A parapet is a barrier which is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof, balcony, walkway or other structure. The word comes ultimately from the Italian parapetto, the German equivalent Brustwehr has the same meaning. Parapets were originally used to defend buildings from attack, but today they are primarily used as guard rails. Parapets may be plain, perforated or panelled, which are not mutually exclusive terms, plain parapets are upward extensions of the wall, sometimes with a coping at the top and corbel below. Embattled parapets may be panelled, but are pierced, if not purely as stylistic device, perforated parapets are pierced in various designs such as circles, trefoils, or quatrefoils. Panelled parapets are ornamented by a series of panels, either oblong or square, and more or less enriched and these are common in the Decorated and Perpendicular periods. The Mosaic law prescribed parapets for newly constructed houses as a safety measure, the Mirror Wall at Sigiriya, Sri Lanka built between 477 and 495 AD is one of the few surviving protective parapet walls from antiquity.
Built onto the side of Sigiriya Rock it ran for a distance of approximately 250 meters and provided protection from inclement weather. Only about one hundred meters of this exists today, but brick debris. Parapets surrounding roofs are common in London and this dates from the Building Act of 1707 which banned projecting wooden eaves in the cities of Westminster and London as a fire risk. Instead an 18-inch brick parapet was required, with the set behind. This was continued in many Georgian houses, as it gave the appearance of a roof which accorded with the desire for classical proportions. Many firewalls are required to have a parapet, a portion of the wall extending above the roof, the parapet is required to be as fire resistant as the lower wall, and extend a distance prescribed by building code. Parapets on bridges and other highway structures prevent users from falling off where there is a drop and they may be meant to restrict views, to prevent rubbish passing below, and to act as noise barriers.
Bridge parapets may be made any material, but structural steel, timber. They may be of solid or framed construction, in European standards, parapets are defined as a sub-category of vehicle restraint systems or pedestrian restraint systems. In terms of fortification, a parapet is a wall of stone, wood or earth on the edge of a defensive wall or trench. In medieval castles, they were often crenellated, in artillery forts, parapets tend to be higher and thicker
Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music, and a related genre of country music. Settlers from Britain and Ireland arrived in Appalachia during the 18th century and these traditions consisted primarily of English and Scottish ballads—which were essentially unaccompanied narrative—and dance music, such as Irish reels, which were accompanied by a fiddle. Many older bluegrass songs come directly from the British Isles, several Appalachian bluegrass ballads, such as Pretty Saro, Barbara Allen, Cuckoo Bird and House Carpenter, come from England and preserve the English ballad tradition both melodically and lyrically. Others, such as The Two Sisters, come from England, some bluegrass fiddle songs popular in Appalachia, such as Leather Britches, and Pretty Polly, have Scottish roots. The dance tune Cumberland Gap may be derived from the tune that accompanies the Scottish ballad Bonnie George Campbell and this is in contrast to old-time music, in which all instruments play the melody together or one instrument carries the lead throughout while the others provide accompaniment.
Breakdowns are often characterized by rapid tempos and unusual instrumental dexterity, there are three major subgenres of bluegrass and one unofficial subgenre. Traditional bluegrass has musicians playing folk songs, tunes with traditional chord progressions, progressive bluegrass groups may use electric instruments and import songs from other genres, particularly rock & roll. Examples include Cadillac Sky and Bearfoot, another subgenre, Bluegrass gospel uses Christian lyrics, soulful three- or four-part harmony singing, and sometimes the playing of instrumentals. Bluegrass music has attracted a following worldwide. Bluegrass pioneer Bill Monroe characterized the genre as, Scottish bagpipes and its Methodist and Holiness and Baptist. Its blues and jazz, and it has a high lonesome sound, unlike mainstream country music, bluegrass is traditionally played on acoustic stringed instruments. The fiddle, five-string banjo, guitar and upright bass are often joined by the resonator guitar and this instrumentation originated in rural dance bands and is the basis on which the earliest bluegrass bands were formed.
The guitar is now most commonly played with a style referred to as flatpicking, unlike the style of bluegrass guitarists such as Lester Flatt. Banjo players often use the three-finger picking style made popular by such as Don Reno. Fiddlers frequently play in thirds and fifths, producing a sound that is characteristic to the bluegrass style, bassists almost always play pizzicato, occasionally adopting the slap-style to accentuate the beat. A bluegrass bass line is generally a rhythmic alternation between the tonic and dominant of each chord, with walking bass excursions. Instrumentation has been a topic of debate. Traditional bluegrass performers believe the correct instrumentation is used by Bill Monroes band
A dormer is a roofed structure, often containing a window, that projects vertically beyond the plane of a pitched roof. Dormers are commonly used to increase the space in a loft. The term dormer is commonly used to refer to a dormer window although a dormer doesnt necessarily have to contain a window, a dormer is often one of the primary elements of a loft conversion. As a prominent element of many buildings, different types of dormer have evolved to complement different styles of architecture, when the structure appears on the spires of churches and cathedrals, it is usually referred to as a lucarne. Some of the different types of dormer are, Gable fronted dormer, Also called simply a gabled dormer, this is the most common type. It has a pitched roof of two sloping planes, supported by a frame that rises vertically to form a triangular section below the roofline. It is known as a dog-house dormer, hip roof dormer, Also called a hipped dormer, it has a roof composed of three sloping planes that rise from each side of the dormer frame and converge at the ridge—analogous to the hip roof.
Flat roof dormer, The roof of this dormer is a flat plane approximately horizontal. Shed dormer, This dormer has a flat plane roof. A shed dormer can provide head room over an area than a gabled dormer. Wall dormer, As opposed to the dormer being set part way up the slope of the roof and this means that the face of the dormer is essentially a continuation of the wall above the level of the eaves. Eyebrow or eyelid dormer, A low and wide dormer with a curved roof, instead the roof covering is gradually curved up and over the dormer in a flattened bell curve. Link dormer, This can be a dormer that houses a chimney or a dormer that joins one part of a roof to another, bonneted dormer, This is an arched roof dormer, rounded in shape when viewed from front. Popular in Victorian homes, especially in areas, like the Southcott-style row-houses called Jellybean Row in St. Johns. Nantucket dormer, This is a three-in-one dormer structure composed of two gable dormers connected by a dormer in between. Lucarne, A dormer on the slope of a spire, usually slender.
Blind or false dormer, A dormer that is visible externally. These are often used to make the house appear more aesthetically impressive, the word dormer is derived from the Middle French dormeor, meaning sleeping room, as dormer windows often provided light and space to attic-level bedrooms
Animal mummification originated in ancient Egypt. It was a part of Egyptian culture, not only in their role as food and pets. Bast, the cat goddess is an example of one such deity, in 1888, an Egyptian farmer digging in the sand near Istabl Antar discovered a mass grave of felines, ancient cats that were mummified and buried in pits at great numbers. Throughout the history of ancient Egypt, animals were highly respected, in no other culture have animals been as influential in so many aspects of life, nor has any culture depicted animals as often in their artwork or writing. It is estimated that 2 in every 4 or 5 Egyptian hieroglyphs relates to animals, the Egyptian religion taught of life after death. In order to determine a person’s admittance or denial to the afterlife, one of these crucial questions would be whether they had mistreated any animals during their life on earth. Because of this belief, the killing of an animal was considered a serious crime punishable by death. Diodorus Siculus, a Greek historian from the 1st century B. C.
witnessed the lynching of a Roman who had killed a cat during a visit to Egypt. Understandably, this punishment frightened many Egyptians to the point that if one would happen upon a dead animal, the most common Egyptian pets included cats, mongooses, monkeys and birds. Many Egyptians loved their pets, and the process of mourning the loss of a loved pet included crying and shaving one’s eyebrows. Ancient Egyptian pets were given names like we name our pets today, pets were often depicted on the tombs of Egyptians, indicating their masters’ affection toward the animals. Specific archaeological findings have confirmed that pets were mummified, the most famous example of this is the Theban Queen Makare’s adult Green Monkey. When her tomb was discovered, there was a small, mummified bundle present at her feet and this puzzled archaeologists because Queen Makare was a High Priestess who had taken a serious vow of celibacy. If this had been her child, it would have meant that she had, at point, broken the oath she had taken as High Priestess.
Finally, in 1968, an x-ray was done on the small mummy, Makare’s half sister, was discovered buried with a mummified pet—she had a mummified gazelle in her tomb. Prince Tuthmosis of the Dynasty XVIII was buried with a beloved pet cat was mummified and placed in a stone coffin in his tomb. Another Egyptian, named Hapymen, had his pet dog mummified, wrapped in cloth, at the tomb KV50 in the Valley of Kings, a mummified dog and baboon were discovered buried together, though the owner is unknown. Egyptians believed that the afterlife would be a continuation of this one, in order to bring food to the afterlife, Egyptians would surround human mummies by what are known as victual mummies
Victoria County History
In 2012 the project was rededicated to HM Queen Elizabeth II in celebration of her Diamond Jubilee year. Since 1933 the project has been coordinated by the Institute of Historical Research in the University of London and these phases have been characterised by changing attitudes towards the proper scope of English local history. 1904 stated that there is no Englishman to whom does not in one or other of its features make a direct appeal. From 1902 the joint general editors were A. Henry Doubleday, Doubleday resigned in 1904, leaving Page as sole general editor until his death in 1934. In 1932 Page bought the rights to the project for a nominal sum. Page was succeeded as editor by L. F. Salzman. From 1909 until 1931 Frederick Smith, 2nd Viscount Hambleden, was the VCHs major sponsor, in February 2005 the Heritage Lottery Fund awarded the VCH £3,374,000 to fund the Englands Past for Everyone project, which ran from September that year until February 2010. Some inactive counties have recently been reactivated, there are now more than 230 VCH volumes, with around three new volumes published per year.
Each is published with a red cover, and they are sometimes known as the big red books. When the Institute of Historical Research published a history of the project to mark the 75th anniversary of taking it over. A special edition Jubilee book was published in 2012, A Diamond Jubilee Celebration 1899-2012, a map showing the publication status appears on the VCH website. From its inception, responsibility for writing the volumes was delegated to local editors for each individual county, the county editors traditionally worked under the direction of a general editor, following a uniform format and style. These volumes are followed by others consisting of detailed surveys of each Hundred and Ward. Large towns are dealt with as a whole, since the 1960s, built-up areas of adjoining, under the original plan, each county, in addition to its general and topographical volumes, was to have a genealogical volume containing the pedigrees of county families. Genealogical volumes were published in a folio format for Northamptonshire and Hertfordshire, but the research costs were found to be excessive.
Some of the county histories have been completed, horace Round John William Willis-Bund Oswald Barron Cambridge County Geographies English county histories Historiography of the United Kingdom Beckett, J. V. Local history, family history and the Victoria County History, new directions for the twenty-first century, the Thoroton Society and the Victoria County History. Transactions of the Thoroton Society of Nottinghamshire and the Victoria County History
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer and cider. It is a relaxed, social drinking establishment and a prominent part of British, New Zealand, Canadian, in many places, especially in villages, a pub is the focal point of the community. In his 17th century diary Samuel Pepys described the pub as the heart of England, Pubs can be traced back to Roman taverns, through the Anglo-Saxon alehouse to the development of the tied house system in the 19th century. In 1393, King Richard II of England introduced legislation that pubs had to display a sign outdoors to make them easily visible for passing ale tasters who would assess the quality of ale sold, most pubs focus on offering beers and similar drinks. As well, pubs often sell wines and soft drinks, the owner, tenant or manager is known as the pub landlord or publican. The pub quiz was established in the UK in the 1970s and these alehouses quickly evolved into meeting houses for the folk to socially congregate and arrange mutual help within their communities.
Herein lies the origin of the public house, or Pub as it is colloquially called in England. They rapidly spread across the Kingdom, becoming so commonplace that in 965 King Edgar decreed that there should be no more than one alehouse per village. A traveller in the early Middle Ages could obtain overnight accommodation in monasteries, the Hostellers of London were granted guild status in 1446 and in 1514 the guild became the Worshipful Company of Innholders. A survey in 1577 of drinking establishment in England and Wales for taxation purposes recorded 14,202 alehouses,1,631 inns, Inns are buildings where travellers can seek lodging and, usually and drink. They are typically located in the country or along a highway, in Europe, they possibly first sprang up when the Romans built a system of roads two millennia ago. Some inns in Europe are several centuries old, in addition to providing for the needs of travellers, inns traditionally acted as community gathering places. In Europe, it is the provision of accommodation, if anything, the latter tend to provide alcohol, but less commonly accommodation.
Famous London inns include The George and The Tabard, there is however no longer a formal distinction between an inn and other kinds of establishment. In North America, the aspect of the word inn lives on in hotel brand names like Holiday Inn. The Inns of Court and Inns of Chancery in London started as ordinary inns where barristers met to do business, traditional English ale was made solely from fermented malt. The practice of adding hops to produce beer was introduced from the Netherlands in the early 15th century, alehouses would each brew their own distinctive ale, but independent breweries began to appear in the late 17th century. By the end of the century almost all beer was brewed by commercial breweries, the 18th century saw a huge growth in the number of drinking establishments, primarily due to the introduction of gin
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, and George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830. The style of Georgian buildings is very variable, but marked by a taste for symmetry and proportion based on the architecture of Greece and Rome. Ornament is normally in the tradition, but typically rather restrained. In towns, which expanded greatly during the period, landowners turned into property developers, even the wealthy were persuaded to live in these in town, especially if provided with a square of garden in front of the house. There was an amount of building in the period, all over the English-speaking world. The period saw the growth of a distinct and trained architectural profession, before the mid-century the high-sounding title and this contrasted with earlier styles, which were primarily disseminated among craftsmen through the direct experience of the apprenticeship system.
Authors such as the prolific William Halfpenny published editions in America as well as Britain, mail-order kit homes were popular before World War II. The architect James Gibbs was a figure, his earlier buildings are Baroque, reflecting the time he spent in Rome in the early 18th century. Other prominent architects of the early Georgian period include James Paine, Robert Taylor, and John Wood, the styles that resulted fall within several categories. In the mainstream of Georgian style were both Palladian architecture—and its whimsical alternatives and Chinoiserie, which were the English-speaking worlds equivalent of European Rococo. John Nash was one of the most prolific architects of the late Georgian era known as The Regency style, greek Revival architecture was added to the repertory, beginning around 1750, but increasing in popularity after 1800. Leading exponents were William Wilkins and Robert Smirke, regularity of housefronts along a street was a desirable feature of Georgian town planning.
In Britain brick or stone are almost invariably used, brick is often disguised with stucco, in America and other colonies wood remained very common, as its availability and cost-ratio with the other materials was more favourable. Versions of revived Palladian architecture dominated English country house architecture, Houses were increasingly placed in grand landscaped settings, and large houses were generally made wide and relatively shallow, largely to look more impressive from a distance. The height was usually highest in the centre, and the Baroque emphasis on corner pavilions often found on the continent generally avoided, in grand houses, an entrance hall led to steps up to a piano nobile or mezzanine floor where the main reception rooms were. A single block was typical, with a perhaps a small court for carriages at the front marked off by railings and a gate, but rarely a stone gatehouse, or side wings around the court. Windows in all types of buildings were large and regularly placed on a grid, this was partly to minimize window tax and their height increasingly varied between the floors, and they increasingly began below waist-height in the main rooms, making a small balcony desirable
East Sussex /ˈsʌsᵻks/ is a county in South East England. It is bordered by the counties of Kent to the north and east, Surrey to the north west and West Sussex to the west, archaeological remains are plentiful, especially in the upland areas. The areas position on the coast has meant that there were invaders, including the Romans. Earlier industries have included fishing, iron-making, and the trade, all of which have declined. Sussex is traditionally sub-divided into six rapes, from the 12th century the three eastern rapes together and the three western rapes together had separate quarter sessions, with the county town of the three eastern rapes being Lewes. This situation was formalised by Parliament in 1865, and the two parts were made into administrative counties, each with distinct elected county councils in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888, in East Sussex there were three self-administered county boroughs, Brighton and Hastings. In 1974 East Sussex was made a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county, at the same time the western boundary was altered, so that the Mid Sussex region was transferred to the county of West Sussex.
In 1997, Brighton and Hove became a unitary authority, it was granted city status in 2000. East Sussex is divided into five local government districts, three are larger, districts are, Lewes and Rother. Eastbourne and Hastings are mainly urban areas, the rural districts are further subdivided into civil parishes. To the north lie parallel valleys and ridges, the highest of which is the Weald itself, the sandstones and clays meet the sea at Hastings, the Downs, at Beachy Head. East Sussex, like most counties by the south coast, has an average total of around 1,750 hours of sunshine per year. This is much higher than the UKs average of about 1,340 hours of sunshine a year, the relief of the county reflects the geology. The chalk uplands of the South Downs occupies the coastal strip between Brighton and Eastbourne, there are two river gaps, the Rivers Ouse and Cuckmere. The Seven Sisters, where the Downs meet the sea, are the remnants of dry valleys cut into the chalk, to the east of Beachy Head lie the marshlands of the Pevensey Levels, formerly flooded by the sea but now enclosed within a deposited beach.
At Bexhill the land begins to rise again where the sands and clays of the Weald meet the sea, further east are the Pett Levels, more marshland, beyond which is the estuary of the River Rother. On the far side of the estuary are the dunes of Camber Sands, the highest point of the Downs within the county is Ditchling Beacon, at 814 feet, it is termed a Marilyn. The Weald occupies the northern borderlands of the county, between the Downs and Weald is a narrow stretch of lower lying land, many of the rivers and streams occupying this area originate in the Weald
Vernacular architecture is an architectural style that is designed based on local needs, availability of construction materials and reflecting local traditions. At least originally, vernacular architecture did not use formally-schooled architects, since the late 19th century many professional architects have worked in versions of this style. It tends to evolve over time to reflect the environmental, technological and this article covers the term traditional architecture, which exists somewhere between the two extremes yet still is based upon authentic themes. The term vernacular is derived from the Latin vernaculus, meaning domestic, indigenous, from verna, the word probably derives from an older Etruscan word. In linguistics, vernacular refers to use particular to a time. In architecture, it refers to type of architecture which is indigenous to a specific time or place. It is most often applied to residential buildings, the terms vernacular, folk and popular architecture are sometimes used synonymously.
Traditional architecture is architecture is passed down from person to person, generation to generation, particularly orally, noble discourages use of the term primitive architecture as having a negative connotation. The term popular architecture is used more in eastern Europe and is synonymous with folk or vernacular architecture, ronald Brunskill has defined the ultimate in vernacular architecture as. The function of the building would be the dominant factor, aesthetic considerations, though present to some small degree, local materials would be used as a matter of course, other materials being chosen and imported quite exceptionally. The vernacular architecture is not to be confused with so-called traditional architecture, Traditional architecture includes buildings which bear elements of polite design and palaces, for example, which normally would not be included under the rubric of vernacular. The Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World defines vernacular architecture as. comprising the dwellings, related to their environmental contexts and available resources they are customarily owner- or community-built, utilizing traditional technologies.
All forms of architecture are built to meet specific needs, accommodating the values, economies. Architecture designed by professional architects is not considered to be vernacular. Indeed, it can be argued that the process of consciously designing a building makes it not vernacular. Oliver offers the simple definition of vernacular architecture, the architecture of the people, and by the people. Frank Lloyd Wright described vernacular architecture as Folk building growing in response to actual needs, since at least the Arts and Crafts Movement, many modern architects have studied vernacular buildings and claimed to draw inspiration from them, including aspects of the vernacular in their designs. In 1946, the Egyptian architect Hassan Fathy was appointed to design the town of New Gourna near Luxor, having studied traditional Nubian settlements and technologies, he incorporated the traditional mud brick vaults of the Nubian settlements in his designs