Stamford Bridge (stadium)

Stamford Bridge is a football stadium in Fulham, adjacent to the borough of Chelsea in South West London referred to as The Bridge. It is the home of Chelsea Football Club; the capacity of the stadium is 40,834, making it the ninth largest venue of the 2019–20 Premier League season. The club has plans to expand capacity to 63,000 by the 2023–24 season; when expansion starts, Chelsea intend to play at Wembley Stadium until they return in 2024. Opened in 1877, the stadium was used by the London Athletic Club until 1905, when new owner Gus Mears founded Chelsea Football Club to occupy the ground, it has undergone major changes over the years, most in the 1990s when it was renovated into a modern, all-seater stadium. Stamford Bridge has been a venue for England international matches, FA Cup Finals, FA Cup semi-finals and Charity Shield games, it has hosted numerous other sports, such as cricket, rugby union, greyhound racing and American football. The stadium's highest official attendance is 82,905, for a league match between Chelsea and Arsenal on 12 October 1935.

"Stamford Bridge" is considered to be a derivative of "Samfordesbrigge" meaning "the bridge at the sandy ford". Eighteenth century maps show a "Stanford Creek" running along the route of what is now a railway line at the back of the East Stand as a tributary of the Thames; the upper reaches of this tributary have been known as Billingswell Ditch, Pools Creek and Counters Creek. In medieval times the creek was known as Billingwell Dyche, derived from "Billing's spring or stream", it formed the boundary between the parishes of Fulham. By the 18th century the creek had become known as Counter's Creek, the name it has retained since; the stream had two local bridges: Stamford Bridge on the Fulham Road and Stanbridge on the King's Road, now known as Stanley Bridge. The existing Stamford Bridge was built of brick in 1860–1862 and has since been reconstructed. Stamford Bridge opened in 1877 as a home for the London Athletic Club and was used exclusively for that purpose until 1904, when the lease was acquired by brothers Gus and Joseph Mears, who wanted to stage high-profile professional football matches there.

However, previous to this, in 1898, Stamford Bridge played host to the World Championship of shinty between Beauly Shinty Club and London Camanachd. Stamford Bridge was built close to Lillie Bridge, an older sports ground which had hosted the 1873 FA Cup Final and the first amateur boxing matches, it was offered to Fulham Football Club, but they turned it down for financial reasons. After considering the sale of the land to the Great Western Railway Company, the Mears decided to found their own football club, Chelsea, to occupy the ground as a rival to Fulham. Noted football ground architect Archibald Leitch, who had designed Ibrox, Celtic Park, Craven Cottage and Hampden Park, was hired to construct the stadium. In its early days, Stamford Bridge stadium was served by a small railway station and Fulham railway station, closed after World War II bombing. Stamford Bridge had an official capacity of around 100,000, making it the second largest ground in England after Crystal Palace, it was used as the FA Cup final venue.

As constructed, Stamford Bridge was an athletics track and the pitch was located in the middle of the running track. This meant that spectators were separated from the field of play on all sides by the width of running track and, on the north and south sides, the separation was large because the long sides of the running track exceeded the length of the football pitch; the stadium had a single stand for 5,000 spectators on the east side. Designed by Archibald Leitch, it was an exact replica of the Stevenage Road Stand he had built at the re-developed Craven Cottage; the other sides were all open in a vast bowl and thousands of tons of material excavated from the building of the Piccadilly line provided high terracing for standing spectators exposed to the elements on the west side. In 1945, Stamford Bridge staged one of the most notable matches in its history. Soviet side FC Dynamo Moscow were invited to tour the United Kingdom at the end of the Second World War and Chelsea were the first side they faced.

An estimated crowd of over 100,000 crammed into Stamford Bridge to watch an exciting 3–3 draw, with many spectators on the dog track and on top of the stands. In the early 1970s the club's owners embarked on an ambitious project to renovate Stamford Bridge. However, the cost of building the East Stand escalated out of control after shortages of materials and a builders' strike and the remainder of the ground remained untouched; the new East Stand was finished, but most of the running tracks remained, the new stand was displaced by 20 meters, compared to the pitch. The idea was to move the entire stadium towards the north, but due to the financial situation in the mid 1970s the other stands weren't rebuilt for another two decades. In the meantime, Chelsea struggled in the league, attendances fell and debts increased; the club was relegated to the Second Division in 1975 and again in 1979, narrowly avoiding the drop into the Third Division in 1983 before returning to the First Division a year later.

The increase in the costs, combined with other factors, sent the club into decline. As a part of financial restructuring in the late 1970s, the freehold was separated from the club and when new Chelsea chairman Ken Bates bought the club for £1 in 1982, he did not buy t

Michael Palliser

Sir Arthur Michael Palliser was the vice chairman of the Salzburg Seminar's Board of Directors and a senior British diplomat. Born in Reigate, the son of Admiral Sir Arthur Palliser, he received his education at Wellington College and Merton College, Oxford. Appointed a Second Lieutenant 21 November 1942, he served in the Coldstream Guards during World War II. In 1947, he joined the British Diplomatic Service and held a number of appointments at home and abroad including Head of the Policy Planning Staff, Private Secretary to the Prime Minister, Minister at the British Embassy in Paris and Permanent Representative to the European Communities, from 1975–1982, Permanent Under-Secretary of State and Head of the Diplomatic Service. From April to July 1982, during the Falklands campaign, he served as Special Adviser to the Prime Minister in the Cabinet Office, he was appointed a member of the Privy Council in 1983. That same year, he joined the board of the London investment bank Samuel Montagu & Co. a subsidiary of the Midland Bank, of which he became a deputy chairman.

He was chairman of Samuel Montagu from 1984–1993 vice chairman until his retirement in 1996. From 1983–1992, he was non-executive director of several industrial companies. From 1986–1994, he was a member of the board of the Royal National Theatre. Sir Michael served on the faculty of many Salzburg Seminar Sessions. In 1948, Sir Michael married daughter of Belgian statesman Paul-Henri Spaak, they had three sons: Anthony, a painter, Peter, a screenwriter, Nicholas, a communication executive consultant. Knight of the Order of Orange Nassau with Swords Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council PALLISER, Rt Hon. Sir Michael International Who's Who. Accessed 1 September 2006. Interview with Sir Arthur Michael Palliser & transcript, British Diplomatic Oral History Programme, Churchill College, Cambridge, 1999


The Nordperd is a cape on the German Baltic Sea island of Rügen. It is part of the Mönchgut Nature Reserve; the cape forms the eastern point of the district of Vorpommern-Rügen. The 1,500-metre long headland has the shape of an isosceles triangle, which ends in a 20-metre high wooded cliff at its tip; the Nordperd has been protected by coastal defence measures and is thus unaffected by the normal active processes of a graded shoreline. The Nordperd section of the Mönchgut Nature Reserve has an area of 69 hectares, its terrain consists of dry grasslands, sycamore-ash woods on the cliff slopes and beaches and shallow waterbodies. The northern section of beach, with a spa promenade at the Baltic Sea coastal resort Göhren, is separated by Cape Nordperd from the beach at Göhren running southwards. Between Göhren Pier and the Nordperd lies the Buskam, the largest glacial erratic in North Germany, which projects about one metre above the sea; the counterpart to the Nordperd is the Südperd, the southeast tip of Rügen in the municipality of Thiessow.

Between the Nordperd and the Südperd, 11 kilometres away, are the flat sandy beaches of the Mönchgut peninsula, interrupted by the 15-metre -high cliff at Lobber Ort. Nordperd on the website of the municipality of Göhren