Nanterre is a commune in the Hauts-de-Seine department, the western suburbs of Paris. It is located some 11 km north-west of the centre of Paris. Nanterre serves as both the capital of the Hauts-de-Seine department and seat of the eponymous arrondissement; the eastern part of Nanterre, bordering the communes of Courbevoie and Puteaux, contains a small part of the La Défense business district of Paris and some of the tallest buildings in the Paris region. Because the headquarters of many major corporations are located in La Défense, the court of Nanterre is well known in the media for the number of high-profile lawsuits and trials that take place in it; the city of Nanterre includes the Paris West University Nanterre La Défense, one of the largest universities in the Paris region. The name of Nanterre originated before the Roman conquest of Gaul; the Romans recorded the name as Nemetodorum. It is composed of the Celtic word nemeto meaning "shrine" or "sacred place" and the Celtic word duron "hard, enduring".
The sacred place referred to is believed to have been a famous shrine. Inhabitants of Nanterre are called Nanterriens, they are called "Nanterroises" and "Nanterrois". The sacred shrine of antiquity, referred to etymologically had been placed by tradition in Mont-Valérien. However, archeological discoveries made between 1994 and 2005 found a Gallic necropolis, dated to the third century BC, call into debate both the exact location of the pre-Roman capital of the Parisii and the initial site of Lutetia, the Roman era Paris; the large necropolis, as well as working people's homes from some time in the ancient era, is near the bank of the Seine, in the northwest of Nanterre, might be the sacred place, being referred to etymologically. Lutetia is mentioned by Julius Caesar in 50 BCE, reporting an assembly in Lutetia in 53 BC between himself, commander of the Roman Legions, local Gallic leaders. Although this had been thought to be Île de la Cité since Caesar mentions an island, the river at Nanterre follows two channels around an island.
In 52 BC, the Parisii took up arms with the Gallic war leader Vercingetorix, were defeated by Titus Labienus, one of Caesar's legates. Caesar mentions in his Commentarii that the Parisii destroyed the bridges and set fire to Lutetia before the arrival of the Roman forces; the archeological work in Nanterre has suggested over 15 hectares of pre-Roman or Roman era construction. These archeologic findings may be an indication that Nanterre was the closest pre-Roman settlement to the City's modern centre. Sainte Genevieve, patron saint of Paris, was born in Nanterre ca. 419–422. On 27 March 2002, Richard Durn, a disgruntled local activist and killed eight town councilors and 14 others were wounded in what the French press dubbed the Nanterre massacre. On 28 March, the murderer killed himself by jumping from the 4th floor of the Quai des orfèvres, in Paris, while he was questioned by two policemen about the reason for his killing in the Nanterre City Hall. Nanterre is divided into two cantons: Canton of Nanterre-1 Canton of Nanterre-2 Nanterre is served by three stations on RER line A: Nanterre – Préfecture, Nanterre – Université, Nanterre – Ville.
Nanterre – Université station is an interchange station on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line. Société Générale has its headquarters in the Tours Société Générale in La Nanterre; the company moved into the building in 1995. Faurecia, the sixth-largest automotive parts supplier, has its headquarters in Nanterre. Groupe du Louvre and subsidiary Louvre Hôtels have their head office in Village 5 in La Défense and Nanterre. Senior high schools include: Lycée Joliot-Curie de Nanterre Lycée professionnel Louise-Michel Lycée professionnel Paul-Langevin Lycée professionnel Claude-Chappe The basketball club Nanterre 92 plays at Palais des Sports Maurice Thorez; the rugby union club Racing 92 opened the new Paris La Défense Arena in October 2017 and played their first game in the new facility in December 2017. It has a capacity of 32,000 for 40,000 for concerts; the venue opened as U Arena, but received its current name in June 2018 through a sponsorship deal with Paris La Défense, the company that manages the La Défense business district.
Nanterre is twinned with: La Défense business district. List of tallest structures in Paris Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department INSEE Official website Université Paris 10 Nanterre Nanterre students News coverage of March 2006 University occupation Pictures of Nanterre Nanterre Cathedral gallery of pictures
Asnières-sur-Seine is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, along the river Seine. It is located 7.9 km from the center of Paris. Asnières-sur-Seine was called Asnières. Asnières was recorded for the first time in a papal bull of 1158 as Asnerias, from Medieval Latin asinaria, meaning "donkey farm"; the poor soil of Asnières, where heather grew in Medieval times, was deemed only suitable for the breeding of donkeys. By the early 20th century it had become a favourite boating centre for Parisians, its industries included boat building. On 15 February 1968 the commune was renamed Asnières-sur-Seine, in order to distinguish it from other communes of France called Asnières. Asnières-sur-Seine is divided into two cantons: Asnières-sur-Seine-Nord: 43,453 inhabitants. Asnières-sur-Seine-Sud: 32,384 inhabitants. Different famous companies are located in Asnières: L'Oréal - cosmetics Lucas Lesieur Louis Vuitton - luxury productsThe Cimetière des Chiens is believed to be the first zoological necropolis in the world.
Public schools in the commune: 20 preschools 16 elementary schools 4 junior high schools: André Malraux, Auguste Renoir, François Truffaut, Voltaire Senior high schools: Lycée Auguste Renoir, Lycée professionnel de Prony, Institut départemental médico-éducatif Gustave BaguerPrivate schools: Institution Sainte-Geneviève Institution Saint-Joseph École catholique Sainte-Agnès University of Paris III: Sorbonne Nouvelle serves as the area university. In addition to the Courtilles ice rink, the town has ten gyms, six stadiums, a shooting range, two tennis clubs, a skate park, a Parisian boules court and a swimming pool; the Asnières Volley 92 plays at the Courtilles gymnasium. The city has a handball club in agreement with neighboring cities. For the 2017-2018 season, the first team evolves in Pool 2 in National 2; the city counts, with the Molosses, an American football club, created in 1992, evolving in Casque d'Or, 2-time vice-champion of France of D1. A full-contact club, known as ABC is managed by a coaching team composed with ex-France and European champions.
Around 100 members take part in trainings three times a Week. The judo and jujitsu club Arts Martiaux d'Asnières uses several of the town's gyms. Car traffic in Asnières is difficult. Most of the traffic is on the banks of the Seine around the city; the crossing of the Asnières bridge is painful during peak hours. The Grand rue Charles-de-Gaulle the Avenue d'Argenteuil are difficult to pass because serving Bois-Colombes and northern towns. Moreover, the city has few parking spaces, garages and private parking spaces are scarce and expensive. Between 2010 and 2013, there was a development plan to change the streets of the city being one-way and become practicable in both directions for bicycles. Asnières-sur-Seine is served by three stations on Paris Métro Line 13: Gabriel Péri, Les Agnettes and Asnières – Gennevilliers – Les Courtilles, terminus of the line; the tramway line 1 serves Asnières – Gennevilliers – Les Courtilles station, connecting to Noisy-le-Sec. It is served by Asnières-sur-Seine and Bois-Colombes stations on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail network.
Lines J and L can be used. A number of bus lines cross the town to connect it with its neighbours: lines 165, 175, 177, 276, 140. Bathers at Asnières by Georges-Pierre Seurat depicts a scene of 19th century leisure and developing industry in this suburb of Paris. In 1885 Seurat made Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grand Jatte used a technique of placing colored dots on a work which led a movement called "Pointillism". Vincent van Gogh made a series of paintings of Asnières. Influenced by Impressionism and Pointillism, van Gogh modified his traditional style and used vivid color, shorter brushstrokes and perspective to engage the viewer, his views of the banks of the Seine are an important progression for his landscape paintings. In Asnières, within walking distance of Theo's flat in Montmartre, van Gogh painted parks, cafés, restaurants and the river; the old château was the death place of Anne Marie Victoire de Bourbon, daughter of Henri Jules de Bourbon and thus grand daughter of le Grand Condé, cousin to Louis XIV.
Asnières was the birthplace of the cyclist Gaston Rivierre Henri Barbusse and writer of Under Fire. A street in the town was named after him; the violinist and teacher Marcel Chailley the violinist Maurice Hewitt the composer Ginette Keller the actor Frédéric Gorny the football player William Gallas the football player Axel Ngando The Franco-Irish composer and pianist George Alexandre O'Kelly died here in 1914. Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department INSEE Asnières-sur-Seine official website
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Paris metropolitan area
The Paris metropolitan area is a statistical area that describes the reach of commuter movement to and from Paris and its surrounding suburbs. Created and used from 1996 by France's national INSEE statistical bureau to match international demographic standards, the aire urbaine is a statistical unit that describes the suburban development around centres of urban growth: it is composed of a couronne périurbaine ) surrounding a more densely built and densely populated pôle urbain, a single or group of densely-built unité urbaine communes. From 2011, the INSEE classified its largest aires urbaines into aires métropolitaines and grandes aires urbaines. From Paris became France's largest metropolitan area. In France, the'Paris metropolitan area' term's use is limited to demographic and statistical studies, and, to date, it is unused in economical statistics, but in recent years the media has begun using it to describe the electoral tendencies of France's largest cities. In 2010 the government passed a law that invited France's largest city'metropoles' to work together as an intercommunitary entities, but the lack of response by the following year moved the government to make the cooperation for many of France's largest cities obligatory, Paris became a case study all on its own.
This latter initiative created the "Métropole du Grand Paris", a Paris-centred intercommunal cooperation effort enacted from January 1, 2016. The territory it covers is much smaller than the INSEE'Paris metropolitan area' statistical area: it includes Paris, its neighbouring three départements, a few bordering communes in the departments beyond; as of 2010, the INSEE statistical Paris metropolitan area, with its 17,174 km², extends beyond Paris' administrative Île-de-France region, a region commonly referred to as the région parisienne. The area had a population of 12,405,426 as of the January 2013 census, making it the largest urban region in the European Union. Nearly 19% of France's population resides in the region; the Paris metropolitan area expands at each population census due to the rapid population growth in the Paris area. New communes surrounding. At the 1968 census, the earliest date for which population figures were retrospectively computed for French aire urbaines, the Paris metropolitan area had 8,368,459 inhabitants in an area that only encompassed central Île-de-France.
By the 1999 census the Paris metropolitan area was larger than Île-de-France and had 11,174,743 inhabitants in 14,518 km². By the 2012 census it had reached 12,341,418 inhabitants in 17,174 km², an area larger than Île-de-France; the table below shows the population growth of the Paris metropolitan area, i.e. the urban area and the commuter belt surrounding it.: Grand Paris Metropolitan Areas of France Île-de-France Document about the functioning of Paris Metropolitan Area Document about the extension of Paris Metropolitan Area
Champigny-sur-Marne is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 12.5 km from the centre of Paris. Champigny-sur-Marne was called Champigny; the name Champigny comes from Medieval Latin Campaniacum, meaning "estate of Campanius", a Gallo-Roman landowner. In 1897 the name of the commune became Champigny-sur-Marne, in order to distinguish it from other communes of France called Champigny. Champigny-sur-Marne is served by Les Boullereaux – Champigny station on Paris RER line E. Champigny-sur-Marne is served by Champigny station on Paris RER line A; this station, although administratively located on the territory of the neighboring commune of Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, lies across the Marne River from the town center of Champigny-sur-Marne and is thus used by people in Champigny. The Paris Métro will soon serve the center of Champigny. Primary schools: Preschools: Nine for the 9e circonscription and 7 for the 18e circonscription Elementary schools: Seven for the 9e circonscription and 6 for the 18e circonscriptionSecondary schools: Junior high schools: Collège Willy-Ronis and Collège Paul-Vaillant-Couturier Senior high schools: Lycée Louise Michel, Lycée Marx-Dormoy, Lycée Langevin-Wallon, Lycée professionnel Gabriel-PériIn addition Lycée professionnel et technologique Samuel-de-Champlain is in nearby Chennevières-sur-Marne Djamel Belmadi is a retired Algerian footballer and is the current manager of Lekhwiya.
Jeff Reine-Adélaïde is a professional footballer for Arsenal FC. Champigny-sur-Marne is twinned with: Musselburgh, United Kingdom Rosignano Marittimo, Italy Alpiarça, Portugal Bernau, Germany Communes of the Val-de-Marne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Champigny-sur-Marne official website Champigny Blog Historic D. B.racing cars of Champigny/Marne
Le Blanc-Mesnil is a commune in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 12.6 km from the center of Paris, between Charles de Gaulle Airport and le Bourget Airport. The name Le Blanc-Mesnil was recorded for the first time in the 11th century as Mansionile Blaun; this name is a compound of Medieval Latin Mansionile, meaning "little houses", from Latin mansio, of Germanic blanch, meaning "glossy, white", which gave French blanc and English blank. The name is interpreted by some as a reference to the houses of Le Blanc-Mesnil which were whitened due to the flour dust coming from the windmills located there in ancient times. One researcher, thinks that blanc had the meaning of "free" in Old French, so the name would mean "free mesnil, free village" because the villagers had been freed from serfdom. None of these interpretations is certain. Bondy Aulnay-sous-Bois Drancy Le Bourget Dugny Bonneuil-en-France in Val Gonesse. On 2 December 1792, a third of the territory of Aulnay was detached and became the commune of Le Blanc-Mesnil.
Parc d'activité du Coudray Zone industrielle de la Molette in Blanc-Mesnil and Drancy. It includes Centre Albert Einstein, created in 1987. Parc Modus Garonor Pont-Yblon Centre d'affaires international Paris Nord II Carré des Aviateurs Espace Descartes, for tourism business. Three hotels three stars, a Novotel hotel. Several French companies have their world headquarters such as Forclum and Sicli; the following political parties have a permanent base in Blanc-Mesnil: Parti Communiste Français Parti Socialiste Union for French Democracy Union for a Popular Movement Groupe des Verts Le Blanc-Mesnil is served by Le Blanc-Mesnil station on Paris RER line B. Le Blanc-Mesnil is served by Drancy station on Paris RER line B; this station, although administratively located on the territory of the neighboring commune of Drancy, is the closest from the town center of Le Blanc-Mesnil and is thus used by people in Le Blanc-Mesnil. The bus company provides 17 lines of buses to travel within the city. Ideally placed at the junction between the A1 and the A3.
2.5 km from Le Bourget airport, 7 km from Charles de Gaulle Airport and 4.5 km from Parc des Expositions de Villepinte, you will be ideally place to get to Parc Astérix and Disneyland as well as the centre of Paris and the Stade de France. Catholic churches: Église Notre-Dame, Église Saint-Charles, Église Sainte-Thérèse. Evangelic churches: Charisma église chrétienne The commune has the following schools: four preschools in the south, seven preschools in the centre of town, six preschools in the north, it has four elementary schools in the south, six elementary schools in the centre, six elementary schools in the north. Junior high schools: Collège Aimé et Eugénie Cotton Collège Descartes Collège Marcel Cachin Collège Nelson MandelaSenior high schools: Lycée Jean Moulin Lycée professionnel Aristide Briand Lycée Wolfgang Amadeus MozartThe Médiathèque Edouard Glissant/Bibliothèque Jacques Prévert serves as the municipal library. Jacques-Duclos Park Vineyards produces Clos blanc-mesnilois, a Chardonnay Vegetal wall of Forum culturel by Patrick Blanc Place de l'eau Jardin de Montillet Square Stalingrad Blanc-Mesnil Sports, founded in 2005, is the city's sport club.
Le Blanc-Mesnil is twinned with: Sandwell in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom, Peterhof in Russia, Debre Berhan in Ethiopia, Beni Douala in Algeria. For fifteen years, twinning between le Blanc-Mesnil and Debre Berhan has been based on the development: water sanitation, construction of roads. In a rare spirit, that of a collaboration of equal to equal. Jérémy Abadie, footballer Amara Baby, footballer Pierre-Edouard Bellemare, hockey player Jonathan Biabiany, BMS Football Jean-Felix Dorothee, footballer Abdou Doumbia, footballer Morgaro Gomis, footballer Raphaël Guerreiro, footballer Sylvie Guillem, star dancer at Paris Opera Patrick Hernandez, famous singer of Born to Be Alive Mickael Marolany,footballer Fabien Marsaud, known as Grand Corps Malade, slam poet Fabrice N'Sakala, footballer Moussa Sissoko, footballer Ludovic Sylvestre, footballer Tristan Valentin, road bicycle racer Élisabeth Vonarburg, writer of science-fiction Communes of the Seine-Saint-Denis department INSEE Le Blanc-Mesnil et son passé, Ernest Soitel, 1969.
Histoire anecdotique de Blanc-Mesnil, Albert Galicier, 1973. Le Blanc-Mesnil des temps modernes: 1935-1985, 1986. Le Blanc-Mesnil, Pierre Bourgeade, Gilles Smadja, Jean-Pierre Vallorani, Françoise Vasseur, 1992. Le Blanc-Mesnil: citoyens de demain, Patrick Laigre et Jocelyne Héquet, 1993. Le Blanc-Mesnil: 2000 regards, Photographies de Luc Choquer, François Crignon, Erwan Guillard, 1999. Le Blanc-Mesnil, Christian Massart, 2005. Twinning between Le Blanc-Mesnil and Debré-Berhan. Official website Forum culturel Blog du Forum culturel
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent