, Byzantine-era abridgment by the 11th century monk Xiphilinius.
He selected from Dios account of Hadrians reign based on his religious interests
Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery
The Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery is a museum in Carlisle, Cumbria, in England. Opened by the Carlisle Corporation in 1893, the building is a converted Jacobean mansion. At first the building contained the museum and a library, an art school, the building, including the extensions, is a Grade I listed building, and the wall and railings in front of the house are separately Grade I listed. The two schools were moved in the 1950s and the library in 1986, the museum expanded into the city Guildhall in 1980 and with new space available from 1986 it underwent an extensive redevelopment over 1989-90 and again in 2000-01. Since May 2011 the museum has been an independent charitable trust and it is one of the three members of the Cumbria Museum Consortium, along with Lakeland Arts and the Wordsworth Trust. In 2012-15 and 2015-18 this consortium was one of the 21 museums or consortia to be funded by Arts Council England as Major Partner Museums, the museum has large and eclectic collections of zoological and geological material.
The fine and decorative arts collections include works by Burne-Jones and other artists, as well as Stanley Spencer, Winifred Nicholson, Sheila Fell. There is collection of stringed instruments including a violin by Andrea Amati, there were two Roman forts in Carlisle, one of which, was the largest along the length of Hadrians Wall. The museum houses important collections and temporary exhibitions associated with Hadrians Wall, the human history collection features permanent exhibitions dedicated to the Vikings and the Border Reivers. Tullie House Museum won the annual Family Friendly Museum Award in 2015, Grade I listed buildings in Cumbria Listed buildings in Carlisle, Cumbria Official website iRomans Website about Carlisle and the regions Roman history Charity Commission. Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery Trust, registered charity no.1143235
The British Museum is dedicated to human history and culture, and is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician, the museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of art objects and antiquities. Its foundations lie in the will of the Irish-born British physician, on 7 June 1753, King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined in 1757 by the Old Royal Library, now the Royal manuscripts, together these four foundation collections included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving copy of Beowulf. The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public, sloanes collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests.
The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary, the body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts. A list of donations to the Museum, dated 31 January 1784, in the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. Gifts and purchases from Henry Salt, British consul general in Egypt, beginning with the Colossal bust of Ramesses II in 1818, many Greek sculptures followed, notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805.
In 1816 these masterpieces of art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament. The collections were supplemented by the Bassae frieze from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815, the Ancient Near Eastern collection had its beginnings in 1825 with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich. The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an extension to the Museum. For the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it, and put forward plans for todays quadrangular building, much of which can be seen today. The dilapidated Old Montagu House was demolished and work on the Kings Library Gallery began in 1823, the extension, the East Wing, was completed by 1831. The Museum became a site as Sir Robert Smirkes grand neo-classical building gradually arose
Specifically excluded from epigraphy are the historical significance of an epigraph as a document and the artistic value of a literary composition. A person using the methods of epigraphy is called an epigrapher or epigraphist, for example, the Behistun inscription is an official document of the Achaemenid Empire engraved on native rock at a location in Iran. Epigraphists are responsible for reconstructing and dating the trilingual inscription and it is the work of historians, however, to determine and interpret the events recorded by the inscription as document. Often and history are competences practiced by the same person, an epigraph is any sort of text, from a single grapheme to a lengthy document. Epigraphy overlaps other competences such as numismatics or palaeography, when compared to books, most inscriptions are short. Typically the material is durable, but the durability might be an accident of circumstance, epigraphy is a primary tool of archaeology when dealing with literate cultures.
The US Library of Congress classifies epigraphy as one of the sciences of history. Epigraphy helps identify a forgery, epigraphic evidence formed part of the discussion concerning the James Ossuary, the study of ancient handwriting, usually in ink, is a separate field, palaeography. The character of the writing, the subject of epigraphy, is a quite separate from the nature of the text. Texts inscribed in stone are usually for public view and so they are different from the written texts of each culture. Not all inscribed texts are public, however, in Mycenaean Greece the deciphered texts of Linear B were revealed to be used for economic. Informal inscribed texts are graffiti in its original sense, the science of epigraphy has been developing steadily since the 16th century. Principles of epigraphy vary culture by culture, and the infant science in European hands concentrated on Latin inscriptions at first, individual contributions have been made by epigraphers such as Georg Fabricius, August Wilhelm Zumpt, Theodor Mommsen, Emil Hübner, Franz Cumont, Louis Robert.
The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, begun by Mommsen and other scholars, has published in Berlin since 1863. It is the largest and most extensive collection of Latin inscriptions, New fascicles are still produced as the recovery of inscriptions continues. The Corpus is arranged geographically, all inscriptions from Rome are contained in volume 6 and this volume has the greatest number of inscriptions, volume 6, part 8, fascicle 3 was just recently published. Specialists depend on such on-going series of volumes in which newly discovered inscriptions are published, often in Latin, Greek epigraphy has unfolded in the hands of a different team, with different corpora. The first is Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum of which four volumes came out, again at Berlin and this marked a first attempt at a comprehensive publication of Greek inscriptions copied from all over the Greek-speaking world