A screenplay, or script, is a written work by screenwriters for a film, television program or video game. These screenplays can be original adaptations from existing pieces of writing. In them, the movement, actions and dialogues of the characters are narrated. A screenplay written for television is known as a teleplay; the format is structured so that one page equates to one minute of screen time, though this is only used as a ballpark estimate and bears little resemblance to the running time of the final movie. The standard font is 10 pitch Courier Typeface; the major components are dialogue. The action is written in the present tense and is limited to what can be heard or seen by the audience, for example descriptions of settings, character movements, or sound effects; the dialogue is the words the characters speak, is written in a center column. Unique to the screenplay is the use of slug lines. A slug line called a master scene heading, occurs at the start of every scene and contains three pieces of information: whether the scene is set inside or outside, the specific location, the time of day.
Each slug line begins a new scene. In a "shooting script" the slug lines are numbered consecutively for ease of reference. American screenplays are printed single-sided on three-hole-punched paper using the standard American letter size, they are held together with two brass brads in the top and bottom hole. The middle hole is left empty as it would otherwise make it harder to read the script. In the United Kingdom, double-hole-punched A4 paper is used, taller and narrower than US letter size; some UK writers format the scripts for use in the US letter size when their scripts are to be read by American producers, since the pages would otherwise be cropped when printed on US paper. Because each country's standard paper size is difficult to obtain in the other country, British writers send an electronic copy to American producers, or crop the A4 size to US letter. A British script may be bound by a single brad at the top left hand side of the page, making flicking through the paper easier during script meetings.
Screenplays are bound with a light card stock cover and back page showing the logo of the production company or agency submitting the script, covers are there to protect the script during handling which can reduce the strength of the paper. This is important if the script is to pass through the hands of several people or through the post. Reading copies of screenplays are distributed printed on both sides of the paper to reduce paper waste, they are reduced to half-size to make a small book, convenient to read or put in a pocket. Although most writing contracts continue to stipulate physical delivery of three or more copies of a finished script, it is common for scripts to be delivered electronically via email. Screenplays and teleplays use a set of standardizations, beginning with proper formatting; these rules are in part to serve the practical purpose of making scripts uniformly readable "blueprints" of movies, to serve as a way of distinguishing a professional from an amateur. Motion picture screenplays intended for submission to mainstream studios, whether in the US or elsewhere in the world, are expected to conform to a standard typographical style known as the studio format which stipulates how elements of the screenplay such as scene headings, transitions, character names and parenthetical matter should be presented on the page, as well as font size and line spacing.
One reason for this is that, when rendered in studio format, most screenplays will transfer onto the screen at the rate of one page per minute. This rule of thumb is contested — a page of dialogue occupies less screen time than a page of action, for example, it depends enormously on the literary style of the writer — and yet it continues to hold sway in modern Hollywood. There is no single standard for studio format; some studios have definitions of the required format written into the rubric of their writer's contract. The Nicholl Fellowship, a screenwriting competition run under the auspices of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, has a guide to screenplay format. A more detailed reference is The Complete Guide to Standard Script Formats. A "spec script" or speculative screenplay is a script written to be sold on the open market with no upfront payment, or promise of payment; the content is invented by the screenwriter, though spec screenplays can be based on established works, or real people and events.
For American TV shows, the format rules for hour-long dramas and single-camera sitcoms are the same as for motion pictures. The main difference is. Multi-camera sitcoms use a specialized format that derives from stage plays and radio. In this format, dialogue is double-spaced, action lines are capitalized, scene headings, character entrances and exits, sound effects are capitalized and underlined. Drama series and sitcoms are no longer the only formats. With reality-based programming crossing genres to create various hybrid programs, many of the so-called "reality" programs are in a large part scripted in format; that is, the overall skeleton of the show and its episodes are written to di
Douglas Fairbanks Jr.
Douglas Elton Fairbanks Jr. was an American actor and producer, a decorated naval officer of World War II. He is best known for starring in such films as The Prisoner of Zenda, Gunga Din and The Corsican Brothers, he was once married to Joan Crawford. Douglas Elton Fairbanks Jr. was born in New York City. His paternal grandfather was Jewish. Fairbanks's father was one of cinema's first icons, noted for such swashbuckling adventure films as The Mark of Zorro, Robin Hood and The Thief of Bagdad. Fairbanks had small roles in his father's films The Three Musketeers, his parents divorced when he was nine years old, both remarried. He lived with his mother in New York, California and London. On the basis of his father's name, in May 1923 Fairbanks Jr. was given a contract with Paramount Pictures at age 13, at $1,000 a week for three years. He was signed by Jesse L. Lasky who said the junior Fairbanks "is the typical American boy at his best" and said it was he be starred on a film about Tom Sawyer."I do not think it is the right thing for the boy to do," said his father.
"I want to see him continue his education. He is only 13 years old." The young actor was mobbed. Tom Sawyer was not made. Instead Fairbanks Jnr appeared; the film was not a hit. Paramount and he parted ways by mutual consent and Doug went to Paris to resume his studies. A year he returned to the studio, hired at what Fairbanks called "starvation wages" having him work as a camera assistant."I was anxious to build my career as an actor and painstakingly," he said. "I don't want to be a young blonde leading man with an aquiline nose and shiny white teeth."Paramount gave him supporting roles in The Air Mail and Wild Horse Mesa. Sam Goldwyn borrowed him to play the juvenile in Stella Dallas, which wound up being his first box office success, he had supporting roles in Paramount's The American Venus, Padlocked. At Warner Bros. Fairbanks was in Broken Hearts of Hollywood at Metropolitan Pictures, he was in Man Bait. At MGM he was in Edmund Goulding's Women Love Diamonds and for Alfred E. Green at Fox he was in Is Zat So?.
He supported Will Rogers in A Texas Steer. In 1927 Fairbanks made his stage debut in Young Woodley based on a book by John Van Druten. Fairbanks Jr received excellent reviews and the production was a success - the play did much to improve his reputation in Hollywood. A regular audience member was Joan Crawford with, he appeared in a stage production of Saturday's Children. Fairbanks' second lead role was in Dead Man's Curve for FBO, he was Helene Chadwick's leading man in Modern Mothers at Columbia and he starred in The Toilers for Tiffany. Fairbanks starred in another for The Power of the Press, directed by Frank Capra, he went back to supporting roles for The Barker at First National, his first "talkie" and A Woman of Affairs at MGM with Greta Garbo and John Gilbert. Fairbanks had another starring role at FBO with The Jazz Age and received top billing over Loretta Young in Fast Life at Warner Bros, he appeared in MGM's Our Modern Maidens opposite Crawford. First National gave Fairbanks a starring role in The Careless Age and he was reunited with Young in The Forward Pass.
He was one of many names in The Show of Shows. In September 1929 he returned to the stage in a production of The Youngest. Victor Halperin cast Fairbanks in the lead of Party Girl back at First National he did a third with Young, Loose Ankles. In 1930, Fairbanks Jr. went to Warner Bros. to test for the second lead in Moby Dick. Although he did not win the part, head of production Darryl F. Zanuck was impressed with Douglas's screen test, cast him in an important role in The Dawn Patrol directed by Howard Hawks. Universal borrowed him to have the lead role in Little Accident and at Warners he was in the lead in The Sin Flood, he supported Leslie Howard in the prestigious Outward Bound and was Billie Dove's leading man in One Night at Susie's. Fairbanks had an excellent role supporting Edward G. Robinson in Little Caesar, filmed in August 1930. "We knew it was going to be good when we were making it but not that it would become a classic", he said. The movie was a big hit, Warner Bros. offered Fairbanks Jr. a contract with cast and script approval — a condition which, Fairbanks Jr. says, was only offered to one other actor at the studio, Richard Barthelmess.""By sheer accident, I had four successes in a row in the early'30s, although I was still in my 20s, I demanded and received approval of cast and director.
I don't know how I got away with it, but I did!"Because he spoke French he was put in L'aviateur. Back in Hollywood he was in Changes and I Like Your Nerve with Young. In June 1931 he starred in another play The Man in Possession which he produced along with Sid Graumann. Fairbanks Jnr said he wanted to stay away from costume adventures which were associated with his father, he starred in two for Alfred E Green, Gentleman for a Day with Joan Blondell and It's Tough to Be Famous. He starred in a film shot in L'athlète incomplet, he starred in Love Is Scarlet Dawn for William Dieterle. Fairbanks did another with Green, Parachute Jumper, which gave an early co starring role to Bette Davis. Fairbanks sta
The Sea Gull
The Sea Gull is a 1968 British-American-Greek drama film directed by Sidney Lumet. The screenplay by Moura Budberg is adapted and translated from Anton Chekhov's classic 1896 play The Seagull; the Warner Bros.-Seven Arts release was filmed at the Europa Studios in Sundbyberg, Stockholms län, just outside central Stockholm. Set in a rural Russian house, the plot focuses on the romantic and artistic conflicts among an eclectic group of characters. Fading leading lady Irina Arkadina has come to visit her brother Sorin, a retired civil servant in ailing health, with her lover, the successful hack writer Trigorin, her son, brooding experimental playwright Konstantin Treplev, adores the ingenue Nina, who in turn is mesmerized by Trigorin. Their interactions lead to the moral and spiritual disintegration of each of them and lead to tragedy. Vanessa Redgrave..... Nina Simone Signoret..... Irina Arkadina David Warner..... Konstantin Treplev James Mason..... Boris Alexeyevich Trigorin Harry Andrews..... Pjotr Nikolayevich Sorin Denholm Elliott.....
Dr. Yevgeny Dorn Eileen Herlie..... Polina Alfred Lynch..... Semyon Medvedenko Ronald Radd..... Shamraev Kathleen Widdoes..... Masha Cinematography..... Gerry Fisher Production Design..... Tony Walton Set Decoration..... Rune Hjelm, Rolf Larsson Costume Design..... Tony Walton In his review in The New York Times, Vincent Canby described the film as "so uneven in style and performance that there are times when you could swear that the movie had shot itself — though not quite fatally... Lumet's way with this adaptation by Moura Budberg is implacably straightforward, it plows ahead, scene by scene, act by act, in which there always is first an establishing long shot and cuts to individual actors as they act and react. This kind of Secret Storm technique flattens out the nuances and the pauses that give depth to the tangled personal relationships, it makes too literal the boredom and quiet despair that should hang over the Chekovian characters like an unseen mist. Most of the performances are excellent, but all of the actors seem to be on their own...
Miss Signoret is miscast, if only because of her Frenchness. Her speech rhythms are so jarring that it's impossible to understand her... As a result of the variety of styles, the movie turns into a series of individual confrontations that seem as isolated as specialty acts. Without the single dominating influence that should have been provided by Lumet, the play is fragmented beyond repair."Time observed, "The paralyzing problem with this film version of Chekhov's first major play is that it is far too dramatic... Any traces of wit have been pretty well destroyed by Lumet's lumbering technique; the actors perform as if they were all on the verge of a nervous breakdown... Lumet moves his camera incessantly to give the illusion of action, but uses fadeouts to duplicate the curtain falling at the end of an act... Most disturbing of all, cinematographer Gerry Fisher have shot the whole film in gauzed pastel colors, thereby reducing Chekhov's intricate dramatic tapestry to the sleazy cheapness of a picture postcard."Variety called it "a sensitive, well-made and abstractly interesting period pic."According to the Time Out London Film Guide, it is "basically an actors' film... sometimes dull and always unsatisfactory, despite excellent performances."
The Sea Gull at the Internet Movie Database
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Sidney Arthur Lumet was an American director and screenwriter with over 50 films to his credit. He was nominated five times for the Academy Award: four for Best Director for 12 Angry Men, Dog Day Afternoon and The Verdict and one for Best Adapted Screenplay for Prince of the City, he did not win an individual Academy Award, but he did receive an Academy Honorary Award and 14 of his films were nominated for various Oscars, such as Network, nominated for ten, winning four. The Encyclopedia of Hollywood states that Lumet was one of the most prolific filmmakers of the modern era, having directed more than one movie a year on average since his directorial debut in 1957, he was noted by Turner Classic Movies for his "strong direction of actors," "vigorous storytelling" and the "social realism" in his best work. Film critic Roger Ebert described him as having been "one of the finest craftsmen and warmest humanitarians among all film directors." Lumet was known as an "actor's director," having worked with the best of them during his career more than "any other director."
Sean Connery, who acted in five of his films, considered him one of his favorite directors, a director who had that "vision thing."A member of the maiden cohort of New York's Actors Studio, Lumet began his directorial career in Off-Broadway productions became a efficient TV director. His first movie, 12 Angry Men, was a courtroom drama centered on tense jury deliberations. Lumet subsequently divided his energies among other political and social drama films, as well as adaptations of literary plays and novels, big stylish stories, New York-based black comedies, realistic crime dramas, including Serpico and Prince of the City; as a result of directing 12 Angry Men, he was responsible for leading the first wave of directors who made a successful transition from TV to movies. In 2005, Lumet received an Academy Award for Lifetime Achievement for his "brilliant services to screenwriters and the art of the motion picture." Two years he concluded his career with the acclaimed drama Before the Devil Knows You're Dead.
A few months after Lumet's death in April 2011, a retrospective celebration of his work was held at New York's Lincoln Center with the appearance of numerous speakers and film stars. In 2015, Nancy Buirski directed By Sidney Lumet, a documentary about his career, in January 2017 PBS devoted its American Masters series to Lumet's life as a director. Lumet was born in Philadelphia but he grew up in the Lower East Side neighborhood in New York, he studied theater acting at the Professional Children's School of Columbia University. Lumet's parents and Eugenia Lumet, were both veterans of the Yiddish theatre, were Polish Jewish emigrants to the United States, his father, an actor, director and writer, was born in Warsaw. Lumet's mother, a dancer, died when he was a child, he made his professional debut on radio at age four and stage debut at the Yiddish Art Theatre at age five. As a child he appeared in many Broadway plays, including 1935's Dead End and Kurt Weill's The Eternal Road. In 1935, aged 11 he appeared in a Henry Lynn short film, Papirossen, co-produced by radio star Herman Yablokoff.
The film was shown in a theatrical play with the same title, based on a hit song, "Papirosn". The play and short film appeared in the Bronx McKinley Square Theatre. In 1939, he made his only feature-length film appearance, at age 15, in... One Third of a Nation.... World War II interrupted his early acting career and he spent three years with the U. S. Army. After returning from service as a radar repairman stationed in India and Burma, he became involved with the Actors Studio, formed his own theater workshop, he organized an Off-Broadway group and became its director, continued directing in summer stock theatre, while teaching acting at the High School of Performing Arts. He was the senior drama coach at the new 46th St. building of "Performing Arts'. The 25-year-old Lumet directed the drama department in a production of The Fair. Lumet began his career as a director with Off-Broadway productions and evolved into a respected TV director. After working off-Broadway and in summer-stock, he began directing television in 1950, after working as an assistant to friend and then-director Yul Brynner.
He soon developed a "lightning quick" method for shooting due to the high turnover required by television. As a result, while working for CBS he directed hundreds of episodes of Danger and You Are There, a weekly series which co-starred Walter Cronkite in one of his earliest leading roles, he chose Cronkite for the role of anchorman "because the premise of the show was so silly, was so outrageous, that we needed somebody with the most American, warm ease about him," Lumet said. He directed original plays for Playhouse 90, Kraft Television Theatre and Studio One, directing around 200 episodes, which established him as "one of the most prolific and respected directors in the business," according to Turner Classic Movies, his ability to work while shooting carried over to his film career. Because the quality of many of the television dramas was so impressive, several of them were adapted as motion pictures, his first movie, 12 Angry Men a CBS live play, was an auspicious beginning for Lumet. It was a critical success and established Lumet as a director skilled at adapting theatrical properties to motion pictures.
Half of Lumet's complement of films have originated in the theater. A controversial TV show he directed in 1960 gained h
The Appointment is a 1969 psychological drama film from director Sidney Lumet and writer James Salter, based on the story by Antonio Leonviola. After becoming involved with the ex-fiancée of a business acquaintance, lawyer Federico Fendi becomes consumed with suspicion that his new wife Carla may be moonlighting as a high-class prostitute, his attempts to entrap her lead to disaster. The Appointment has three original scores. Michel Legrand composed the film's first score; that score contained only a single theme, with variations, was rejected. A replacement score was composed by John Barry, used in the film's theatrical release. Barry's score contained a single theme with variations, with the exception of select location scenes; the film had a limited release in the United States, when the rights were purchased for U. S. television airing by CBS, MGM re-edited the film and commissioned an new score by Stu Phillips. Selections from all three scores were released on CD in 2003 by Film Score Monthly.
The Appointment was nominated for the Palme d'Or at the 1969 Cannes Film Festival. The prize was instead awarded to the British black comedy If..... The film was featured in Lionpower, a 27-minute promotional film released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, showing highlights of the studio's upcoming releases. List of American films of 1969 The Appointment on IMDb The Appointment at AllMovie
A View from the Bridge (film)
A View from the Bridge is a 1962 French-Italian drama film directed by Sidney Lumet with a screenplay by Norman Rosten based on the play of the same name written by Arthur Miller. It was filmed in English and French versions, its exterior sequences were filmed on location on the waterfront of Brooklyn, New York, where the play and the film take place. Unlike the play, in which central character Eddie Carbone is stabbed to death with his own knife in a scuffle with his wife Beatrice's cousin Marco toward the end, in the film Eddie commits suicide by plunging a cargo hook into his chest; the film was the first time that a kiss between men was shown on screen in America, in the sequence in which an intoxicated Eddie Carbone passionately kisses his wife Beatrice's male cousin Rodolfo in an attempt to demonstrate the latter's alleged homosexuality. However, this overture was intended as an accusation of someone being gay, rather than a romantic expression. Raf Vallone as Eddie Carbone Maureen Stapleton as Beatrice Carbone Jean Sorel as Rodolfo Carol Lawrence as Catherine Raymond Pellegrin as Marco Morris Carnovsky as Avvocato Alfieri Harvey Lembeck as Mike Mickey Knox as Louis Vincent Gardenia as Lipari Frank Campanella as Longshoreman A View from the Bridge premiered in the United States on January 22, 1962, to negative reviews.
In Film Quarterly, Pauline Kael called the film "not so much a drama as a sentence that's been passed on the audience." Stanley Kauffmann's review for The New Republic was titled "The Unadaptable Adapted."A more favorable review came from The New York Times film critic Bosley Crowther, who praised Sidney Lumet's realistic depiction of the Brooklyn waterfront and his choice of actors but believed that principal character Eddie Carbone lacked depth and dimension. "The rumbling and gritty quality of the Brooklyn waterfront," he wrote, "the lofty and mercantile authority of the freight ships tied up at the docks, the cluttered and crowded oppressiveness of the living rooms of the dockside slums are caught in his camera's comprehension, to pound it into the viewer's head that this is an honest presentation of the sort of personal involvement that one might watch—might spy upon—through a telescope set on Brooklyn Bridge." However, "The one great obstruction to the drama — and a fatal obstruction it becomes—is the evolving demonstration that the principal character is a boor.
As much as his nigh-incestuous passion and his subsequent jealousy may be credible and touching, they are low in the human emotional scale and are seamy and ignoble. They haven't the universal scope of greed or envy or ambition or such obsessions as drive men to ruin."The film has a 67% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, which noted that "Director Sidney Lumet shot the film in both English and French, with the English version sounding more recited than acted at times... The film is more remembered today for a'shocking' set piece, in which Eddie kisses Rodolpho full on the lips to'prove' that the boy is gay." For his performance as Eddie Carbone, Raf Vallone won the David di Donatello for Best Actor. A View from the Bridge on IMDb